Научная статья на тему 'SCIENTIFIC AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'

SCIENTIFIC AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
preschool education / ecology / behavior / pedagogy / young generation / theory and practice

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Shonasirova Zakhro Yuldashevna

At the present stage of development of society, the issue of environmental education is becoming especially acute. The main reason for this is total environmental irresponsibility. In this regard, it is necessary to pay more attention to the environmental education of children from the very first years of their life. The severity of modern environmental problems has put forward before the pedagogical theory and practice the task of educating the young generation in the spirit of a careful, responsible attitude to nature, capable of solving issues of rational nature management, protection and renewal of natural resources. In order for these requirements to become the norm of behavior for every person, it is necessary to purposefully cultivate a sense of responsibility for the state of the environment from childhood.

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Текст научной работы на тему «SCIENTIFIC AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN»

SCIENTIFIC AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Zakhro Yuldashevna Shonasirova

Teacher, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan

ABSTRACT

At the present stage of development of society, the issue of environmental education is becoming especially acute. The main reason for this is total environmental irresponsibility. In this regard, it is necessary to pay more attention to the environmental education of children from the very first years of their life.

The severity of modern environmental problems has put forward before the pedagogical theory and practice the task of educating the young generation in the spirit of a careful, responsible attitude to nature, capable of solving issues of rational nature management, protection and renewal of natural resources. In order for these requirements to become the norm of behavior for every person, it is necessary to purposefully cultivate a sense of responsibility for the state of the environment from childhood.

Keywords: preschool education, ecology, behavior, pedagogy, young generation, theory and practice.

INTRODUCTION

Wildlife has long been recognized in pedagogy as one of the most important factors in the education and upbringing of preschoolers.

Communicating with her, studying her objects and phenomena, children of senior preschool age gradually comprehend the world in which they live: they discover the amazing diversity of flora and fauna, realize the role of nature in human life, the value of its knowledge, experience moral and aesthetic feelings and experiences that stimulate them to take care of the preservation and enhancement of natural resources.

• the integrity of the living, which is a consequence of the interaction of structure and functions and the most important condition for the existence of a living organism;

• systemic properties of an integral living organism: specific metabolism of a living organism with the environment, manifested in nutrition, respiration, movement, etc.; the ability to develop as self-renewal and self-reproduction, represented in the growth, development and reproduction of living beings; the

adaptability of living things to the conditions of existence (environment), both relatively constant and changing;

• determinism of living by non-living, their close interconnection and interdependence; at the same time, living things should be considered as an open system that exists and functions only in conditions of constant interaction with the environment;

• systemic organization of living things: living things of any level of organization should be considered as a system, which is a morphological and functional unity of its constituent components, and as an element of the system of the next level of organization, into which it is included in the process of life [19, p.48].

• of particular importance in the development of environmental education of preschoolers are the works of S.N. Nikolaeva, N. Fokina, N.A. Ryzhova.

Let us consider the basic concepts associated with the problem of environmental education of preschool children.

Ecology is the science of the relationship between plant and animal organisms and the communities they form between themselves and the environment.

METHODOLOGY AND DISCUSSION

1. Theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the research problem.

2. Pedagogical experiment (at different stages of the research), including:

• diagnostics of the level of awareness of senior preschoolers in the field of environmental education;

•comparative analysis.

"The methodology of environmental education for preschoolers is a science that studies the features and patterns of the organization of pedagogical work with preschool children, focused on the formation of the foundations of ecological culture and skills of rational interaction with the natural environment. The subject of this science is the study of the laws governing the upbringing, training and development of preschool children by means of nature, the formation of the foundations of their ecological worldview, the upbringing of a value attitude towards the natural environment "[19, p.39]

The theoretical basis of the methodology of environmental education of preschool children is formed by the basic provisions of general and preschool pedagogy on the patterns and means of development of preschool children. Methodological - the science of the laws of natural processes and phenomena and the specifics of their knowledge and transformation.

The main goal of environmental education: to teach a child to develop his knowledge of the laws of living nature, understanding the essence of the relationship of living organisms with the environment and the formation of skills to manage the physical and mental state. Educational and educational tasks are gradually determined:

• deepen and expand environmental knowledge;

• to instill basic environmental skills and abilities - behavioral, cognitive, transformative,

• to develop cognitive, creative, social activity of preschoolers in the course of environmental activities,

• to form (educate) feelings of respect for nature.

In preschool pedagogy, there is also no consensus on the goals, objectives and terminology of environmental education [1]. Unlike other stages of the system of continuous environmental education, the authors of programs and manuals for preschoolers most often use the terms "environmental education" and "environmental culture" [2]. The term "environmental education" has come into the use of preschool teachers only in recent years and is usually used as a synonym for environmental education.

Thus, we can conclude that environmental education is a purposefully organized, planned and systematic process of mastering environmental knowledge, skills and abilities.

Environmental education has already become an integral part of preschool pedagogy. In recent years, the attention of scientists to the study of this problem has increased significantly. Of particular interest are the works of N.M.Verzilin, A.N. Zakhlebny, I.D.Zverev, B.G. Ioganzen, V.S. Lipitsky, I.S. Matrusov, A.P. Pechko, V.A. Today, the ideas of modern complex ecology are actively being introduced into the practice of teaching and educating preschoolers. [20, p. 6]

All outstanding thinkers and teachers of the past attached great importance to nature as a means of raising children: Ya.A. Komensky saw in nature a source of knowledge, a means for the development of mind, feelings and will. K.D. Ushinsky was in favor of "leading children into nature", in order to inform them of everything available and useful for their mental and verbal development [7, p. 19] E.I. Tikheeva made a significant contribution to the development of the content and methods of familiarizing preschoolers with nature. She considers nature as one of the conditions or as an element of the environment in which "children live their natural childish life." [8, p.42] Research by V.G. was of great importance for the development and improvement of the methodology for acquainting preschoolers with the natural world.

Gretsova, T.A. Kulikova, L.M. Manevtsova, S.N. Nikolaeva, P.G. Samorukova, E.F. Terentyeva and others.

The study by N.N. Kondratyeva, which is devoted to the development of the content and structure of the program of systemic knowledge about a living organism for children of older preschool age, is of value for the development of the methodology of environmental education of preschool children. Referring to numerous philosophical and pedagogical studies, the author identified the components of the system of knowledge about living things for preschoolers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the process of developing observation, children learn to see, notice objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality in all their diversity, richness of properties and qualities, connections and relationships. The development of observation is also one of the conditions for children to master the system of knowledge about the natural world [6].

Along with the use of observations as visual methods in the practice of preschool educational institutions, visual illustrative material is widely used. Visual illustrative material helps to consolidate and clarify the ideas of children obtained through direct observation. With its help, you can form in children ideas about objects, objects, natural phenomena that cannot be observed at the moment (or in a given area). In the process of using visual illustrative material, children can get acquainted with long-term phenomena in nature (seasonal changes). The use of this material contributes to the generalization and systematization of information of natural history content and nature in children.

Certain requirements are imposed on the visual and illustrative material used in the practice of working with children [13]:

• the realism of the depicted objects and phenomena;

• clarity of the artist's intention;

• artistic expressiveness of the material, presented in unity with the cognitive value of its content.

Scientific principle. The teacher in his work uses only scientifically based forms and methods of work that correspond to the specific age of children, taking into account their psychophysiological characteristics.

The principle of positivism involves the upbringing and teaching of children on positive examples [2]. Thus, in the practice of environmental education, prohibitions are widespread, with which teachers introduce children. First of all, these prohibitions are associated with the study of the rules of behavior in nature. It is also important to

remember that for a preschool child, memorizing slogans and rules is not particularly difficult, but the effectiveness of this approach in terms of environmental education is zero. The task of getting to know the rules - to create in the child the motivation for a certain type of behavior in nature, and the behavior of an independent, independent of the fear of punishment or praise from an adult - is not achieved in this way. In order for a child to follow certain rules, he must realize their meaning and emotionally feel the consequences of not observing them [3].

The principle of problematicity involves the creation of problem situations by the educator, in the solution of which the child is involved. An example of such situations can be the elementary search activity of children, experimentation, active observation. A problem situation is characterized by the following features: the child has a need to solve a problem, there is an unknown that needs to be found and which differs in a certain degree of generalization; the level of knowledge and skills of the child is sufficient for an active search [12].

The principle of consistency. The most effective is the systematic organization of work with preschoolers. Consistency is also manifested in the organization of work with parents, in the coordination of the work of the kindergarten with various institutions, in the simultaneous implementation of all the main components of the environmental education system by the kindergarten.

The principle of visibility allows you to take into account the visual-figurative and visual-effective thinking of a preschooler. The use of this principle assumes that in order to solve the goals and objectives of environmental education, the teacher chooses objects, processes that are available for understanding and mastering by a child of a certain age, which he can observe directly in his environment. The principle of visibility also means the constant use of visual material in working with children: illustrations, manuals, videos, paintings, posters, models, models, etc [11].

The principle of humanism is manifested, first of all, in the choice of a humanistic model of education by teachers, which implies a transition from authoritarian education and upbringing to personality-oriented, to pedagogy of cooperation between an adult and a child, a dialogue form of education, when a child becomes an equal member of the discussion, and not just a learner. This approach is especially important for preschool pedagogy, since it is difficult for a child without the help of an adult to realize himself as a partner in communicating with an adult. In the process of environmental education, the teacher should give preference to methods of work that are aimed not at the mechanical reproduction of knowledge (simple memorization of certain facts), but at the formation of the ability to think independently, evaluate the relationship between man and the environment, and

understand the (elementary) relationships existing in nature [17]. Thus, the principle of humanism presupposes a transition to a new type of relationship between a teacher and a child, when both of them participate in the educational process, while the child is given as much independence as possible to express his feelings, thoughts, independent knowledge of the world around him through experimentation. With this approach, the child has the right to make a mistake, can express any point of view. And one more important point: a teacher should not be afraid of children's questions (after all, it is impossible to know absolutely everything!). Together with the child, he can find answers to unexpected questions of children (and there are more and more of them today) in the literature.

The principle of consistency is associated with the principles of consistency and problematicity. For example, environmental studies should be carried out in a certain logical sequence. This principle is also reflected in the system of sequential deployment of knowledge - from simple to more complex. It is applicable both to teaching children of different ages (for example, the sequence of presentation of material to children from 3 to 7 years old), and to teaching children within the same age [15].

The safety principle assumes that the forms and methods of work used by the teacher must be safe for the child. Practical activity of preschoolers should exclude potentially dangerous territories and work methods. The principle of safety also implies that the educator does not forget about the call "Do no harm to nature!" That is, in the process of the observations and experiments organized by him, objects of nature should not suffer.

Integration principle. An integrated approach involves close cooperation of all preschool teachers.

The principle of activity. In the process of acquainting a child with nature, traditionally much attention is paid to caring for indoor plants, animals in the corner of nature, and working in the garden. However, from the standpoint of environmental education, it is necessary to expand the scope of such activities by involving children together with adults (especially parents) or older children in various environmental actions, assessing the state of their home, yard, kindergarten area, group (for example, what plants grow around us, are there enough of them, how is water used at home, etc.). This approach allows you to make the child's activities more meaningful and necessary for him personally.

Methodological techniques bring results in those cases if the teacher applies them systematically, takes into account the general tendencies of the mental development of children, the patterns of the formed activity, if the teacher knows and

feels each child well, observes the principles of selection of methods and forms of work in environmental education of preschoolers [14].

Analysis of the results of diagnostics of the ecological education of senior schoolchildren in the experimental and control groups in the control experiment shows: the level of formation of ecological knowledge and ecologically correct attitude to the natural world increased in both groups, but the dynamics of its increase in the experimental group is higher than in the control for all five indicators - and in the levels of formation of ecological knowledge, and in the level of ecological attitude to the natural world. The level of formation of ecological knowledge and ecologically correct attitude to the natural world has significantly increased among preschoolers in the experimental group, who showed low results in the ascertaining experiment. In the control experiment, they all showed an average level of formation of ecological knowledge.

As a result of the research carried out, it was found that the attitude of the children of the experimental group to natural objects has noticeably changed. In the process of direct observations of nature, a clear and accurate idea of objects and phenomena of nature has developed into the minds of children, that in living nature everything is interconnected, that individual objects and phenomena are mutually conditioned by each other, that the organism and the environment are an inseparable whole, that any feature in the structure of plants, in the behavior of animals is subject to certain laws that a person, as a part of nature, endowed with consciousness, by his labor actively influences nature.

During walks and excursions, children began to show great interest in the life of birds and insects. They have become more careful about trees, anthills and other living things while walking in the forest. Now all children know that man and nature are inextricably linked. And how a person loves, preserves and takes care of nature will determine his further existence on Earth.

CONCLUSION

At the stage of preschool childhood, an initial feeling of the surrounding world is formed: the child receives emotional impressions about nature, accumulates ideas about different forms of life. Thus, already during this period, the fundamental principles of ecological thinking, consciousness, ecological culture were formed. But only on one condition - if the adults raising the child themselves have an ecological culture: they understand the problems common to all people and are worried about them, show the little man the wonderful world of nature, help the little man the wonderful world of nature, help to establish relationships with him.

Working with children presupposes cooperation, co-creation between a teacher and a child, and excluded an authoritarian teaching model. Classes are built taking into account the visual-effective and visual-figurative perception of the world by the child and are aimed at the formation of environmental knowledge (knowledge of the animal world; knowledge of the flora; knowledge of inanimate nature; knowledge of the seasons) and an ecologically correct attitude to natural phenomena and objects.

The set of measures developed by us to improve the level of ecological education of senior preschoolers in the classroom and in everyday life has shown its effectiveness: the level of ecological knowledge and ecologically correct attitude to the natural world of experimental preschoolers turned out to be higher than among preschoolers in the control group.

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