Научная статья на тему 'Indo-European laryngeals in Afro-Asiatic perspective'

Indo-European laryngeals in Afro-Asiatic perspective Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание»

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Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию, автор научной работы — Blažek Vaclav

The paper represents an attempt to verify the reconstruction of laryngeal consonants in Proto-Indo-European through external comparison with Afro-Asiatic languages. Working from a standpoint of genetic relatedness between Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic, the author has assembled a set of 80 binary comparisons that contain laryngeals both in their Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic constituents. Analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that (a) Indo-European *H1 generally corresponds to Afro-Asiatic *ˀ; (b) Indo-European *H2 and *H3 correspond to all the other Afro-Asiatic laryngeals, with the much rarer *H3 possibly representing just a positional variant of *H2.

Текст научной работы на тему «Indo-European laryngeals in Afro-Asiatic perspective»

Vaclav Blazek Masaryk University, Brno

Indo-European laryngeals in Afroasiatic perspective1

The paper represents an attempt to verify the reconstruction of laryngeal consonants in Proto-Indo-European through external comparison with Afro-Asiatic languages. Working from a standpoint of genetic relatedness between Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic, the author has assembled a set of 80 binary comparisons that contain laryngeals both in their Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic constituents. Analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that (a) Indo-European *Hj generally corresponds to Afro-Asiatic *■; (b) Indo-European *H2 and *H3 correspond to all the other Afro-Asiatic laryngeals, with the much rarer *H3 possibly representing just a positional variant of *H2.

Keywords: Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Nostratic, long-range comparison, laryngeal theory.

Dedicated to the memory of Hermann Meller (1850-1923)

The authorship of the Laryngeal Theory has been ascribed to Ferdinand de Saussure, who presented his ideas in the book Mémoires sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues indoeuropéennes. The monograph was published in Leipzig 1879, when he was 22, and a year before the end of his study at Leipzig University. He proposed that the traditionally reconstructed *ë and should represent a sequence *eA (but without any explanation of the conditions differentiating between *ë and *a) and that the long vowel *o had to reflect *eO (sic).

Already in the following year the Danish scholar Hermann Moller (in his review of the study on Germanic conjugation published in Englische Studien III, 1879[80], 151), introduced the third coefficient sonantique — the term used for the first time by de Saussure — namely *E, causing *eE ^ *ë, as opposed to *eA ^ *a. He characterized these three coefficients as konsonantische Kehlkopflaute. A year later (1880) Moller wrote even more concretely: die fragliche Laute seien "wahrscheinlich Gutturale von der Art der semitischen" gewesen. Moller did not abide by these words alone. In 1906 he published the study Semitisch und Indogermanisch, I, following it up with the comparative dictionary Indoeuropœisk-semitisk sammenlignende glossarium (Kjoben-havn: Schultz 1909), its German version Vergleichendes indogermanisch-semitisches Wörterbuch (Göttingen 1911), and, finally, the study Die semitisch-vorindogermanischen laryngalen Konsonanten (Kobenhavn: Host & Son 1917).

Thus it was Moller who first formulated the idea of "trilaryngealism" for the early Indo-European protolanguage. He also tried to identify the Semitic laryngeals with their hypothetical counterparts in Indo-European (Moller 1917, 3-4):

1 This study originated in cooperation with the Centre for the Interdisciplinary Research of Ancient Languages and Older Stages of Modern Languages (MSM 0021622435) at Masaryk University, Brno, and thanks to the grant No. IAA901640805. I owe John Bengtson his valuable corrections of my English and typos. The first presentation of the results was at the conference "The Sound of Indo-European", held in Kobenhavn in April 2009. A shortened version of this paper has been prepared for the Proceedings of this conference.

Journal of Language Relationship • Вопросы языкового родства • 5 (2011) • Pp. 1-22 • © Blazek V., 2011

de Saussure coefficients Semitic counterparts

E (aleph)

A *h (& *>)

O (ayin)

Pedersen (1905) preferred to identify the coefficient *A with a y or F-type sound. The ideas of de Saussure and Moller were accepted and developed by Albert Cuny, Louis Hjelmslev and others.

In recent times two more attempts to identify the Indo-European laryngeals with specific sounds have been made, both on the basis of internal reconstruction and some typological features:

Rasmussen (1983) Hi = h H2 = x H3 =

Beekes (1995, 126) Hi = > H2 = f H3 = r

In the 1960s a seriously new approach was presented by the founders of the so-called Moscow Nostratic school, Vladislav M. Illic-Svityc (1934-1966) and Aaron Dolgopolsky (1930-; since 1975, residing in Israel). In contrast to others, they held an opposite point of view: rather than thinking of laryngeals as responsible for "coloring" the vowels, they proposed that it was the vowels of the Nostratic protolanguage that were primary and that they later influenced the quality of the IE laryngeals, This view can be summarized as follows:

IE laryngeals after Illic-Svityc standard symbols Nostratic vowels

*H *H2 *a

*H *Hi *a, *e, *i, ?*u

*HW *o, ?*u

This scenario is in agreement with the interpretation of the system of velars, proposed by the same scholars — the coloring of the velars reflects the primary Nostratic vowels that originally followed these velars:

IE velars Nostratic vowels

*k / *g / *gh *a

*k / *g / *gh *a, *e, *i, ?*u

*kw/ *gW/ *gWh *o, ?*u

This idea, strictly speaking, implies only one laryngeal in the Indo-European protolan-guage, colored by the old vowels before their restructuring during the introduction of apophony. But the actual picture is more complex. Already in the mid-1920s three scholars, Kellog (1925), Kurylowicz (1927) and Cuny (1927), identified de Saussure's virtual coefficients with an actual sound discovered in Hittite, namely h. The same reflex was recognized in two other languages of Asia Minor in the 2nd mill. B.C., recorded in Akkadian cuneiform: Palaic and Cuneiform Luwian. The correspondence in Hieroglyphic Luwian was h, and in the Ana-

tolian languages in the 1st mill. B.C. — k/q/y/x, written with alphabetic symbols of Greek origin. But, apart from these consonantal reflexes of the laryngeals that are particularly well preserved in the initial position, in the same position we occasionally find zero reflexes as well. The easiest solution is that this double reflexation was caused by at least two different laryngeals.

At the present time it is possible to define four main 'Nostratic' schools:

(1) 'Old Moscow' — represented by V. IlliC-Svityc, early work by A. Dolgopolsky, V. Dybo, E. Helimski.

(2) 'Young Moscow' — represented by A. Dybo, S. Starostin and his disciples. The solution of the problem of laryngeals is still more complex if Afro-Asiatic data are omitted, in agreement with the idea of Starostin and his followers that Afro-Asiatic should be detached from proper Nostratic.

(3) 'Haifa-Michigan' — represented by recent work by A. Dolgopolsky, followed by V. Shevoroshkin, M. Kaiser.

(4) 'Charleston' — represented by Allan Bomhard.

The representatives of the 'Old Moscow' school, including the present author, reconstruct the basic pattern of Nostratic appellatives in the canonical form *CV(C)CV. Their 'younger' colleagues do not adhere to this model and reconstruct much more complex protoforms, including complicated clusters of consonants. Both 'Old' and 'Young' Muscovites in principle agree on the correspondences for the three basic series of stops between Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European (although for Starostin and his followers, Afro-Asiatic was not directly a member of the Nostratic club, but rather a sister macrofamily with a comparable time depth of divergence), while Bomhard proposed a different system of correspondences, conforming to the 'glottalic' reinterpretation of Indo-European consonantism. With a certain degree of simplification, the principal differences between the Moscow and Charleston schools can be illustrated in the following table, summarizing the correspondences between dentals:

Nostratic = Afroasiatic *t *t *d

Indo-European counterparts after Illic-Svityc *t *d *dh

Indo-European counterparts after Bomhard *d [= d 2] *t *dh

Concerning the Indo-European laryngeals and their Nostratic predecessors, it is not possible to speak about any consistent system in any of the Nostratic schools. For this reason, it is necessary to return to IE reconstructions and try to verify them from the point of view of external comparison.

The main purpose of the present contribution is to summarize the most promising lexical correspondences and, with their aid, to map the IE counterparts of the Afro-Asiatic laryngeals, best preserved in Semitic and Egyptian. I use the standard symbols , , in IE reconstructions and accept the point of view of the Leiden school, proposing the elimination of laryngeal reflexes before IE *o in Anatolian (cf. Beekes 1995, 144).

The present list of 80 lexical comparisons between Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European has been chosen according to two criteria: (i) The phonetic correspondences are in agreement with the phonetic rules established by V. M. Illic-Svityc and A. Dolgopolsky (with the exception of laryngeals, which represent the weakest point of the 'Old' Moscow Nostratic school); (ii) The

2 Reinterpreted in agreement with the glottalic theory.

cognates actually contain laryngeals (in AA — laryngeals, pharyngeals and glottal stops). Preliminary conclusions are based on the following figures (asterisks indicate comparisons for which alternate solutions are possible):

(1) AA *? ~ IE *Hi (## 1*, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 60*, 76; i.e. £ 17 or 17 or 18x).

(2a) AA *c ~ IE *H2 (## 17, 18, 19, 20, 21*, 22*, 24, 25, 26, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36; i.e. £ 13 or 14 or 15x), plus 3 cases of uncertain laryngeal presence in IE (##29, 37, 38).

(2b) AA *c ~ IE *Ha (##23, 27, 28, 30, 33*; i.e. £ 4 or 5x).

(3a) AA *h ~ IE *H (##39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 48; i.e. £ 6x), plus 2 cases of uncertain laryngeal presence in IE (##45, 47).

(3b) AA *h ~ IE *Ha (##1*, 41, 46; i.e. £ 2 or 3x).

(4a) AA *h ~ IE *H (##22*, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60*, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70; i.e. £ 14 or 15 or 16x), plus 4 cases of uncertain laryngeal presence in IE (##55, 64, 65, 69).

(4/5a) AA *h / *h ~ IE *H2 (#56; i.e. £ 1x).

(4/5b) AA *h / *h ~ IE *H (#66; i.e. £ 1x).

(5a) AA *h ~ IE *H2 (##72, 73, 74, 75, 76*, 78; £ 5 or 6x), plus 1 case of uncertain laryngeal presence in IE (#77).

(5b) AA *h ~ IE *H2/3 (#71; i.e. £ 1x).

(6a) Semitic *y ~ IE *H2 (#80; i.e. £ 1x).

(6b) Semitic *y ~ IE *H3 (#79; i.e. £ 1x).

It is possible to conclude:

(i) The correspondence of AA *? and IE *Hi looks relatively secure.

(ii) It seems that AA *h, *h, *h, *Y merged in IE *H2.

(iii) IE *H3 seems to be only a rarer (positional?) variant of *H2.

There are certain typological parallels in the process of reduction of laryngeals in Semitic:3

Semitic *?, *h, *r, *h, *y > Akkadian ?/0 (the deletion of *f, *h, *Y caused the change *a > e, not total, however, in the case of *y; in unique cases h is written instead of the expected ? < *h or *y); Semitic *h > Akkadian h (von Soden 1995, 13, 28, 31; Lipinski 1997, 149).

Semitic *h, *h, *h > Harari h; Semitic *?, *y > Harari 0.

Semitic *? > Hebrew, Aramaic, Soqotri ?; Semitic *f, *y > Hebrew, Aramaic, Soqotri Semitic *h > Hebrew, Aramaic, Soqotri h; Semitic *h, *h > Hebrew, Aramaic, Soqotri h.

A similar process of reduction is attested in Cushitic (See Sasse 1979; Blazek 1997, 172; 2007, 135-37):4

Cushitic *?, *<■ > Beja, Arbore ?/0. Cushitic *h, *h > Beja, Arbore h.

Cushitic *?, *h > Rendille 0; Cushitic *h, *f > Rendille *h.

3 See SED I, LXVIII-LXIX for regular phonetic correspondences between Semitic languages.

4 Dolgopolsky 1991, 336 has discussed the change *a > e after or before an original or 'h in East Cushitic languages such as Bayso, Arbore, Elmolo, Dasanech or Yaaku, which is typologically comparable with situation in Akkadian.


1. Semitic V?-b-y: Hebrew wba "to want, desire", Arabic dial. wba id., usually "to refuse" (Leslau 1987, 6) ||| Egyptian Voj "wünschen, begehren" (WPS 66; Cohen 1947, #6)

IE *Hyebh-/*Heibh-: Vedic yábhati "futuit"; Greek 019©, 0Í9© "futuö"; Czech jebati "futuere" (Pokorny 1959, 298; LIV 309: *yebh- or *Hayebh-; - is compatible with *h in Semitic V-h-b "to love" compared with IE by Moller 1911, 109-10).

2. AA *(wn-)wku "I": Semitic: (i) Soqotri ho(h), Mehri hóh, Jibbali he; (ii) *?anaku: Tell Amarna anuki, Phoenician mky, Hebrew ?anöki, Samaritanian anáki, Old Aramaic mky with *-i after *?an-i "I"; (iii) *-aku '1sg. ending of stative (Akkadian) / perfect (West Semitic)', cf. Akkadian salmaku "valeo < *salima + *wku "valens ego" (Dolgopolsky 1984, 68) ||| Egyptian ink "I" = *wnaku, cf. Coptic anok; plus old perfect in -k(j), later -kwj ||| Berber **dnakkw "I" : 1sg. perf. **-ku (Blazek 1995, 44-47):

IE *Hieg(Hom) "I": Vedic ahám, Avestan azdm, az, Old Persian adam; Armenian es < *ec; Hittite ug, ugka; Greek éyé(v), ?Messapic ik (Huld); Albanian une; Venetic ego, Latin ego; Gothic ik, Old Runic ek(a), Old Norse ek, Old English ic, Old High German ih; Prussian es ~ as, Lithuanian as, Latvian es; Old Church Slavonic azb; Tocharian A ñuk, B ñas id. (Pokorny 1959, 291; Adams, EIEC 454).

3. AA V 7-m-m/y: Egyptian (Old Kingdom) ?mm "mit der Faust ergreifen" (Wb. I, 10) ||| Berber: Shilha ami "to contain (of vessel)" ||| Chadic: (Central) Tera oom "to catch, seize"; Musgu íma, ime "fangen, ergreifen, nehmen, empfangen" | (East) Lele öm "to seize, take", Kabalai am "to catch" (EDE I, 67)

IE *Hiem-: Latin emö, -ere "nehmen", Oscan em- id.; Old Irish -eim "nehmen"; Lithuanian imu : imti "nehmen", Old Church Slavonic imQ : jgti id.; Tocharian A yomar "erlangten" (LIV 236; Pokorny 1959, 310-11).

Lit.: Dolgopolsky 1964, 9; Illic-Svityc I, #133: AA+IE.

4. Semitic *nn-a: Akkadian in(a) "in, on, by; from", Eblaite in "in, on"; Syriac emmat "when" = Akkadian ina mati id.; Geez ?dnbala "without, except for" = Akkadian ina bala "without" (Brockelmann 1908, 496; Leslau 1987, 27) ||| Berber: Nefusi in, en, Siwa in "a, vers" ||| Egyptian in "durch, seitens" (Wb. I, 89) ||| Cushitic: (East) Rendille in- "place", Gedeo -nn "in, on".

IE *Hien-i: Greek év, poet. svi "in"; Messapic in; Oscan & Old Latin en, Latin in; Old Welsh en, in; Gothic in; Prussian en id. (Pokorny 1959, 312).

Lit.: Bomhard 1984, 251: Semitic+IE; Dolgopolsky, p.c. & Blazek 2004, 3-5: AA+IE.

5. Semitic *?ap-: Ugaritic ap "also", Hebrew wp "(and) also", Syriac wp "also"; cf. also Geez ?af?a "out(side), beyond"

IE *Hiep-i /*Hi op-i: Vedic ápi "auch, ferner; bei, in", Avestan aipi "auch, späterhin", Hittite appizziya- "afterwards", Armenian ew "und, auch", Greek s^i "auf, zu, an", Oscan úp, op "bei", Lithuanian apie "around" (Pokorny 1959, 323-24).

Lit.: Bomhard 1984, 252: Semitic+IE.

6. Semitic *?arwiy-: Akkadian arwiu, arwu "gazelle"; Eblaite a-wi-um /wrwiyum/ "goat"; Arabic wrwiyyat, pl. wrwä "mountain goat"; Sabaic vwy-n pl. "mountain goat, ibex"; Mehri wrí "goat" ||| Cushitic: (East) *wray-: Somali ari, eri "sheep or goat", Burji aráy "sheep", Yaaku erer "antelope" || (South) *?ari: Iraqw ari "goat", Burunge pl. ara id. (SED II, 26-28)

IE *Hier-(i-): Old Indic areya- "Widder"; Armenian erinf "Färse"; Greek epiçoç "young goat/buck"; Latin ariës, Umbrian acc. sg. erietu "Widder"; Old Irish eirp "Ziege, Hirschkuh" (Pokorny 1959, 326; Irslinger, NIL 233-35).

Lit.: Bomhard 2008, 593-94: AA+IE.

7. AA A?-t-ylw & At-?-ylw: Semitic At-?-w: Akkadian tarn(m) "to eat" (CDA 402); Mehri tawü, Harsusi tdwö, Jibbali té, Soqotri té, Jahn: towü "to eat" (Johnstone 1987, 404) ||| ?Egyptian t "bread" (Cohen 1947, #315: Semitic+Egyptian) ||| Cushitic: (North) Beja tiyu "food" || (East) Bayso eede "to eat" (Hayward); Oromo ito "food"; Sidamo, Kambatta, Gedeo, Hadiya, Burji it-"to eat" (Hudson 1989, 55; Sasse 1982, 108) ||| Chadic: (West) Hausa ci; Fyer et, Tambas, Kulere ci; Tangale edi, Dera twi; Gerumai tiya; Warji ta, Mburku ti; Guruntum ci; Ngizim tâ || (Central) Zime Batna ti, Masa tinâ || (East) Lele di; Dangla tèè, Migama tiyâw; Mubi tûwàltîyâ "to eat" (Jungraithmayr & Ibriszimow 1994, 120-21) ||| Berber Aw-t-t: South Berber habitative *tattaH "to eat" (Prasse 1973, 110; Militarev 1991, 257, #22.3.; on the other hand, Berber Ak-s-H "to eat" (Prasse 1973, 109-10; Militarev 1991, 257, #22.1. & 22.2.) represents another root, cf. Chadic: (West) Tal grnse; (Central) Nzangi gos id. (Jungraithmayr & Ibriszimow 1994, 120-21) ||| ?Se-mitic: Soqotri Ag-s-? "manger" (Leslau 1938, 116-17).

IE *Hied- "beissen, essen": Vedic âtti, adanzi "essen"; Hittite ëdmi, adanzi "essen"; Greek fut. eôo^ai "werde essen"; Latin edö : esse "essen"; Old Irish ithid "isst"; Gothic itan "essen"; Lithuanian esti, Old Church Slavonic jasti id. (LIV 230; Pokorny 1959, 287-89).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc I, #136: AA+IE. Moller 1911, 65: IE+Arabic hatarn "edit (cibum)".

8. Semitic A?-w-n: Arabic ?ana "he was/became at rest, rested, enjoyed a state of repose or tranquillity", ?aun "commoditas", Thamudic ?n "tranquillité"; Geez ta?ayyana "to live well and comfortably" (DRS 12-13; Leslau 1987, 50)

IE *Hiwen-: Greek ewn "Lager, Bett, Ehebett"; Albanian vë "setzt, stellt, legt"; Old Norse una "to dwell, be content, enjoy"; Old English wunian, Old Frisian wunia, Old Saxon wonön, Old High German wonën "to dwell, remain" (cf. LIV 682-83 othewise).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 36; Id. 1917, 9: Arabic + Greek.

9. AA *?ayl-: Semitic *?ayyal- "stag, deer": Akkadian ayalu "stag, deer"; Ugaritic ayl "deer", aylt "hind"; Phoenician ?yl "stag", Hebrew ?ayyal "fallow deer", ?ayyala "doe of a fallow deer"; Old Aramaic ?yl "deer, stag", ?ylth "hind", Judeo-Aramaic ?ayyala "hart", ?ayyalta "hind, roe", Syriac ?ayla "cervus", ?ayldta "cerva", New Syriac élâ "hart"; Arabic ?iyyal "bouc de montagnes, cerf"; Sabaic ?yl "mountain goat, ibex"; Jibbali ayyôl "Steinbock"; ?Geez hayyal "ibex, mountain goat" ||| Cushitic: (East) Somali eelo "a kind of gazelle"; Gollango yiilô "Wasserbock / Kobus de-fassa", Harso yilicakkô "Grimms Ducker / Sylvicapra grimmia abyssinica" (Amborn, Minker, Sasse); Kambatta elliénti "antelope nana" (Cerulli) || Dahalo ?èèle "hartebeest" || (South) Gorowa eletemo "bushbuck" ||| Chadic: (East) Kabalai yile "antelope" (SED II, 39-40, #25)

IE *Hiel(y)-en- "stag, deer": Hittite aliyan- "roe(buck)" (Puhvel, HED 3, 139); Armenian ein, gen. eiin "hind"; Greek Homeric eXaçoç "stag; hind", cf. Mycenaean e-ra-pi-ja "pertaining to deer", further èXkôç, "young of (red) deer, fawn", eveXoç id. < *elenos; Gaulish ELEMBIV 'month-name from the Calendar of Coligny, perhaps devoted to "deer"', Welsh elain "hind", Breton élan id. < *elanï, Middle Irish ell "herd" < *elna; Old Lithuanian elenis "elk, moose; red deer", Lithuanian élnis "elk, moose", élné, âlné "hind", Latvian alnis "elk"; Prussian alne 'Tyer', correctly probably "deer" or "hind"; Old Church Slavonic jelenb "deer", lani "hind" < *olnï; To-charian A yal, B yal "gazelle" (Adams & Mallory, EIEC 154-55).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc I, 272-73, #135 (following Trombetti): Semitic + IE.

10. AA l?-y-s: Semitic *?is/t-: Old Akkadian inf. isu, in the suffixal conjugation is-aku "I have", in the prefixal conjugation Hsu "you have" < *ti-isu, lit. "tibi est", isu "he has" < *yi-isu, lit. "ei est" "there is"); other forms are derivable from *?itay "there is": Ugaritic it; Biblical Hebrew ?is; Biblical Aramaic ?itay, Syriac ?it; the enigmatic *-t- was probably caused by the infix *-t-, while the continuants of the original *-s- are preserved in the negative form: Akkadian lassu(m) "non existing" < *la ?aysu; predicative in *-a continues in Old Aramaic lys, Arabic laysa "there is not" vs. ?aysa "there is" (Dolgopolsky 1995; DRS 18) ||| Cushitic: (East) Afar ase, Saho as- "to spend the day"; ?Sidamo, Gedeo, Kambatta, Hadiyya hos- "to spend or pass the day" (Hudson 1989, 110) ||| Omotic: (North) Zayse yes- "esserci" (Cerulli).

IE *Hies- "to be": Vedic asti "ist", Avestan asti id.; Armenian em "bin"; Hittite eszi, Hieroglyphic Luwian asti "ist"; Greek saxi id.; Albanian jam "bin"; Latin est "ist"; Old Irish, Old Welsh is; Gothic ist; Old Lithuanian esti id., Old Church Slavonic jesmb "bin"; Tocharian star0 "ist" (LIV 241-42; Pokorny 1959, 340-41).

Lit.: Dolgopolsky 1964, 10: Semitic+IE; Illic-Svityc 1971, #132 and Dolgopolsky 1995: AA+IE.

11. Semitic *bi?r- ~ *bu?r-: Akkadian büru; Punic pl. bhrm, Hebrew be?er, bor; Old Aramaic byr?, Empire Aramaic b?r, Syriac be^ra; Arabic bi?r, bu?rat; Sabaic b?r; Soqotri ^ebehor "puits" (DRS 41) ||| Egyptian b??y(t) "Wasserloch", b??b??t id., while in b<r "Brunnen" is enigmatic (WPS 293)

IE *bhreHi ur, gen. *bhruHinos: Armenian atbiwr "well"; Greek ^psap id.; Old Irish bruinnid "wells up", perhaps also Middle Irish tipra, gen. tiprat f. "well", if it is derivable from *to-ess-bru-nt-; Germanic *brunnön m. "well" > Gothic brunna, Old High German brunno, Old Saxon brunno, Old Frisian burna, Old English brunna, Old Nordic brunnr id. (Kluge 1999, 139-40; Pokorny 1959, 144; Beekes, EIEC 539).

Lit.: Witczak, p.c.: Semitic+IE.

12. Semitic lr-?-y: Hebrew raw "to see, look at, understand"; Syriac rdha "to observe"; Arabic raw "to see"; Geez rd?ya "to see, observe, look" (Leslau 1987, 458-59)

IE *reHi: Albanian ruej, ruaj "to mind, guard", re "attention"; Latin reor : reri "berechnen, meinen"; Gothic rapjo "Zahl; Rechnung" (LIV 499; Pokorny 1959, 59; Mann 1984-87, 1068-69)

Lit.: Moller 1909, 113; 1911, 207: Semitic+Latin.

13. Semitic lr-d-?: Arabic rada?a "to give support to, help, assist; take good care of camels"; Sabaic rd? "to dedicate, offer", h-rd? "to help, aid"; Geez rad?a "to give help, assist, protect" (Leslau 1987, 462; Biella 1982, 480; Steingass 1988, 409)

IE *reHid.h- > Vedic radhati "wird zustande bringen"; Old Irish -raidi "überlegt, sagt", Middle Welsh ad-rawd "erzählt"; Gothic rodjan "reden"; Old Church Slavonic raditi "beachten, sich kümmern" (LIV 499; Pokorny 1959, 59-60).

14. Semitic ls-l-?: Hebrew ls-l-? "to pay with fine gold"; Arabic sala?a "to pay"; Sabaic sl? "to pay, offer as tribute, dedicate" (HAL 756; Biella 1982, 505-06)

IE *selHi-: Greek eiXov "nahm"; Latin cön-sulö,-ere "versammeln, beraten, befragen"; Old Irish selb, Welsh helw "possession"; Gothic saljan "to sacrifice", Old Norse selja "to hand over, deliver", sal "payment", Old High German sal "property" (Pokorny 1959, 899; LIV 529).

15. Semitic lw-d-?: Sabaic wd? "to achieve"; Geez waddd?a "to finish, complete, bring to a conclusion, make an end", Tigre wode "to make", Tigray wäd?e "to finish" (Leslau 1943, 14; Id. 1987, 604) ||| Egyptian wdj "setzen, stellen, legen; geben, darbringen; einsetzen, ernennen" (WPS 92; Wb. I, 384-87).

IE *dheH\- "stellen, legen, setzen; herstellen, machen": Vedic dädhati "setzt, schafft hin, macht"; Hittite 1 sg. tehhi, 3 sg. däi "einsetzen, legen", Luwian tuwa- "setzen, errichten"; Armenian ed "setzte", med. edaw "wurde gesetzt"; Greek xiG^i, -s^sv "setzen, legen"; Latin con-dere "gründen", Umbrian conj. feia "soll machen"; Old English dön "tun, machen"; Old Lithuanian 1 sg. demi, 3 sg. dest(i) "legen, setzen, machen"; Old Church Slavonic deti "setzen, legen; sprechen"; Tocharian A tä- "setzen, legen" (LIV 136; Pokorny 1959, 235-39).

Note 1: Illic-Svityc (1971, 224, #75) compared IE *dheH1 - with Semitic Vw-d-< "to put", but IE *H probably does not correspond to Semitic/AA *<\ On the other hand, Egyptian -j- is one of the regular continuants of AA * (EDE I, 81-84).

Note 2: Egyptian wdj has been traditionally compared with Semitic Vw-d-y "to throw; send", but the meaning "to put, add, place, set" in addition to "throw, cast" is attested only for Geez wadaya (EDE I, 241).

16. Semitic Aw-r-?: Ugaritic y-r"to be afraid, frightened"; Hebrew yäre? perf. "fürchten"; Arabic wa?ara "to frighten" (DUL 977; DRS 615).

IE *wer(Hi)- "to warn" > Latin vereor, inf. vereri "to regard, revere"; Latvian veru : vert "schauen, bemerken"; Serbo-Croatian verati se "to keep a lookout, be furtive" (LIV 685: Kümmel reconstructs the essive *wr-H\ ye-, but it is possible to accept an alternate morphological segmentation with the present tense extension *wrH\ -ye-; Pokorny 1959, 1164; Mann 1984-87, 1516).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 142: Hebrew+Latin.

Afroasiatic *<•

17. Semitic A^-d-w: Ugaritic *dy "to remove, make disappear"; Hebrew wdä "to stride"; Aramaic wdä "to pass by"; Arabic wdä "to run, pass"; Sabaic *dw "to move, march; Soqotri *dy "to cross"; Geez wdawa "to cross, pass over" (DUL 152; Leslau 1987, 56-57)

IE *weHidh- "durchschreiten" > Latin uädö, -ere "gehen, schreiten"; Old Norse vaöa "waten" (LIV 664; Pokorny 1109).

18. Semitic A^-k-w: Arabic wkä "to rise, be big and fat" (Steingass 1988, 717)

IE *Hieug- "stark werden": Vedic ójas-, Avestan aojah- "Kraft"; Latin augeö, -ere "vermehren"; Gothic aukan "sich mehren"; Lithuanian áugu : áugti "wachsen" (LIV 274-75; Pokorny 1959, 84-85).

19. Semitic A^-l-y: Akkadian elü "to travel uphill, rise, grow"; Ugaritic 4y "to go up"; Hebrew wläh "id., ascend", Arabic wla "to be high", Mehri wlëw "at the top" (Leslau 1987, 60, 30304) ||| Egyptian (Old Kingdom) ^r ~ rr "to mount up, ascend", Coptic ale id. (Wb. I, 41) ||| Berber AH-l-y: (E) Nefusa âli "to mount" | (N) Iznacen-Senhaja aley "to rise, mount", Qabyle ali "to mount" | (W) Zenaga élléih "monter, être en haut" | (S) Ahaggar ali "to suspend" ||| Chadic: (W) Angas yaal "to get up, rise", Mupun yool "stand up"; Tangale ile "to stand up, rise, start", Dera yil "to stand up"; Geji hilya "to stand up" | (E) Kwang aalé-, Ngam alé; Sumray wyl- "to climb"; Dangla aale "to step, jump over" ||| Cushitic: (E) *wl-: Saho ml "mountain"; Somali ml "coastal range of mountains", Rendille hal "mountain"; Arbore el "stone"; Sidamo ale "top" (Sasse 1979, 35-36; EDE I, 94).

IE *Hiel- "to grow, nourish"; cf. the derivative *al-to- "high, old" > Latin altus "high", ad-ulus "adult"; Middle Irish alt "height; shore", Old Irish altae "adult", Welsh allt "forested hill"; Gothic alpeis "old"; Old English eald, Old Saxon ald id. (Pokorny 1959, 26; Lehmann 1986, 2930; LIV 262).

20. Semitic: Ugaritic "next, in addition" (DUL 157: originally from "height") = "second" (Segert 1984, 196)

IE *Hi el- in *alyo- > Armenian ayl, Greek aXXoq, Latin alius, Old Irish aile, Gothic aljis, To-charian B alye-k "other"; cf. further *ali-tero- > Latin alter, Oscan dat. altrei "(an)other" (Pokorny 1959, 24-26).

21. Semitic: Arabic wnan "side", wn "from, for; upon; in", Sabaic wn "away from", Soqotri wn "de, pour" (Steingass 1988, 729; Leslau 1938, 315) ||| Cushitic: (East): Somali wn "cheek, chin" || Dahalo rnni "head" ||| Egyptian <wn "chin; neck" (Wb. I, 191)

IE *H2en-Hie/-u: Vedic anu, Avestan anu "nach", ana "entlang", Greek ava "auf, in die Höhe, entlang", Gothic ana at, on", Lithuanian anot(e) "entsprechend" (Pokorny 1959, 39-40; Rasmussen 1989, 188).

Lit.: Bomhard 1984, 251: Akkadian+IE. Blazek 2004, 8-9: AA+IE, where alternate comparanda in Semitic *[h]ana > Akkadian an(a) "to, for" (CDA 16) ||| Egyptian hn "Kopf; bis hin nach.." (Wb. II, 492, 495) ||| Cushitic: (East) Harso-Dobase ana "on", Hadiyya, Gedeo hana, Sidamo aana "over, on", are also discussed.

22. Semitic *w/ing-(at-) > Eblaite in-gu /nngu(m)/ "neck"; Arabic rnngüg "qui a un long cou, une longue enclosure"; Gurage & Amhara angät "neck" > Tigre & Tigray ?angät id. (SED I, 18) and / or Arabic hangarat & hungür "larynx" ||| Egyptian hngg "Schlund" (Wb. III, 121).

IE *H2engfu- > Armenian awj "Kehle", awjik "Halskragen"; Greek Aeolic ap^v & aft^v "Nacken"; Gothic hals-agga "Nacken"; Old Prussian winsus "Hals"; (or <) Slavic > Czech vaz "Genick, Nacken", Ukrainian vjazy pl. "Genick" (Pokorny 1959, 43, 87).

Lit.: Bomhard 2008, 661-62: AA+IE.

23. Semitic: Ugaritic wq "eyeball"; Hebrew wqa id. (HAL I, 873); maybe Geez wqa "to know, understand, observe", Amharic awwäqä "to know", Harari aqa id. (Leslau 1987, 78-79), although it is possibly borrowed from Cushitic: (Central) *?aq- "to know" > Kemant ax-, Awngi aq-/yaq-, Kunfäl ah- || (East) Somali -aq id. (Appleyard 2006, 89-90)

IE *okw- (**Haekw-) "eye" > Vedic äksi "eye", iksate "sieht"; Avestan asi "eyes" (after du. usi "ears" from *axsi), aißiiaxstar- "Aufseher"; Armenian akn, gen. akan "eye"; Greek du. öaae "eyes" (*H3ekwiHi), öyo^ai "ich werde sehen", önron;a "habe gesehen", ö^a "eye" (*opma < *okw-mn), o^GaX^oq "eye", Boeotic öKxaXXoq id., gloss. ökkov : o^GaX^og Albanian sy "eye"; Latin oculus id.; Old Irish enech, Middle Welsh enep "face", cf. Old Indic änika- "Vorderseite", Avestan ainika- "Antlitz"; Germanic *augan- > Gothic augo, Old Norse auga, Old High German ouga, besides awi-zoraht "augenscheinlich", Old English eawan "zeigen, offenbaren" (*awjan < *agwjanan < *okw-); Lithuanian akis "eye", Latvian acs, Prussian pl. ackis; Old Church Slavonic oko, gen. ocese, dual. oci; Tocharian A ak, B ek id. (Pokorny 1959, 776-77). The root *H3ekw- also has a verbal function in IE: Vedic iksate "nimmt wahr, erblickt"; Greek ö^-ro^a "beobachte, nehme wahr, betrachte", fut. ö^o^ai "werde sehen" (LIV 297).

24. Semitic l^-q-q: Arabic wqq "to make the cloud to rain", l^-q-y: Arabic wqa "to give to drink" (Steingass 1988, 710, 714) ||| ?Egyptian place name <q? 'Pehhu-waters' (WPS 292) ||| Cushitic (Central) *?aqw "water" > Bilin ?/?akw, Khamtanga aqw, Kemant axw; Awngi ayu || (East) Konso haqa, D'irayta haka id. ||| Omotic: (North) Yemsa aka id. (Appleyard 2006, 144)

IE *H2ekw- "water": Latin aqua "water"; Celtiberian akua in tar akuai "through water" (de Bernardo Stempel 2007, 58); Gothic aha "Fluss, Gewässer", Old Norse q, Old English ea, Old Saxon, Old High German aha, German aha id. (Pokorny 1959, 23).

Lit.: Trombetti apud Dolgopolsky 1964, 8; Illic-Svityc I, #139: AA+IE.

25. Egyptian <r "Binse", maybe also & "Schilfrohr", if it is a partial reduplication from (WPS 240; Wb. I, 208; Takacs in EDE I, 94-95 connects it with the Semitic-Chadic isogloss *rnlaw- "leaf")

IE *Hi ero- > *aro-: Greek apov "Art Schilfrohr, Natterwurz"; Latin harundö "Rohr" (Pokorny 1959, 68). Of interest is Hittite arisanda- "Art Rohr?" (Tischler 2001, 22); the absence of the laryngeal indicates the root vowel o: *Hi or0.

26. Semitic A^-r-g: Hebrew wrag, Arabic wraga "to ascend", Geez wrga "to ascend, go up" (Leslau 1987, 70)

IE *H2ergh-: Armenian arg- "first-"; Greek apx'H "beginning, origin", apxoq "leader"; Middle Irish arg "outstanding" (Mann 1984-87, 33).

Note: Cf. Bomhard 2008, 706-07: Semitic+Dravidian.

27. Semitic A^-r-k: Ugaritic <-r-k "to prepare" (DUL 182), Hebrew <-r-k "to lay out, set in rows; get ready, set out in order; confront; draw up a battle formation" (HAL 884-85); Arabic wraka "to make wise", wrkat "experience" (Steingass 1988, 689).

IE *H3 reg- "gerade richten, ausstrecken" > Old Indic rnjate "bewegen sich in gerader Linie rasch vorwärts", rajati "herrscht", irajyäti "richtet, leitet"; Young Avestan -räzaiieite "richtet", Khotanese rays- "lenken", Greek opsy© "strecke", Latin regö, -ere "richten, lenken"; Old Irish a-t:raig, a-ta:regat "sich erheben"; Gothic -rakjan "recken"; Lithuanian rg'zti "spannen, straffen"; Tocharian B reksa "breitete aus", conj. räsäm "soll austrecken, -breiten" (Pokorny 1959, 854-57; LIV 304-05).

Lit.: Moller 1917, 27: Hebrew + IE.

28. Egyptian (OK) <w.t "small cattle (goats and sheep)" (Wb. I, 170-71) ||| ?Cushitic: (North) Beja ay, äy, ey f., pl. eeya "Ziege", eyäa-t-eega "Ziegenhirt" (Reinisch 1895, 37 who connected it with Tigre ?äyet "Ziege, Zicklein"). It is perhaps compatible with some Cushitic parallels: (East) Burji ayäan-e "gazelle" (Sasse 1982, 29) || (South) Qwadza ?a?ato "sheep" (Ehret).

IE *H3ewi- "sheep": Vedic ävi- "sheep", Wakhi yobc "ewe" < *ävi-ci-; Armenian awdik "sheep" : hoviw "shepherd"; Cuneiform Luwian häwi-, Hieroglyphic Luwian hawa/i-, Lycian Xawa- "sheep"; Greek öiq, Argolide acc. pl. ofivq "sheep"; Latin ovis "sheep", Umbrian uvem "ovem"; Old Irish oi "sheep"; Old Norse xr "ewe", Old Saxon euui etc., Gothic awistr "sheep-cote"; Lithuanian avis, Latvian avs "sheep"; Slavic *ovbca "sheep" < *owikä; Tocharian B ä«w, pl. awi "sheep" (Wodtko, NIL 335-39).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 105: Egyptian + IE.

29. Semitic *wyan- "eye" (SED I, 28) ||| Egyptian m *"eye" (reconstructed on the basis of the hieroglyph depicting "eye" — Wb. I, 189) ||| Cushitic: (E) ?in(H)-t- "eyes" > Saho-Afar intii; Somali & Rendille indo, Boni inne; Arbore iynda, Dasenech ?inni; D'irayta inda (ECushitic *?in-t-with *?- instead of expected *<-, was possibly caused by contamination with *?il-(at-) "eye") || Dahalo ?een-aad- "to see from afar" ||| Berber An-H-y: (S) Taneslemt anhy, impf. intens. ihannay, Tadghaq dnhy, Ahaggar any, impf. intens. ihannay | (N) Semlal, Zayan annay "to see" ||| Chadic: (W) Angas nee "to see, understand", Mupun näa "to see, look"; Bole innäa- "to see, think"; Ron: Daffo-Butura yen "to see"; SBauchi: Geji yeni, yeni "to see" || (E) Jegu ?inn- "to know, can" (EDE I, 125, 126)

IE *neiH- > Old Indic (cl., ep.) nayana-/ä- n./f. "Auge", (Manu, Kaus.) neträ- n. id.; Latin re-nideö "erglänzen", niteö, -ere "glänze, strahle"; Middle Irish niam "Glanz, Schönheit" (Pokorny 1959, 760).

30. Semitic *Vd-r-?: Arabic darasa "he stretched forth (extended) his arm, darraw "he spread himself out widely, stretched forth his forearms (in swimming)", besides dira? "forearm" with numerous Semitic counterparts: Akkadian duram "bras, patte antérieure"; Ugaritic dr?; Hebrew zeroa^, Biblic Aramaic ?edra?, Syriac derarn; Jibbali, Soqotri deraTigre zära? "bras, avant-bras" (DRS 341)

IE *sterH-: Avestan starana- "hinbreitend"; Greek aTopvo^i "breite aus"; Latin sternö, -ere "hinstreuen, breiten" etc. (LIV 599; Pokorny 1959, 1029-30)

Lit.: Moller 1909, 129-30: Semitic+IE.

31. Semitic *na?ar-: Ugaritic n?r "boy, lad"; Phoenician n?r, Hebrew nâ?ar "young man; lad, adolescent; fellow, servant" (DUL 616; Segert 1984, 194; HAL I, 707) ||| ?Chadic: (East) Sumray närje "people" (Lukas).

IE *H2ner-: Vedic nâr-, Avestan nar- "Mann, Mensch", cf. Vedic sunâra- "voll von Lebenskraft, jugendlich"; Hittite innarahh- "kräftig machen", innaru- "rüstig, kräftig", Luwian annari- "rüstig, stark, kräftig", annarawar "Männlichkeit"; Armenian air, gen. am "Mann, Mensch"; Phrygian avap "Mann", Greek àvrçp, gen. àvôpoç "Mann", but the gloss vœpeî : èvepyeî (Hes.); Alban njer "Mann, Mensch"; Oscan gen. pl. nerum "vir, procer", Umbrian acc. pl. nerf "principes, proceres"; Welsh ner "Held", nerth "Mannhaftigkeit", Old Irish nert id., nâr "edel, grossherzig"; Gaulish Naria f.; Old Germanic goddess Nerthus (Tacitus) ~ Old Norse god Njçrdr; Lithuanian nôras "Wille"; Slavic *norvb > Old Church Slavonic nrawb "Sitte" (Pokorny 1959, 765; Tischler 2001, 61, 16).

32. Egyptian p?w "fire" (Wb. I, 503) ||| South Berber *e-fiHiw, pl. *ï-fiHiw-an "fire" (Prasse 1974, 125-26) ||| Chadic: (Central) Gidar afâ; Logonefo; Musgu afu "fire" (JI II, 139)

IE *peHiw-(r/n-) "fire": Armenian hur "Feuer", hnoc "Ofen"; Hittite pahhur, dat. pahhueni "Feuer"; Greek rcûp; Umbrian pir, acc. porom-e; Old Nordic fürr; Old High German fuir; Gothic fon; Old Prussian panno id., Old Czech pyf "glühende Asche"; Tocharian A por, B puwar "Feuer" (Pokorny 1959, 828).

Lit.: Dolgopolsky 1964, 13 & Illic-Svityc 1967, 352: AA + IE + other Nostratic.

33. Semitic Vp-r-?: Ugaritic pr? "first" (Segert 1984, 198; Gordon 1965, 471 also mentions ordinal usage in ym.pr? "the first day") or "chief; excellent, the best one" (Aistleitner 1965, 261), Hebrew pera? "chief" (cf. German Fürst), Arabic far? "top (of branch)", farwt "vertex montis", fara? "firstling", far?iyy "first-born, first" etc.

IE *perHi-: *prHiôs "before" (originally gen.) > Old Indic purâs, Greek rcapoç; *preHii "at the front" (originally loc.) > Oscan prai, Latin prae, Gaulish are-, Old Irish air, Old Church Slavonic prë-dV; *prHi-éHi (originally perhaps instr.) > Old Indic pura "formerly"; Gothic faura "in front (of)" (so Beekes 1995, 221; Rasmussen 1989, 272: *preH3-). Cf. further *prH2wo- > Old Indic pûrva- "prior", Avestan paouruiia- "first" : pauruua- "prior", Old Church Slavonic prbWb "first", Tocharian B parwe "at first".

Lit.: Moller 1909: 110; 1911, 205: Semitic+IE.

34. Semitic Vs-m-?: Old Akkadian & Assyrian samam(m), Akkadian semû(m) "to hear, listen, understand"; Ugaritic sm? "to hear, listen (to), notice"; Hebrew sama? "to hear, listen to, understand", sömea? "witness", sama? "song, melody"; Jewish Aramaic sema?; Arabic sami?a "to hear"; Sabaic sm? "id.; witness"; Geez sam?a "to hear, listen, understand" (CDA 366; DUL 823; HAL 1570-74; Leslau 1987, 501-02)

IE *sH2em- "song": Vedic sam-an- "song"; Hittite ishamai- c. "song, melody"; Greek oi'p.'n "song, lay", oVoç id. (Benveniste, BSLP 50/1, 1954, 39-40; Puhvel, HED I-II, 394-95).

Lit.: Brunner 1969, 189, #1028: Semitic+Hittite.

35. Semitic Aw-*-k: Arabic wa*aka "être trés chaud (jour d'été)" (DRS 577)

IE eug-: Greek avyn "Glanz, Strahl, Tageslicht"; Albanian agume "Morgenröte, Morgen". (Pokorny 1959, 87; Mann 1984-87, 41).

36. Semitic: Syriac yam "avis quadem, pterocles al. coturnix"; Tigre wi*e "sorte de passereau" (SED II, 312, #243: *wV*-) || Egyptian *w* "ein Vogel", *jw "Graukranich — Jungvogel / Grusgrus juv." (WPS 211).

IE *H2woi-s nom. : wei-s gen. "bird" (Schindler) > Armenian haw and Latin avis "bird", Greek aiexoç "eagle" < *awyetô-, cf. aißexoq : àexoç ■ nepyaîoi (Hesych.), etc.

Lit.: Schindler, Sprache 15, 1969, 158f; Pokorny 1959, 86.

37. Semitic Aw/y-d-* "to know" > Old Akkadian wadû, Akkadian edû, idû; Ugaritic, Phoenician yd, Hebrew yada*, Aramaic ydda*, Syriac ida*, Mandaic yda "to know"; Arabic ?ayda*a "to inform"; Sabaic yd* "to find out", h-yd* "to inform"; Sheri ?eda* "to know", Soqotri ?eda* id.; Geez ?aydd*a "to make know, inform, tell" (Leslau 1987, 626) ||| Egyptian yd* "klug" (WPS 365) ||| Cushitic: (East) Afar da*- & da*- "to know", Saho di*- & de*- "to know, understand, can"; Somali da*- "to may, understand" (Dolgopolsky 1973, 316: East Cushitic+Semitic)

IE **dheiH-/*dhyeH- > Vedic abhi... didhaya "ich überdenke", prâti... didhima "wir erwarten"; Avestan 3sg. ä-diöaiia "betrachtet", Khotanese daiyä "sees"; Albanian di "knows" (Pokorny 1959, 243; LIV 141-42).

38. Semitic Aw-l-*: Arabic wala*a "to grow frivolous", wali*a "to be greedy for", wala* "violent desire, passion, love" (Steingass 1988, 1232); Tigray wälä*a "allumer" (DRS 553) ||| Chadic: (West) Sura wal, Mupun wal "aimer" (Orel & Stolbova 1995, 526)

IE *welH-: Avestan -vardtä "wählt"; Latin uolui "wollte"; Gothic wili "will"; Old Lithuanian velmi "wünsche, will"; Old Church Slavonic veljç : velëti "wollen; befehlen" (LIV 677-78; Pokorny 1959, 1137).

Lit.: Cf. Moller 1911, 265-66 & Illic-Svityc 1967, 340: Arabic Vw-l-y + IE.

Afroasiatic *h

39. AA: Semitic h-plural of biradical nouns: Hebrew ?amähöt "Mägde" = Syriac ?amhätä; Syriac semûhë "Namen", ?abahë & ?abähätä "Väter" = Arabic ?abahat, Sabaic ?bhy; Arabic sitah "Ärsche", sifah "Lippe", siyah "Schafe", miyah "Gewässer"; further ?ilah "Gott" (originally pl.) = Hebrew ?elöhim, Syriac ?allaha (Brockelmann 1908, 455). It is tempting to add the Cushitic plural ending *-a, attested in Beja and East Cushitic: Arbore, Elmolo, Oromo, Konso, Dirayta (Zaborski 1986, 298).

IE *-(e)H2 > *-a 'inanimate plural / collective': Vedic yuga, Greek Ç-oya, Latin iuga, Gothic juka, Old Church Slavonic iga "yokes", Hittite genuwa "knees", besides *-H2 in the consonant stems, e.g. Vedic namani, Avestan namani; Greek ovo^ara "names", but *-a in Latin nömina, Gothic namna, Old Church Slavonic imena (Brugmann 1911, 231-38).

40. Biblical Aramaic hak in ydhak "he goes" (Leslau 1987, 220); Arabic dial. (Maghreb) hak "être bon marcheur, rapide (cheval)"; Arabic hayyaka "se dépécher, aller vite" (DRS 387, 401).

IE *H2eg- > Old Indic âjati "drives", Avestan azaiti "drives, leads away"; Armenian acem "I lead, bring"; Greek ay© "I lead"; Latin agö "I lead, drive, deal with, be engaged in", Oscan acum "agere"; Old Irish ad-aig "adigit" (*ad-aget), Old Welsh agit "goes" (*agiti); Old Nordic aka "to travel"; Tocharian AB ak- "to lead, drive, guide" (Pokorny 1959, 4f; Adams 1999, 36).

41. Semitic *harar- "mountain": Emar Akkadian harru; Ugaritic hr "mountain"; Phoenician-Punic hr; Hebrew har "mountain" (DUL 345; HAL 254; DRS 459) ||| Egyptian hr "Waldgebirge" (WPS 285)

IE *Haer-/*Hor-: Hittite aru- "high" (: arai- "to rise, lift, raise" - so Puhvel 1-2, 177-78; cf. LIV 238 and 299-300: *Hi er- or *H3er-); Greek opoç "Berg, Anhöhe", opéaxepoç "auf den Bergen lebend"; Middle Irish or, acc. pl. uru m. "coast, bank", airer "coast, haven" < air- + or, Welsh ôr, pl. oroedd "limit, edge, brim, margin", Old Breton or, pl. -ion "edge", Cornish or, pl. -yon id. (Mann 1984-87, 890; Pedersen I, 207 & II, 51).

42. Egyptian (Old Kingdom) hrw "day" (Wb. II, 496-97) ||| Berber: (South) Ahaggar tarut, pl. tirutîn, Ayr tarut & terut, Taneslemt tärähut "heures du milieu du jour" < *ta-ruHüH-t & *ta-raHüH-t respectively (Prasse 1974, 177, 213-15) ||| Chadic: (Central) Buduma yïrow, yerâu, ïrau "day" (Lukas) || (East) Dangla ?eriyo "noon" (OS #1173: Egyptian + Chadic); cf. Semitic Vw-h-r & Vn-h-r "to shine": Mandaic ywr "light, brightness, brilliance", Hebrew ndhärä "light of day"; Arabic wahir "shining, white" & nahar "clear day, morning" < Aramaic (HAL 397, 676-77; Cohen 1947, #500bis.: Egyptian + Semitic; EDE I, 139: plus Chadic)

IE *H2reu-: Old Indic ravi- m. "sun, god of the sun"; Armenian arew "sun", cf. also the compound areg-akn id., lit. "sun-eye" (Pokorny 1959, 873). Related could also be Old Irish ré "interval, (time) space", sometimes about the lunar phases, from here also "moon" & "month"; pl. inna rei "(sky) space". The Celtic protoform *rewia (Vendryes, LEIA 1974, R-10) is compatible with the preceding forms (MacBain 1911, 288). The key to the etymology could be found in Hittite harwanai- "to be clear; to dawn" (Eichner 1978, 156; EWAI II, 440).

43. Semitic Vh-w-y: Ugaritic hwy "to want"; Hebrew hawwa n. "(evil) desire"; Arabic hawiya "to love, desire", hawa(-n) "desire, passion, love"; Mehri sdhwü "aimer" (DRS 386; DUL 350)

IE *H2eu-: Vedic âvati "is pleased", âvi- "favorable"; Armenian aviwn "libido, fury, enthusiasm"; Greek èvrç'nç "kind, gentle", à'nraç "jeune homme aimé"; Latin aueö, -ere "to long for, desire"; Welsh awyddu "to desire"; Old Runic auja "good fortune", Gothic awi-liup "thanks" (Pokorny 1959, 77-78; LIV 274).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc I, 241-42, #100.

44. Semitic Vb-h-w/y: Arabic bahiyy "beautiful, shining, resplendent", baha "to be beautiful, shine with beauty" (Steingass 1988, 148); Amhara bäha "sorte de pierre blanche", buha bag "mouton qui a une tache sur le front" (DRS 47)

IE *bheH2- "glänzen, leuchten, scheinen": Vedic bhati "glänzt, strahlt", Avestan frauuaiti "leuchtet hervor"; Greek çavra : Xa^ovra (Hesych.) "leuchtend" (LIV 68; Pokorny 104-05).

Lit.: Brunner 1969, 126, #704: Arabic + IE.

45. Semitic Vg-h-y: Syriac gdhä "to flee, escape", Mandaic gha "to flee from"; Soqotri ge "to flee, escape"; Geez gwayya "to run (away)" (Leslau 1987, 209)

IE *gheH(y)- > Old Indic jihïte "springt auf, begibt sich zu"; Armenian gam "I come"; Greek Ki%äv© "ich erreiche, erlange, treffe an", aor. kix^t^v "kamen heran"; Old High German gan & gen "to go" < *gai- (LIV 196: *Hi; Kluge & Seebold 1999, 307).

46. Semitic Vk-h-n: Arabic kahana & kahuna "to foretell the future" (Steingass 1988, 899); nominal formations usually designate the "priest": Ugaritic khn; Hebrew kohen; Aramaic kahna; Arabic kahin; Geez kähdn (Leslau 1987, 278; HAL 461-62) ||| Cushitic: (North) Beja kwinh "to tell" or kehun "to like, have affection for" (R. Hudson)

IE *gneH3- > Vedic janati "kennt, weiss", Avestan -zananti "erkennen"; Armenian caneaw "erkannte"; Hittite ganess- "erkennen, herausfinden"; Greek eyv©v "erkannte"; Albanian njoh "ich kenne"; Latin (g)nöui "erkannte, weiss"; Gaulish gniiou "I know" (Châteaubleu), Old Irish ad-gnin "kennt"; Gothic kunnan "kennen"; Lithuanian zinôti "kennen, wissen", Old Church Slavonic znati id.; Tocharian A knanat "erkennst" (LIV 168; Pokorny 1959, 168-69).

47. Semitic *nahar- "river": Akkadian naru "river"; Ugaritic nhr; Hebrew nahar; Old Aramaic nhr, Syriac nahra id.; Arabic nahar & nahr id., nahara "to gush, flow"; Sabaic nhr "river" (Moller 1909, 94; HAL 676) ||| Egyptian nhr "laufen, rennen, fliehen (*hinwegströmen)" (WPS 702).

IE *nerH- "untertauchen" (LIV 454; Pokorny 1959, 766, 975-76); cf. Old Indic (Manu 1, 10) pl. narah "waters" (KEWA II, 154-55); Lithuanian narà "rivulet, brook" (Nevskaja 1977, 54)

48. Semitic As-h-r: Hebrew söher "seeker, searcher" (Klein 1986, 644), Jewish Aramaic sahar "suchend" (Moller 1911, 212), Arabic sahara "to be awake, watch over" (Steingass 1988, 514)

IE *serH2 (w)-: Avestan ni-sar/haratü "soll Acht haben", ni haraite "bewahrt sich", Lydian sarêta- "Beschützer", cf. Hittite sarhuwant- "Fötus" = *"geschützt", Greek öpovrai "haben Acht auf" (Rasmussen 1989, 98; LIV 524: *ser-).

Lit.: IlliC-Svityc II, 107, #348: Semitic+IE.

Afroasiatic *h

49. Egyptian h*pj "Nil; Überschwemmung" (WPS 295-96); maybe related to Arabic haffat "edge, border, rim, side" (Steingass 1988, 285), if this was originally "rim of the river" vel sim. (cf. the same semantic dispersion in Latin ripa "Ufer" : Spanish ribera "Ufer, Strand, Bach", French rivière "Au")

IE *H2e(H)p-/*H2(H)ep-: Vedic âp- f. "water", nom. pl. apas; Avestan nom. sg. afs id., acc. pl. apas-ca, Old Persian apiya "ins Wasser", Sogdian ??p, Middle Persian ab id.; Old Prussian ape "Bach, kleiner Fluss"; Tocharian AB ap "water, stream, river" (Pokorny 1959, 51; EWAI 81). There is also a variant *H2eb(k)- (Pokorny 1959 1; Beekes, EIEC 486): Hittite hap(a)- "river", Cuneiform Luwian hapa- ~ hapa- "river, stream", Palaic hapnas "river"; Latin amnis f., later m., abl. amne "river, stream" < *abni-; Old Irish a(u)b f. < *abü, acc. sg. abinn < *aboneN, gen. sg. abae "river"

< *abens, dat. pl. aibnib < *abenobi); further Old Irish abann id., Middle Welsh afon id., Old Cornish, Middle Breton auon (*abona). The difference *-p- vs. *-b- was explained by Eric Hamp (1972, 3637) who identified here the influence of the possessive suffix *-Hon-: *Hep-Hon- "having flowing water". A similar process *-pH3- > *-b- has been supposed for the verb "drink", where the root *peH3- is reconstructed, redupl. *pi-pH30: Vedic pibati "drinks", Latin bibö "I drink", Faliscan pipafo "I will drink" /bibafö/ (regressive assimilation from *pib0), Old Irish ibid "drinks"

< *pibeti, Cornish evaf "I drink", strbret. euaff id. < *pibami etc. (Pokorny 1959, 840; LIV 462-63).

50. AA: Cushitic: (East) *ham-/*hum- > Saho-Afar uma, Somali hun, hum- "bad, evil, worthless", Oromo hamaa id. (Sasse 1979, 38) | (South) Burunge ham-, Alagwa hamu "hardship, distress" (Ehret 1980, 379, 334)

IE *H2eumo- or *Houmo-: Old Icelandic aumr "poor, miserable", Tocharian A omäskem "evil", B aume "misery", aumiye "fever" (Adams 1999, 132).

51. Semitic Ah-m-r- "be red": Akkadian emeru "to become red"; post-Biblical Hebrew hämarmar "to become red" (figurative meaning shift from "to be hot, parched"); Arabic ?ahmar

"red"; Sabaic hmr-t "red"; Geez hamar "red berry", Tigre hamär "red-brown", Tigray hamray, hamär "red" (Leslau 1987, 234)

IE *H2mr-u- /*Himrwo-: Luwian marway(a)- "rot", maruwai- "röten, rot färben", participle marussam(m)a- "rot (gefärbt)", cf. the hydronym Marassantiya-, written also Id.SAs "Red River", corresponding to the antique river name Halys and today's Kizil Irmak, in Turkish "Red River" (Tischler 2001, 102); Greek äp.a'opoq "dunkel, trübe, schwach"; ? Latin umbra shadow, shade" which is derivable from *omra.

52. Cushitic: (North) Beja herka "upper arm, shoulder" (Roper) = härka, herka "Arm, Oberarm, Schulter, Achsel" (Reinisch) || (East) *har[q]- "arm, hand" > Afar haray "upper arm", Saho haray "arm"; Oromo harka "hand, lower arm", Konso-Mashile harka, Dirayta hark "hand"; Harso-Dobase harko, pl. härqe, Gollango harqo, Gawwada harko "arm, hand", Tsamakko haarko id. (Sava) — see Lamberti 1987, 536; East Cushitic > Gurage aräq, Harari haräq "arm above elbow" (Leslau 1963, 86 & 1979, 90) || (South): Mbugu mharega / mhareya "arm" (Ehret)

IE *H2erk- "to hold, keep": Hittite hark- "to hold, keep, have"; Armenian argel "hindrance"; Greek äpKsro "I ward off"; Latin arceö "I hold in, shut up, keep at a distance", arx "stronghold, fortress" (Puhvel, HED 3, 145-57; Pokorny 1959, 65-66; LIV 273)

53. Semitic Vh-s-w & Vh-s/s-s/s: Tigre hasäwä "to be dry (foliage)" (Leslau 1958, 22); Arabic hassa "to mow", hasis "dried grass or foliage"; Hebrew häsas id. (HAL I, 363) ||| Berber: Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali) hus "be dry!" (Heath)

IE *H2s-(H)eus-: Vedic susyati "wird trocken", Avestan conj. med. haosatae "soll austrocknen"; Greek Attic avoq "dürr, trocken"; Albanian thanj "trockne"; Latin südus "trocken, heiter"; Old English sear, Middle Low German sör, Norwegian s0yr "trocken"; Lithuanian saüsas, Latvian sauss, Old Church Slavonic suxb "trocken", susQ : susiti "trocken machen" (LIV 285: *H2seus-; Pokorny 1959, 880-81).

54. Semitic: Arabic hatta, hattay- "until, as far as" ||| Cushitic: (East): Dobase, Gollango hayto "aussen"

IE *H2et- / *H2ot-: Vedic äti "überhinaus; überaus, sehr", ätas "von hier", Khotanese ata "excessively"; Hittite addu "further"; Greek ärap "nevertheless, but"; Latin at "but; whereas"; Old Irish aith- "again"; Gothic ap-pan "but"; Lithuanian at(a)- "back"; Old Church Slavonic otb "from" (Pokorny 1959, 70).

Lit.: Blazek 2004, 9-10: AA+IE.

55. Semitic *ha/itw- "arrow" > Akkadian üsu, ussu; Ugaritic h?; Phoenician hs, Hebrew hes; Aramaic hi?; Arabic hazwa & huzwa, pl. hi?^? "arrow"; Sabaic h?y-n "archer"; Geez hass "arrow", Harari hinac id. (Leslau 1987, 247)

IE *(H)isw/u- > Old Indic isu-, Avestan isu-, Greek ioq "arrow" < *iafog cf. Hittite ishuwa(i)- "to shed, throw, scatter, pour" (Puhvel 3, 404-09).

Note: Dolgopolsky (p.c.) thinks about borrowing from Semitic into IE.

56. Semitic Vh/h -w-s: Arabic hawasa "to consider, examine"; Geez hawwasa "to look on/after, peep, visit, watch, observe" (Leslau 1987, 250)

IE *H2ueis- "to hear" > Greek aiaGavo^ai "wahrnehmen", s^dtaToq "gehört, bekannt, ruchbar", Homeric a'iov "hörte", Latin audiö : audire "hören" < *auiz-dh-iö (LIV 288; Pokorny 1959, 78).

57. Egyptian (Pyr) hw.t, hy.t, (MK) hwy.t n. "rain", h(w)y "to rain", hwy "to flow, flood", (Pyr) h(w)y n. "flood (of river)" ||| Chadic: (West) Siri hwt "rain" (Skinner) || (East) Sumray "to rain" (Jungraithmayr)

IE *H2 eu-: Hittite he(w)u-, he(y)aw- "rain" (Puhvel, HED 3, 301-04; he rejects the comparison of Hiitite with other IE items proposed by Shevoroshkin, Orbis 17, 1968, 467); further *Haeu(o)nt- (Pokorny 1959, 78; Beekes, EIEC 539) > Vedic avata- "well, spring; cistern", cf. also the river-name Avanti- recorded only by lexicographers (EWAI I, 130-31); ?Gaulish: river nymphe Aventia; Latvian avuots "fountain, spring" (Nevskaja 1977, 18) < *auontos; cf. Lithuanian river Avanta. Related are probably also the Indo-Iranian forms without -t-: Vedic avani- f. "bed of river, river, stream"; Sogdian "wmh [awan] "river", Khotanese vani "streams" (EWAI I, 131).

Lit.: Cuny, Revue Hittite et Asianique 6, 1942-43, 101: Egyptian + Hittite; Dolgopolsky p.c.: AA + Hittite.

58. Semitic Ah-y-w: Ugaritic hyy "to live"; Phoenician hwy id., hy "living", hym "life", Hebrew hayaw "to live"; Syriac hdyä id.; Arabic hay(i)ya id., hayah "life"; Sabaic hyw/y "to live"; Mehri hdyöt "life"; Geez haywa "to live" (Leslau 1987, 252)

IE *H2ey-u-: Vedic ayu "Leben, Lebenszeit", Old Avestan äiiü, gen. yaos id. (*H2oyus : *H2yous); Greek ai©v id., aiei "immer", Cypriotic aifei id.; Latin aevum "a long time, an age"; Gothic aiws "time, eternity", Old Norse xvi "life, age" (Pokorny 1959, 17f; Wodtko, NIL 277-78).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 3: Semitic + IE; Illic-Svityc I, 242-43, #101: AA+IE.

59. Cushitic Ah-y-w/Ah-w-y "to give": (North) Beja Ah-y-w id., cf. the negative imp. ba-hiiwa | (Central) *?dw- id. (Appleyard) | (East) A-hiw-/A-huw-A-huy- id.: Saho -hoy-, Afar imp. ahuw / ahuy; Sidamo uw-, (w)oy-, Hadiyya, Gedeo, Burji uww- id. (Sasse 1982, 185-86, 230) || Berber AH-w-y: (South) Ahaggar awi "to bring, carry", Ghat awi d "bring"; (North) Iznacen, Rif awi "to carry (away)"; Zenaga yuwa-ddäh "brings" (Dolgopolsky, p.c.: Cushitic + Berber)

IE *H2 ey-/*H2 oy-: Hittite 1sg. pehhi < *pe-H2 oy-H2ei, 3sg. pai < *pe-Hoy-, Cuneiform Luwian piya- "to give", Hieroglyphic Luwian iyasa- "to buy", Lycian ijete "kaufte"; Greek aivo^ai "greife, nehme"; Umbrian aitu "soll aussondern" < *ay-ye-töd, Oscan aiti- "Anteil"; Tocharian B conj. ayu, A em "werde geben", B ayor "gift" (LIV 229: Hiai-; Adams 1999, 100: *H4ei-).

60. Semitic Ab-w-h: Arabic baha "to be known, become public; make known, publish, divulge", büh "root, origin; pudenda, sexual intercourse" (Steingass 1988, 150); Geez boha "to be seen, revealed" (DRS 51; Leslau 1987, 115)

IE *bhweH2-: Vedic abhüt "ist geworden", Old Avestan conj. buuaiti "wird werden"; Grk s^uv "wuchs, wurde, entstand"; Latin füi "war"; Old Irish boi, Middle Welsh bu "war"; Old English beom "bin"; Lithuanian buvo "war"; Old Church Slavonic byti "sein" (Pokorny 146-50; LIV 98-101).

Lit.: Moller 1911, 36-37: Semitic+IE; he also thought about Semitic Vb-w--> "to come, enter" (DRS 50). In this case the IE reconstruction should be *bhweHl - (cf. Rassmusen 1989, 146).

61. Semitic Ag-h-f: Arabic jahafa "to gather, take out"; Sxeri gahaf "to take everything"; Geez gahafa "to take away, remove, carry off" (Leslau 1987, 186-87; DRS 113; Steingass 1988, 220)

IE *(g>heH2b- "ergreifen, nehmen": Latin habeö, -ere "haben, halten", Umbrian habetu "soll halten"; Gaulish gabi "nimm!", Old Irish -gaib "nehmen" (LIV 195; Pokorny 1959, 407-09).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 54: Arabic+IE.

62. Semitic Al-h-h &Al-h-l-h: Hebrew Iah "moist, fresh", post-biblic Hebrew lihleah "to moisten", Aramaic lahlah, Palestinian Syrian lh "moisture", Arabic wlahha "to give continuous rain", Geez lahaha "to be humid" (Leslau 1987, 310)

IE *leH2-(w-): Hittite lah(h)u(wa)- "to pour", lilhu(wa)-, Cuneiform Luwian liluwa- id. (LIV 401). Cf. also IE *leiH- "to pour" (LIV 405-06) and / or *leuH- "to wash, bathe" (LIV 418).

63. Semitic Vl-p-h: Arabic lafaha "to burn, scorch" (Steingass 1988, 923)

IE *leH2p-: Hittite lapta "glühte"; Greek x&^tc© "leuchte"; Old Irish lassaim "flamme" < *lH2p-sk-; Lithuanian lope "Licht", Latvian lapa "Fackel", Prussian lopis "Flamme" (LIV 402; Pokorny 1959, 652-53)

Lit.: Brunner 1969, 22: IE+Arabic.

64. Semitic Vm-l-h: Ugaritic mlh "good, pleasant" (Segert 1984, 192) or "beauty" (DUL 548), Arabic milh "beauty, grace", malih "pleasant, beautiful, fair" (Steingass 1988, 1054, 1059)

IE *melH-: Greek |j,aXa "very", ^aXXov "more", ^aXiaxa "mostly", Latin melior "better", multus "numerous", Lithuanian malonus "nice", Latvian milns "very much" (Pokorny 1959, 720; Salmons & Adams, EIEC 236 — they add Hittite mala(i)- "to be favorable").

Lit.: Illic-Svityc II, 41, #278: Arabic+IE.

65. Semitic Vn-h-y/w: Hebrew naha "to lead"; Arabic naha (Vn-h-w) "to turn and move in a certain direction; go aside, across" (HAL 685; Steingass 1988, 1107)

IE *neiH- > Vedic näyati "führt", Avestan naiieiti "leitet, führt"; Hittite pres. sg. nehhi, naitti, nai "führen" (LIV 450; Pokorny 1959, 760).

Lit.: Moller 1909, 92: Semitic + IE.

66. Semitic: Akkadian puhalu "male animal, stud" (of ram, bull, stallion, elephant, duck) (CDA 277); Ugaritic phl "ass, jackass, stallion", phlt "mare"; Arabic fahl, pl. fihal, fuhül, fihalat "stallion" (DUL 668; Steingass 1988, 777)

IE *poHl-/*peH31-: Greek ^©Xoq "foal, filly"; Albanian pele "mare"; Germanic *folan- > Old English fola, Old Saxon & Old High German folo "foal" (Mann 1984-87, 973).

67. Semitic Vp-r-h: Arabic faraha "to be cheerful, merry, content", farah "joy, cheerfulness, merriment, contentment", farih "rejoice" (Steingass 1988, 782); Mehri firdh "to be happy", Jib-bali ferdh id. (Johnstone 1987, 99).

IE *preiH2-/*preH2y- "to be beloved": Vedic prinati "erfreut, befriedigt", Old Avestan fri-iqnmahi "wir befriedigen"; ?Greek npaftq "gentle"; Old Irish riar "will, wish" Gothic frijon "to love", fri(j)apwa "love", frijonds "friend"; Latvian prieks "friend"; Old Church Slavonic prijati "to be favorable", prijatelb "friend", prijaznb "love" (Pokorny 1959, 844; LIV 490).

Lit.: Brunner 1969, 187, #997: Arabic + IE.

68. Semitic Vp-t-h "to open": Akkadian petu & patu; Ugaritic pth; Hebrew patah; Syriac pdtah; Arabic fataha; Sxeri fetah; Geez fatha id. (Leslau 1987, 170). Illic-Svityc (1968, 319, #1.32) adds Hebrew Vt-p-h "to spread". There are other parallels that confirm *t as well as Illic-Svityc's proposal that it is the result of metathesis from *Vp-t-h, namely Arabic fataha "to spread", besides tafaha "to be overfull"; Syriac Vt-p-h "to flatten out"; Akkadian tepu "to lay open"; Tigre tafha "to be flat, wide" (see HUL 378).

IE *petH2-: Greek TCeravvo^i "breite aus, öffne"; Latin pateö, -ere "offenstehen, sich erstrecken", Oscan patensins "sie mögen öffnen" (LIV 478-79; Pokorny 1959, 824-25)

Lit.: von Raumer apud Delitsch 1870, 55 & Moller 1909, 112: Semitic + IE; Dolgopolsky 1964, 10 & Illic-Svityc 1967, 372: AA+IE+ other Nostratic.

69. Semitic Ar-w-h: Hebrew rawah "to extend, spread oneself out"; Syriac rawah "to be spa-tious"; Sabaic h-rwh "to expand"; Arabic rawiha "to be wide"; Tigre rayaha "to revive" (HAL 1195-96) ||| ?Egyptian wfy "dauern" (Wb. I, 255; EDE I, 396: Semitic + Egyptian)

IE *reuH-: Avestan rauuah- "freier Raum"; Latin rüs, rüris "Land"; Germanic *rüma-"Raum"; Tocharian B conj. rewät "du sollst/wirst öffnen" (LIV 510-11: *reuHi-, but without any unambiguous evidence for *Hi; Pokorny 1959, 874).

Lit.: Dolgopolsky 1964, 4; Illic-Svityc 1967, 373; Brunner 1969, 133, #748: Semitic+IE.

70. Semitic As-k-h: Ugaritic nskh "which was found" > "which happened", Aramaic As-k-h "to find" (Segert 1984, 202)

IE *seH2(g)-: Hittite sakiya- "offenbaren", Latin sagiö, -ire "spüren, wittern", Old Irish -saig "geht nach, sucht", Gothic sokjan "suchen" (LIV 520).

Afroasiatic *h

71. Semitic Ah-l-q: Akkadian halaqu(m) "to be lost; be destroyed", hulqu(m) "lost property" (CDA 101); Ugaritic hlq "to perish, destroy; ruined" or "bad"; Geez halqa "to perish, be wasted" (DUL 393-94; Segert 1984, 186; Leslau 1987, 261)

IE *H2/3elk-: ?Armenian alkalk "poor, bad"; Latin ulciscor "to take revenge"; Old Irish olc "bad" (LEIA O-20; LIV 264: *H2elk- "abwehren").

72. Semitic Ah-l-y: Mehri (n)hali "sous", Soqotri Ah-l-y "etre assis sous quelque chose" (Leslau 1938, 175) ||| Cushitic: (East): Burji hal- "to fall (down), to set (of sun)", Sidamo halalla "lowland", halliyya "deep" (Sasse 1982, 90)

IE: Hittite haliya- "to kneel down", halinu- "to make kneel", halihla/i- "to genuflect" is derivable from *H2 l-oi- : *H2 l-i-, plus reduplicated *H2 li-H oi- : *H2 li-H i- (Kloekhorst 2008, 27374). Possibly related: Tocharian A pl. lyya, B lyiyo "member (of body)" (Adams 1999, 567).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc 1967, 351: Semitic+Hittite.

73. Semitic Ah-n-t: Jibbali xanti "front (part)", xantün "out, absent", Mehri xantay "front part of a camel"; cf. also Arabic huntül "long horn or penis" ||| Egyptian hnt "face, front part; in front of", Coptic sant "nose" (Wb. III, 302-06)

IE *H2ent-: Vedic anti "before", anta- "end, limit"; Hittite hanza "front (part)", hanti "in front of, before"; Greek avxi "opposite"; Latin ante "before"; Lithuanian anta "on, upon"; Tocharian B ante "surface, forehead" (Pokorny 1959, 48-50).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc 1967, 354: Egyptian+IE; Dolgopolsky apud Bomhard 2008, 665-66: AA+IE.

74. Semitic Ah-t-w: Arabic hata "to walk, step" (Steingass 1988, 331) ||| Egyptian htj "to retire, retreat"

IE *H2et-: Sanskrit atasi "wanderst"; Latin annus "year"; Gothic apnam id. (LIV 273; Pokorny 1959, 69).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc 1967, 337: AA+IE.

75. Semitic Ah-w-?/y: Arabic hawiya "to be empty, bare, desolate, waste", hawä "empty space" (Steingass 1988, 344) ||| Cushitic: (East): Oromo hiyyeesa "poor", Dirayta hiyy-akko / -ayt id., Burji hiyy-aysi/-ayttee id. (Sasse 1982, 98) || (South): Asa -ha?eta "cheap, easy" (Ehret 1980, 308).

IE *Hi ueHi-: Vedic vayati "schwindet dahin, wird leer"; Greek èa© "lasse"; Latvian vâjêt "schwach werden" (LIV 254)

Lit.: Bomhard 2008, 688-90: AA+IE.

76. Semitic ^^-n-h/h/h: Akkadian anähu "respirer difficilment, soupirer"; Ugaritic ?anh "complaining"; Hebrew ne?enhä "soupirer", wnah; Syriac ?enah "gémir"; Arabic wnaha "breathes hard or violently", rnnaha "haleter" (DRS 25; DUL 79) ||| Egyptian mh "to live"

IE enHi-: Vedic âniti "atmet"; Albanian ënj "blase (auf)"; Gothic -anan "atmen"; To-charian B anässäm "atmet ein" (LIV 267; Pokorny 1959, 38-39)

Note: The etyma are compatible, assuming metathesis of the laryngeals in one of the families.

Lit.: Moller 1909, 6: Semitic+IE; Illic-Svityc 1971, #125: Semitic+Egyptian+IE+Svan qan- "to smell" with q- corresponding to AA *h (Illic-Svityc I, 149).

77. Semitic: Arabic nahsüs "nostril"; Mehri nahsîs "nose" (Leslau 1945, 239)

IE *(H)neHs-/*Hne(H)s-? "nose": Vedic nom. du. nasä, gen. du. nasoh, loc. sg. nasi; cf. the compound with the preceding lengthening urü-nasa- "having a wide nose"; Avestan näh-, Old Persian acc. sg. näham; ?Greek vrçaoç, Doric vâaoç, Rhodos vâaaoç "island" (cf. Old Nordic nes "headland"); Latin näsus "nose", näres "nose; nostrils"; Old High German nasa, Old English nosu, Old Nordic nçs "nose", besides Old Swedish nos "snout"; Lithuanian nôsis, Latvian näss "nose"; Old Church Slavonic nosb id. (Pokorny 1959, 755; EWAI I, 31: *Hnas-; Kortlandt, Baltis-tica 21, 1985, 119: *neHs : *nHsos).

78. Semitic Vs-l-h: Ugaritic slh "forgiveness (of soul)" (DUL 761); Hebrew sälah "to forgive" (HAL 757)

IE *selH2- "gnädig werden": Armenian aiacem "bitte"; Greek Homeric ïXa^ai "stimme gnädig", Aeolic sMaÖi "seid gnädig" (Pokorny 1959, 900; LIV 530)

Lit.: Brunner 1969, 105, #573: Semitic + IE.

Afroasiatic *y

79. Semitic *yar-(an-): Akkadian eru ~ aru "eagle", urinnu "eagle"; Old Aramaic <7 "bearded vulture", Jewish Aramaic <ar "sp. of eagle"; Arabic yaran- id. (SED II, 59, 131)

IE *H3er-(n-): Hittite & Palaic haras, gen. haranas "eagle"; Greek opviq "bird"; Old Irish ilar/irar "eagle" (metathesis from *arilo-?); Old Norse ari ~ Qrn id.; Old Prussian arelie; Old Church Slavonic orblb id. (Pokorny 1959, 325-26; Greppin, EIEC 173).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc 1967, 352: Semitic+IE.

80. Semitic *yawr-: Ugaritic yyr "hollow, pit, depth" (DUL 328); Arabic yawr "depth, cavity, cave, valley" (Steingass 1988, 766); Soqotri <eyreh "lake" (Leslau 1938, 308)

IE *H2eur-: Greek ava-opoq "waterless"; Old Norse aurr "Nass, Wasser", Old English ear "sea" (Pokorny 1959, 80-81).

Lit.: Illic-Svityc 1967, 341: Semitic+IE.


AA: Afroasiatic, C: Central, IE: Indo-European, N: North, O: Old, S: South, W: West.


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Статья является попыткой верифицировать реконструкцию для праиндоевропейского языка ларингальных согласных через внешнее сравнение с языками афразийской семьи. Автор, исходя из гипотезы дальнего родства между праиндоевропейским и пра-афразийским языками, представляет набор из 80 бинарных сопоставлений, содержащих ларингальные согласные как в индоевропейской, так и в афразийской части. Анализ данных показывает, что (а) праиндоевропейский *Hj в целом соответствует прааф-разийскому *■>•, (б) праиндоевропейские *H2 и *H3 могут соответствовать любому из остальных афразийских ларингалов, причем *H3 встречается значительно реже, чем *H2 и, возможно, отражает какой-то старый позиционный вариант.

Ключевые слова: Индоевропейские языки, афразийские языки, ностратика, дальнее родство языков, ларингальная теория.