Научная статья на тему 'DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE HISTORY OF FOREIGN PEDAGOGY'

DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE HISTORY OF FOREIGN PEDAGOGY Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
theories of preschool education / didactics / principle / conditions / mental education of a child.

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Narimbaeva Lola Kuzibaevna

In the article analyses problem of development of questions of the theory of preschool education in the history of foreign pedagogy. As we know, the development of independence and activity of thinking in preschoolers is facilitated by knowledge transmitted by adults based on the principle of accessibility. So, it is necessary that the knowledge included in the program becomes more complex with the growth of the cognitive and performing abilities of children.

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Текст научной работы на тему «DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE HISTORY OF FOREIGN PEDAGOGY»

DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE HISTORY OF FOREIGN PEDAGOGY

Lola Kuzibaevna Narimbaeva

Teacher, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan

ABSTRACT

In the article analyses problem of development of questions of the theory of preschool education in the history of foreign pedagogy. As we know, the development of independence and activity of thinking in preschoolers is facilitated by knowledge transmitted by adults based on the principle of accessibility. So, it is necessary that the knowledge included in the program becomes more complex with the growth of the cognitive and performing abilities of children.

Keywords: theories of preschool education, didactics, principle, conditions, mental education of a child.

INTRODUCTION

Currently, in many preschool education programs, didactic games are used as a form of teaching young children, but at the same time, an analysis of the theory and practice of preschool educational institutions has shown that educators do not know how to conduct didactic games with young children. Thus, a contradiction arises between the theoretically proven effectiveness of didactic play as a form of education and the insufficient development of the methodology for using didactic games in the process of teaching young children.

This contradiction points to the research problem, which consists in determining a comprehensive methodology for using didactic games in the process of teaching young children.

One of the important tasks of raising young children is their timely mental and speech development. In preschool childhood, the mental education of the child is carried out in his daily interaction with adults. The educational process is most successful when, along with everyday communication, special educational (didactic) games and classes are held, during which children learn the information and skills available to them.

Great merit of scientists N.M. Shchelovanov and N.M. Aksarina lies in the fact that they substantiated the theoretical position of Soviet pedagogy and psychology on the leading role of education and training in the development of a child in relation to

early age. This contributed to the development of research in the field of early childhood pedagogy.

Particularly increased attention to the problems of pre-preschool education in connection with the emergence of a new type of preschool institutions - day nurseries. In the conditions of the united kindergarten, the question of continuity between preschool and preschool education and, in particular, between the stages of the didactic process carried out in different age groups, arose with particular urgency.

METHODOLOGY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

This need is due, in turn, to a number of reasons associated with significant transformations in the field of domestic preschool pedagogy, namely:

- changes in the structure of public preschool education - the creation of various types of preschool educational institutions (public and private kindergartens, children's centers with a specific focus on educational work, recreation groups and targeted preparation for school, specialized kindergartens, etc.) based on implementation of the existing social order;

- the emergence of variable general and partial programs for the upbringing and education of preschool children, focused on different approaches to the process of purposeful development of a child and mastering the world around him (Childhood, Origins, Golden Key, We, Rainbow, "Development", "Rostok", etc.);

- the development of pedagogical technologies for the implementation of these programs, focused on various types of children's activities and forms of organization of educational work with preschoolers, depending on the goals of the program

Science and practice data indicate that as a result of repetitive games and activities with clearly defined content, subject to systematic pedagogical guidance, all children can master the information and skills provided by the program, despite fluctuations in the pace of individual development (quite significant in early childhood). The idea of deliberate pedagogical influence on the child was the initial one in research and in the construction of the manual.

Currently, in many preschool education programs, didactic games are used as a form of teaching young children, but at the same time, an analysis of the theory and practice of preschool educational institutions has shown that educators do not know how to conduct didactic games with young children. Thus, a contradiction arises between the theoretically proven effectiveness of didactic play as a form of education and the insufficient development of the methodology for using didactic games in the process of teaching young children.

This contradiction points to the research problem, which consists in determining a comprehensive methodology for using didactic games in the process of teaching young children.

Research in the field of preschool didactics was based on the pedagogical ideas of Western European thinkers - Ya.A. Komensky, I.G. Pestalozzi, F. Frebel, A. Disterweg, D. Dewey, M. Montessori and many others, developing and supplementing them in the traditions of Russian pedagogical culture.

In the system of didactics, Comenius singles out the program of the mother's school as the beginning of educational and educational work with the child. In solving didactic questions, he proceeded mainly from the requirements of life, from the usefulness of rational knowledge and skills at all age levels, including the age of the children of the mother's school.

Didactic tasks in the upbringing of preschool children should, according to Comenius, consist in expanding the child's direct experience, in enriching him with purely empirical knowledge about objects and phenomena of nature, in teaching the ability to distinguish similar objects and phenomena and to name them correctly.

In the history of the formation and development of preschool pedagogy at various historical stages, various and often directly opposite methodological approaches prevailed, and the most contradictory author's concepts and theories of teaching preschoolers were proposed.

Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the main provisions of a conceptually new approach to the organization of the educational process, consistent with modern concepts of full-fledged, all-round development of a preschool child and didactics itself.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Traditionally, in the history of preschool didactics, the theoretical foundations of education were determined based on the general didactic characteristics of the learning process, namely:

- training is based on taking into account the psychological patterns of development of preschool children;

- relies on the leading role of the teacher;

- is of an organized nature, with the goal of communicating knowledge to children, mastering skills and abilities.

The psychological irrationality and pedagogical fallacy of such a teaching model are explained, as noted by the classic of preschool didactics A.P. Usov, the fact that a child receives a significant part of the information without a specially

organized learning process - in everyday communication with parents, adults and peers. In general, purposeful learning is viewed as an essential means of general education and development of a preschooler child, and the success of his education before school depends on the acquisition of full-fledged knowledge, skills and abilities both in the classroom and outside them, in order to ensure the integrity of the child's cognitive activity.

The formation of the theory of preschool education took place in parallel with the development of child psychology, which contributed to the determination of the following characteristic features of the organization of training for preschoolers:

- "oral" (V.F Odoevsky), "book" (K. D Ushinsky) character of the teacher's transfer of knowledge to children;

- personal example of adults in various activities (drawing, singing, rhythmic movements, creative stories, etc.) as a way to activate the mental education of children;

- the presence of didactic aids, didactic games, "surprise moments", game assignments, dynamic and colorful visualization as a means of concentration of attention, increasing the sensitivity and interest of children;

- familiarizing preschoolers in the classroom with the surrounding reality and mastering elementary cause-and-effect relationships, which are of a program nature.

In the textbook "Preschool Pedagogy" (1988), edited by P.G. Samorukova and V. I. Loginova, the principle of systematic knowledge is proposed, which is interpreted by modern teachers in two directions: first, as the systematization of knowledge, and secondly, as the construction of systemic knowledge.

The first direction represents systematization as a grouping of objects in accordance with the identified characteristic feature (color, size, use, etc.) that unites them. The second - considers the systemic principle as the disclosure of the diversity of the sides of the object of knowledge, the identification of cause-and-effect relationships, the awareness of patterns (creation of an object from a material that has certain qualities and properties, etc.).

The principle of scientific knowledge is considered in close relationship with the previous one and, on the one hand, is the inclusion in the content of preschool education of reliable knowledge about the facts and phenomena of the surrounding reality, and on the other hand, it allows one to imagine the dynamics of the development of these phenomena in interconnection.

The principle of the upbringing and developmental orientation of knowledge means the introduction into the program of such knowledge that would form an attitude towards reality, develop a system of skills (cognitive, labor, etc.).

Proceeding from the fact that preschool children begin to master complex social relations, and their intellectual development is primarily associated with preparation for school, the knowledge offered to preschoolers should be comprehensive and harmonious, which is the next principle.

Comenius believed that the education of preschool children should be carried out in the form of conversations between parents and children. In these conversations, adults explain to children the phenomena of the surrounding world in a form that they understand. Comenius considers the development of children's speech to be the task of parents.

At the mother's school, Comenius recommends games and entertainment that give children knowledge, and at the same time, conversations with children, exercises. Consequently, Comenius did not completely include educational work with a child in children's games. He used games only as a condition for the children to better master the program.

Komensky posed the following essential questions: about education and training as a single process at all age levels, starting from the mother's school; about the program and methods of education and training at the preschool age.

Further development of the didactics of preschool education is associated with the name of Pestalozzi. According to Pestalozzi, the knowledge of the world around children from a very early age should occur through learning. This teaching ensures the transition of children from ignorance to knowledge, discards everything that is accidental and highlights everything that is significant for development. Learning that comes from an adult is, according to Pestalozzi, a higher level in comparison with natural "learning".

In the works of Pestalozzi, the nature of the teaching of a preschool child is quite clearly expressed. Setting a common goal in teaching - the all-round development of the child through exercise, observation, education of correct, clear concepts, he, like Comenius, emphasizes the need for organized education of the child.

The first step in teaching children Pestalozzi considers the organization of observation of objects and phenomena. Observations are essential for acquiring knowledge. At the same time, he emphasizes the role of language, the organic connection between language and thinking, which ensures the consolidation of impressions.

The content of Pestalozzi's preschool education includes three elements: form, number and language. "If, on the one hand, knowledge of form and number must precede knowledge of the language, and this latter must partly flow from the first

two, then, on the contrary, success in language learning is achieved faster than in the art of observation and arithmetic. Actually, the impression of observing form and number precedes the ability to speak; opposite the art of observation and arithmetic follow the art of speaking. "

The most important for initial training, Pestalozzi considers the development of the ability to observe objects and study them thoroughly.

The training program developed by Pestalozzi is characterized by a rather dogmatic systematization of the concepts that are given to children. Taking as a basis for this program, in his opinion, the "closest" for children - their own body, Pestalozzi groups objects of the outside world in artificial logic.

In the didactics of preschool education by Comenius and Pestalozzi, the content of preschool education as a threshold for the next stage is revealed, as well as the principle of the nature of education, taking into account the age stages of development of children and deepening in Pestalozzi's psychological analysis of age manifestations (the experience of teaching his son). At the same time, Pestalozzi's didactics of preschool education clearly show features that are in direct conflict with the age capabilities of children. This is manifested in a formal approach to determining the content of knowledge and skills for a given stage of age, based on a misunderstood principle of systematizing this knowledge.

The ideas of didactics in Frebel's pedagogical system are expressed not only in general provisions, but also in their connection with the specific content of teaching, its methods, form and organization of work in kindergarten. A characteristic feature of Frebel (Friedrich Frobel) didactics is direct teaching, which is conducted by a teacher in the form of classes with a whole group of children. All work - weaving, laying out, drawing - the children were to be taught by a teacher.

For the first time in the history of pedagogical thought, Frebel's pedagogy answered the question of how to make children acquire knowledge in an active way. In accordance with the children's need for play activity, Froebel created play activities in which serious content was given to children in a playful way.

Frebel came up with the idea of combining learning and play. His "gifts" are built on the realization of this principle. "Gifts" are the subject of a special game for children, which an adult conduct with them. The meaning of each "gift" is explained by a rhyme, a song.

A positive result of this experience was the strengthening of the idea of didactic games in which learning was associated with play (games for teaching literacy, for distinguishing and recognizing colors, shapes, etc.).

It should be noted that the attempts of Froebel himself to systematize the lessons-games for preschool children were dictated by his religious and philosophical aspirations. Therefore, this kind of systematization was of a scholastic nature. Frebel's followers brought this systematization to the point of complete absurdity. And yet what was alive in this generally scholastic system, creatively perceived, had a significant impact on the development of pedagogy of preschool education.

The success of the Frebel games-lessons is due to the fact that they were practical means of teaching children, and not general reasoning about the means. Frebelian "gifts" (geometric shapes: ball, cube, cylinder), Frebelian works (weaving, embroidery, drawing, etc.) gave rich material to the family and kindergarten in order to keep children busy with useful work and play.

It should be borne in mind that Froebel distinguished from purely didactic games-activities the games invented by the children themselves. True, Frobel tried to use such games for educational purposes.

After Frebel, the idea of the educational content of upbringing in kindergarten (acquainting children with shape, color, etc.) developed throughout the 19th century. and is once again reinforced by Montessori didactic material. The play method is being widely developed, and pedagogical (didactic) games are firmly included in the practice of kindergartens.

CONCLUSION

Thus, having analyzed the approaches to the organization of the educational process within the framework of traditional and innovative systems that have developed in preschool didactics, it can be concluded that the teaching of preschool children is guided by general didactic positions, and also has its own specificity related to the psychological characteristics of children of this age group.

Modern preschool didactics develops variable approaches to teaching children, focusing on the use of innovative methods and technologies (elements of creative solution of research problems, problem learning, as well as modeling, technical teaching aids, etc.). For this, it is necessary to involve the existing personal experience of children in the process of collective or individual search activity under the guidance of a teacher. The success of this activity depends on the children's communication skills and ability to interact.

Modern programs provide for the organization of the educational process both in special classes and in unregulated activities in their free time on the basis of an optimal combination of their individual and collective forms. The program becomes the leading and necessary document for preschool educational institutions, which

determines the general principles, specific directions of their functioning, as well as the features of the substantive characteristics of the pedagogical process in the presence of opportunities for using variable technologies for their practical implementation.

After analyzing the approaches to the organization of the educational process within the framework of traditional and innovative systems that have developed in domestic preschool didactics, it can be concluded that the teaching of young children is guided by general didactic positions, and also has its own specificity related to the psychological characteristics of children of this age group. One of the forms and methods of teaching children of early and preschool age is didactic play.

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