Научная статья на тему 'TEACHING APPLIQUE FOR OLDER PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'

TEACHING APPLIQUE FOR OLDER PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
applique / activity / aesthetic education / individual / education of preschool children / pedagogical and psychological research.

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Mahmudova Darmonjon Bozorboevna

Visual activity is of great importance in solving the problems of aesthetic education, since by its nature it is a literary activity. The specificity of art classes provides ample opportunities for learning about the beautiful, for developing an emotional and aesthetic attitude towards reality in children. Each type of visual activity, in addition to the general aesthetic influence, has its own specific effect on the child. The applique is of great importance for the teaching and education of preschool children. It contributes to the formation and development of many personal qualities of an individual, her mental and aesthetic capabilities

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Текст научной работы на тему «TEACHING APPLIQUE FOR OLDER PRESCHOOL CHILDREN»

TEACHING APPLIQUE FOR OLDER PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Darmonjon Bozorboevna Mahmudova

PhD, Teacher of the Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan

ABSTRACT

Visual activity is of great importance in solving the problems of aesthetic education, since by its nature it is a literary activity. The specificity of art classes provides ample opportunities for learning about the beautiful, for developing an emotional and aesthetic attitude towards reality in children. Each type of visual activity, in addition to the general aesthetic influence, has its own specific effect on the child. The applique is of great importance for the teaching and education of preschool children. It contributes to the formation and development of many personal qualities of an individual, her mental and aesthetic capabilities.

Keywords: applique, activity, aesthetic education, individual, education of preschool children, pedagogical and psychological research.

INTRODUCTION

In modern pedagogical and psychological research, the need for visual arts classes for the mental, aesthetic development of children in preschool age is proved. The appleque can be subject, consisting of individual images (leaf, branch, tree, mushroom, flower, bird, house, person, etc.); plot, displaying a set of actions, events («Victory Salute», «Flight into space», «Birds have arrived», etc.); decorative, including ornaments, patterns that can be used to decorate various objects [6].

Applique is one of the most ancient ways of decorating clothes, shoes, household items, dwellings, still used by many nations. The appearance of the applique belongs to the most ancient times and is associated with the appearance of a stitch, a seam on clothes made of animal skins.

Different peoples use a wide variety of materials for appleque: Tuvans, for example, decorating a horse saddle, combine leather with the golden yellow bark of the steppe bush in the appleque, which creates a play of light and shade and volume that is unique in originality and beauty.

METHODOLOGY AND LITERATURY REVIEW

The methodology for teaching preschool children to cut out silhouette in appliques was developed in detail by I.L. Gusarova. The author recommends building training on the basis of a thorough analysis of the structure of figures, highlighting

the relationship of their parts, as well as by showing image techniques in conjunction with accurate verbal descriptions of each movement performed with scissors. When completing the task, children are invited to repeat the technique after the teacher, varying the size and number of figures in the appleque (works such as «Aquarium», «Duck with ducklings», «Hare with hares», «Fox with foxes», etc.). This process allows you to exercise and improve hand movements during the creation of a silhouette, select the most successful cutouts for gluing [6].

The ability to cut out silhouettes of objects enables six-year-old children to display in the appleque a variety of subject and plot-thematic content, which increases and activates their creative potential, directs the development of combinatory abilities. The conditions of a given task require the child to be able to modify the form, to transfer the figure from a static position to a dynamic one, to establish the relationship between images and objects, to rationally use the background space and color to convey the expressive features of the entire composition.

During the training period for silhouette cutting, one should purposefully and consistently inform children about the objects and phenomena depicted, form a culture of visual perception, systematically develop technical cutting skills, coordinated hand movements. This provides free control of the scissors when transferring straight and curvilinear outlines, making an imperceptible transition in a continuous motion from a straight cut to a curve and back.

Individual and collective forms of appleque can be of different content. Depending on this, it is customary to subdivide classes by type. This includes subject, subject - thematic and decorative appleque.

In the subject appleque, children master the ability to cut out of paper and paste on the background individual objects of images, which, due to the specifics of the activity, convey a somewhat generalized, even conventional image of the surrounding objects or their displays in toys, pictures, samples of folk art.

At the initial stage, the kids lay out and stick an object from the parts prepared by the teacher: a ball - two halves of a fungus of different colors - a cap and a leg; trolley - rectangular body and round wheels; garland - rectangular flags, etc.

As they master the techniques of cutting out in the middle, senior and preparatory groups for school, children can depict objects that differ in a variety of shapes, structures, color combinations, ratio values (houses of various types, vehicles, plants, birds, animals, people in a real and fabulous interpretation).

The thematic applique assumes the ability to cut and paste various objects in interaction in accordance with the theme or plot («Chicken pecks' grains»,

«Gingerbread man resting on a stump», «Fish swim in an aquarium», «Rooks build nests in a tree»). In this case, the following tasks become for the child:

• cut out objects, show their differences in size when compared with each other (tall tree and small rooks, fish big and small);

• to highlight the main objects, the main characters, connect them with the scene of action, the situation (fish swim in the aquarium, flowers grow in the meadow). The main thing is distinguished by size, color, compositional placement among other objects;

• to convey the characteristic features of the characters and their actions through gestures, posture, clothing, coloring (the bun met a bear - the figures are glued in the position of turning towards each other);

• arrange objects on the plane of the bases: on the same line in a row horizontally and vertically, indicating the height of the objects (the street of our city, a cheerful round dance); create two-plan compositions - lower, higher, weakening the color, reducing the size of objects, taking into account their removal (boats in the sea, a flowering meadow with a strip of forest in the distance);

• to choose and it is advisable to use color and its combinations to convey the season, weather conditions, attitude to the depicted object and phenomena (golden autumn, in the winter in the forest, harvesting).

In the works of Zaporozhets A.V., Davydov V.V., Poddyakov N.N. it has been established that preschoolers are able, in the process of objective sensory activity, including appleque, to highlight the essential properties of objects and phenomena, to establish connections between individual objects and phenomena and to reflect them in a figurative form [7]. This process is especially noticeable in various types of practical activities: generalized methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and comparison are formed, the ability to independently find ways to solve creative problems, the ability to plan their activities is developing.

Hence, it is necessary to practice not only the fine arts, but also specific types of fine art, including appleque.

Appleque (from the Latin word applicato-attachment) is one of the types of visual technique. Cutting-based. Overlaying different shapes and fixing them on another material, taken for the background.

The concept of «appliques» includes methods of creating works of art from materials of different properties and texture, united by the similarity of the execution technique. Each material has its own characteristics, which have a decisive influence on the applique technique. The applique uses a variety of materials: leather, felt, cloth, birch bark, fur, fabric, straw, paper [5].

Applique is the easiest and most affordable way to create artwork, while maintaining the realistic basis of the image itself. This makes it possible to widely use the applique not only for decoration purposes, but also in the creation of paintings, panels, ornaments.

The main features of the applique are silhouette, flat generalized interpretation of the image, uniformity of the color spot (locality) of large color spots.

This rare art was dedicated by the Soviet artist E.E. Lebedev. She was fond of paper cutting as a child, while still in high school.

In the ornaments, appliques of E.E. Lebedeva - motives of the nature of the middle zone, where she was born and lived almost all her life. On her appliques you can see openwork night violets, bouquets of lilies of the valley with ferns, lindens, bird cherry branches, birds on branches, squirrels, doves, ornaments.

Famous artists from foreign countries paid attention to the appliques. The appliques of the French painter Henri Matisse are interesting and original.

Bright, festive appliques, various compositions of decorative flowers in vases, golden ears of wheat, corn, sunflowers, fruits, roosters, outlandish birds - all this is presented at numerous exhibitions of decorative and applied art.

The works of florist artists are always popular at the Nature and Creativity exhibitions.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In each age group, these tasks are implemented in different ways. Their complication is associated with the level of knowledge, abilities and skills, on which the creative variability of the content of the thematic appliques depends.

The diversity of the surrounding life provides rich material for the reflection in the appliques of various subjects.

The plots of appliques can be interpreted in different ways depending on the age of the children. For example, children display the theme «Autumn» differently.

Children of the older group cut out and paste «Autumn bouquet», «Rich harvest of vegetables», and in the preparatory group for school this topic can find an even more original solution: «Autumn still life», «Birds flying to warm lands», etc. [8]

The thematic set of paper should help to find out the colorful originality of the season, the realistic or fantastic nature of the phenomena, and the relationship of objects. At the same time, one should not forget that a large amount of colored paper leads to excessive beauty, variegation, and this is an indicator of an undeveloped taste, you can create tonal appliques using a combination of two or three colors: for

example, «Winter Evening» (white silhouettes of hares on a dark background, and around the trunks of trees), «Late Autumn» (on a gray basis, dark silhouettes of trees, on the branches of which yellow leaves flicker here and there). Such contrasting color combinations create a feeling of light, air, and cause positive emotions in the child.

Decorative applique is a type of ornamental activity, during which children master the ability to cut and combine various elements of decoration (geometric plant shapes, generalized figures of birds, animals, humans) according to the laws of rhythm, symmetry, using bright color comparisons. In these lessons, the child learns to stylize decoratively transform real objects, generalize their structure, endow samples with new qualities [1].

In the classroom in a preschool institution, a decorative applique with a ribbon and a central - beam composition is used. In a strip construction, individual elements can be repeated many times horizontally or vertically in the form of a frieze, border or border. The pattern can be simple, consisting of one element, and complex in which a separate motive is repeated in two or three elements.

In the center-ray composition, the pattern develops in the direction from the center of the decoration evenly to the edges, corners, sides, depending on whether it is located on the object of which shape: on a circle, rectangle, square (skullcaps, carpets, pillowcases, etc.).

To reproduce various types of ornaments, preschool children must learn to evenly fill the background space with separate elements, highlight the main and auxiliary parts of the applique. In order to develop in children, the eye and the ability to create balanced compositions, it is advisable to use visual teaching methods or to limit ourselves to verbal instructions if preschoolers are well aware of the methods of cutting and sticking individual elements.

This includes the ability to group and differentiate figures rectangular (square, rectangle), oblique (triangle, rhombus, trapezoid, polygon), as well as rounded (circle, oval, ellipse). In the process of cutting, children must learn to accurately convey the features of these figures. Different techniques for their image are shown in fig. one.

It shows the cutting of different geometric shapes by eye, by folding from various types of blanks, as well as techniques for replicating shapes (techniques for replicating geometric shapes by bending blanks into several parts are used in classes with children of only senior preschool age 6-7 years old.) For patterned compositions ... This way you can cut both two rectangles and eight. In the first case, the work piece in the form of a strip is halved by eye, and then a straight transverse cut is made (Fig. 1, 1). In the second example, to obtain eight rectangles-strips, the work piece is

bent in half three times and cut along the folds seven times (Fig. 1, 2). Such replication allows you to get several identical figures. These can be windows for a multi-story building or a bus, flags for making up a garland, etc. [2]

Figure: 1. Techniques for cutting geometric shapes from paper.

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The square is also cut from the strip, having previously calculated the ratio of width and length. For example, to obtain two figures, a 4X8 or 3x6 cm blank is taken. When more squares need to be cut, the blank is increased in length. So, four figures are obtained from a 4x16 cm strip, and twice as many from a 4x32 cm blank (Fig. 1, 3, 4). The triangle can be cut in different ways. The simplest technique is to cut the square in half diagonally with an oblique cut from one corner to the opposite (Fig. 1, 5). To replicate triangles, the same method of folding a strip of paper is used, but in a different way: first, the work piece is bent in half horizontally two or three times. Then, holding the fold with the left hand, make a diagonal cut, as in the first case (Fig. 1, 6). So, seven triangles are immediately obtained from a 4x16 cm strip.

To image a trapezoidal shape, the opposite narrow sides of the strip are connected to each other and an angle is cut along an oblique line (Fig. 1, 7). And the rhombus can be cut in two ways: by bending the rectangle in half along and across and cutting off after bending each corner from one end to the other (Fig. 1, 8) or on a strip at the same distance from each other by eye, make oblique parallel cuts along the length (Fig. 1.9).

In order to more accurately cut a polygon (hex and octagon), the square is folded in half twice vertically and horizontally, then, departing from the center of the fold, cut off the corner (octagon - Fig. 1.10). To depict a hexagon, the square is first folded in half, and then into three more parts. After folding with an oblique cut from one end to the other, remove the corner (Fig. 1.11).

Rounded shapes (circle, oval, ellipse) are cut from a square, rectangle and strip, smoothly rounding all four corners (Fig. 1, 12-14) [2].

In the process of applique work, children get acquainted with the simple shapes of various objects, parts and silhouettes of which they cut and paste. Creating silhouette images requires a lot of thought and imagination. the silhouette lacks details, which are sometimes the main features of the subject.

Applique classes contribute to the development of mathematical concepts. Preschoolers get acquainted with the names and features of the simplest geometric shapes, get an idea of the spatial position of objects and their parts (left, right, in the corner, in the center, etc.) and sizes (more, less). These complex concepts are easily assimilated by children in the process of creating a decorative pattern or when depicting an object in parts [5].

In the classroom, preschoolers get acquainted with the properties of different materials (leather, paper, straw, fabric, etc.), learn to distinguish geometric shapes, colors, establish the ratio of parts in size and combine parts into a whole, highlight the structure, the position of an object in space, navigate on a piece of paper. Every child practically learns the concept of rhythm, symmetry, harmony. Children become familiar with the concepts of rhythm and symmetry already at a young age when distributing decorative pattern elements.

Children improve their eye function, the ability to evaluate and correct mistakes made by analysis (before fixing the figures on the plane); speech develops: children master the correct verbal designations of directions (left, right, in the middle, in the corners, above, below). They learn to group rounded, rectangular, oblique, polygonal shapes, to correctly name the magnitude concepts (long - short, narrow -wide, high - low, more - less, in half, twice, four times, etc.). This knowledge is purposefully applied by preschoolers in practical activities [7].

Applique classes teach kids to the planned organization of work, which is especially important here, because In this art form, the sequence of attachment of parts is of great importance for creating a composition (first, large Forms are pasted, then details; in plot works, first the background, then the background objects, obscured by others, and last of all the foreground objects).

CONCLUSION

Thus, applique is one of the types of visual technique based on cutting, overlaying various shapes and fixing them on another material, taken as a background. The concept of «applique» includes methods of creating works of art from materials of different properties and texture, united by the similarity of the execution technique. Each material has its own characteristics, which have a decisive influence on the applique technique.

The process of creating an applique consists of a number of successively performed actions that require a sufficiently high level of development of visual and technical skills from the child, as well as concentration, perseverance, endurance, accuracy, and independence.

An insufficient degree of development of technical skills slows down the work of the imagination, fetters children's initiative, and reduces the quality of the results of activity. And vice versa, if a child is good at cutting, gluing, sewing on the base, his attention is directed to creating combinations of different shapes, sizes, colors, which leads to new, original results, stimulates a creative attitude to work. This is possible only when the educator skillfully regulates and applies the most effective teaching methods in the classroom, when tasks are given not only ready-made, but more often require children to actively, creatively, and not reproductively apply the acquired knowledge and skills.

The experience gained by children in drawing up subject or plot images with the help of ready-made forms ensures the development of figurative vision, as well as the formation of the prerequisites for plot drawing and the development of speech at later age stages.

Applique classes, with the correct use of age-appropriate methods and techniques, are not only entertaining, but also educate and develop.

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