DEFINITION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
principle / preschool education / teaching principles / personalityoriented activity

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Abdullaeva Maryambibi Jumaniyazovna

The advancement of the social function of modern education to the forefront makes us take a fresh look at the problems of selection of the content and organization of the processes of upbringing and teaching preschool children. The well-known isolation of the preschool institution from the real world, the strict scientific and systematic principle of selection and structuring of the content of upbringing and education programs, far from the specific interests of children, make it difficult for the child to acquire cultural and historical experience, development and self-development in meaningful activity

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Maryambibi Jumaniyazovna Abdullaeva

Teacher of the Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan


The advancement of the social function of modern education to the forefront makes us take a fresh look at the problems of selection of the content and organization of the processes of upbringing and teaching preschool children. The well-known isolation of the preschool institution from the real world, the strict scientific and systematic principle of selection and structuring of the content of upbringing and education programs, far from the specific interests of children, make it difficult for the child to acquire cultural and historical experience, development and self-development in meaningful activity.

Keywords: principle, preschool education, teaching principles, personality-oriented activity.


Modern active searches in the field of preschool pedagogy, reflected mainly in the creation of numerous programs, testify to attempts to overcome the above contradiction.

Educational personality-oriented activity is based on a new understanding of the function of a preschool institution as an open social and educational institution that provides pedagogical assistance and support to the families of its pupils, as well as compensates for existing problems in their behavior and development. The latter is possible only if there is trust, partnership and cooperation with parents and relatives of children. This work reveals the ways and ways of "cultivating" the joint existence of important adults for the child - educators and parents, as well as the possibility of involving in the learning process in kindergarten the integral social space of the life of children, events and situations that have a personal meaning for them. In doing so, we turn to the analysis of both domestic and foreign modern theory and practice of preschool education [1, p. eleven].

Preschool education is an integral part and the first link in a unified system of continuous education, where the foundations of the personality are being formed. In accordance with the generally accepted age periodization of human development, preschool childhood covers the period from birth to 6 years old, when the child's

motor, sensory and intellectual spheres are actively formed, the development of his speech and basic mental processes. The high intensity of the process of personality formation during preschool childhood makes it possible to carry out pedagogical interaction with the child especially effectively and to solve the problems of his development, upbringing and education [1, p. 39].

At the same time, children develop a more loyal attitude to work, interest in the work of adults, and hard work. Education and upbringing are usually in one whole: teaching, we educate, and educating - we teach.

At the same time, teaching and upbringing as a kind of aspects of a single process have their own composition, their own specific methods, their material and psychological prerequisites. In the early stages of children's life, education and upbringing appear in a closer unity, and it is difficult to differentiate them, but as the child grows up, upbringing and education become more and more clearly differentiated. But this does not mean at all that teaching loses its educational power, and education ceases to be teaching. Teaching at all stages of a child's development remains upbringing, and upbringing is teaching [2, p. 55].

The principles of teaching are called such initial positions that the educator uses during the selection of the content, organization and methods of teaching. They reflect the internal natural aspects of the activities of the educator and the child, determine the effectiveness of training at different age stages with various forms of organization of training.

The principles of teaching are not once and for all accepted categories. As psychological and pedagogical science develops, they improve, acquiring a deeper justification (the principle of active learning, developmental learning, etc.) [3, p. 101].

The organizational form of education is classes that differ from lessons at school in structure, less stringent requirements, a greater degree of cooperation between the teacher and children. The main feature of training sessions with preschoolers is that cognitive activity is based on the child's practical, mental actions and mental actions with prompts. However, the general patterns and principles of teaching preschool children and primary schoolchildren are the same. Knowledge of these principles ensures the productivity of solving educational, upbringing and developmental problems.

The success of the learning process largely depends on the provisions that guide the teacher in his organization. These provisions or laws of teaching were called in pedagogy - didactic principles of teaching.

The principles of teaching are the starting points that determine the activities of

the teacher and the nature of the cognitive activity of students. Ignorance of the principles or their inept application slows down the success of learning, makes it difficult to assimilate knowledge, the formation of the qualities of the child's personality [4, p. 28].

The set of principles allows us to characterize the entire educational process, all aspects of the teacher's activities and the cognitive activity of children. In practice, the following principles of teaching preschool children are used.


Its essence lies in the fact that real knowledge that correctly reflects reality must penetrate into the child's mind. In the classroom, the educator definitely forms in children specific ideas, knowledge about the world around them, which do not conflict with those that the school will give. The student's initial scientific knowledge does not arise out of thin air, but on the basis of real ideas received by children in kindergarten. Thus, a deeper scientific knowledge of reality arises on the basis of a less deep one. Undoubtedly, it is not easy to adhere to this principle when explaining the simplest things to preschoolers. Didactics is designed to prepare educational material in such a way that, on the one hand, it correctly reflects the surrounding reality, and on the other hand, it would be understandable and accessible to children. The scientific principle ensures the formation of elements of dialectical-materialistic understanding of the surrounding world in preschool children [5, p. 64].

Scientists have thought about this problem more than once. Where is the age limit, pointing to which we could say with confidence: this is the time when it is necessary to begin the formation of elements of a materialistic understanding of the reality around the child.

The importance of this principle is determined by the specific specifics of the child's thinking in kindergarten. The principle of visibility is not new. At the same time, it is possible that in the process of a child's development, qualities are formed in him that are directly opposite to those that we would like to see. The period of preschool childhood is a favorable time for the gradual formation of the foundations of a scientific worldview in a child, that the knowledge, experience of activity, attitude, behavior acquired at this age stage - all this, taken together, prepares in the child that qualitative leap that occurs in the process of forming a worldview on later age stage - schooling.

It is no coincidence that children strive to carry out any story in a figurative language, to imagine events in the form of some kind of visual picture. The most difficult thinking skills - reasoning, counting, proving, analyzing and comparing -

come from initial external actions, from working with specific objects. To learn to count in your head, you have to work hard, counting real objects. Real objects and visual images contribute to the correct organization of the mental activity of children. The importance of visualization of learning is convincingly confirmed by studies that show that basic information is assimilated by a person through visual and auditory perception. Visual information is perceived instantly. Auditory information enters our brain sequentially and takes much longer [6, p. 77].

Implementing the principle of visibility in the pedagogical process of kindergarten means enriching and expanding the child's direct sensory experience to clarify his empirical knowledge.

In preschool institutions, the following types of visualization are used in the learning process:

1. subject;

2. figurative;

3. conditionally - symbolic visualization.

Using objective visualization, I show children natural objects of the outside world, volumetric images (toys, models, dummies of vegetables, fruits).

When using figurative clarity, I show children pictures, illustrations, slides.

When using conditional - symbolic visualization, mathematical signs, schemes of words, sentences, tables for studying the composition of numbers are demonstrated.

In teaching children in the classroom, visualization is used, first of all, in connection with communicating new knowledge to children, as well as when consolidating them, when organizing independent activities of children.

The following requirements are imposed on the visibility used in the classroom: they must fully reflect everything around, correspond to the level of development of preschoolers, be highly artistic in content and design.


What the teacher of children teaches should be clear to him, and also definitely correspond to the development of the child.

Nowadays, teachers and psychologists do not argue about anything like accessibility. What knowledge, at what age and under what conditions can children be given? About 15 years ago, the traditional prohibition was still respected: you cannot start teaching literacy and writing before five years. Today it is allowed to teach a child even earlier, if only the rule is strictly observed: to arouse interest, to induce the child himself to expect the next "lesson". If only there was no compulsory

teaching, teach with play, with enthusiasm.

To master the literacy, the child must learn to distinguish the phonetic side of the text. In addition, children at this age are characterized by physiological inarticulateness (they cannot pronounce hissing, whistling sounds, etc.), which means that it is impossible to prepare them for direct literacy training.

An essential feature of the principle of accessibility is the connection between the acquired knowledge and those that have already been formed in the child's mind. If such a connection cannot be established, then knowledge will be inaccessible to children [7, p. 26].

However, what is available in teaching children cannot be exemplified with light. Easy training does not cause any mental effort, stress in children, and therefore does not contribute to their development. Accessible teaching always presupposes setting for children such tasks, such tasks, the solution or implementation of which would be within the reach of the children and at the same time cause some strain on their mental strength.

Experimental data show that if children do not show interest in learning, then the information coming from teacher to child is not perceived by them. Even with a neutral mental state of the child, information coming from the outside is not perceived by the child's brain.

The practice of kindergarten shows that many children are intellectually passive due to the fact that the teacher, when explaining the educational material, does not foresee in it in advance the techniques that activate the cognitive abilities, thinking and behavior of the child, when he "chews" everything down to the smallest details himself, without relying on activity and independence of the child, who has no choice but to "swallow" the next dose of material.

The significance of this principle lies in the fact that the more a child solves practical and cognitive tasks on his own, the more efficiently his development is. The most important indicator of the effectiveness of training is the manifestation of cognitive activity and independence by children. This reaction is based on an orientation-research reflex. The development of the child's cognitive abilities and creative powers depends on the teacher and the methods and techniques he uses [8, p. 49].

This means that the composition of teaching and specific tasks for its assimilation meet all didactic rules: to go in learning from easy to more difficult, from already known to children to new, unknown, from simple to complex, from close to distant.

Consistency presupposes the study of educational material in such a way that

the assimilation of a new one would be based on the knowledge available to children and prepare a further stage in the cognitive activity of children. The teacher, on the basis of the program, determines and prepares the next "dose" of educational material for assimilation. Each such "dose", part of the educational material is presented in conjunction with the previous ones, in complication.

The principle of connection with life follows from the dialectical-materialist law of the unity of theory and practice. Of course, the connection to life for young children is limited by their capabilities. Their life is a game, work, occupation. The acquired knowledge should be used in the specified activities.

This shows the dialectical nature of the learning process. Amazing things happen to a child. Yesterday he still did not know how, but today he learned. What seemed difficult yesterday has already been mastered and has become simple. Children gradually become aware of their own growth, they become interested in learning. In order for the teaching to be fun, inspiring work for children, you need to awaken in children and constantly maintain a desire to learn, a desire to learn new things. It is this desire that is the emotional stimulus of the child's independent and active thought. The secret of the emergence of interest in educational activities lies in the child's personal success, in his sense of the growth of his capabilities, in mastering the educational material. This means that the more success a child has in knowledge, in learning, the higher and more stable his desire to acquire new knowledge [2, p. 21].


Thus, the above principles of teaching give the unity of the teacher's practical activity and the cognitive activity of children. Methods, content, organization of training sessions with preschool children are significantly dependent on the teacher's understanding of the principles of teaching and the ability to apply them in their activities.

Thus, in order for the teaching of preschool children to be effective and bring good results, it is enough to observe the basic principles of teaching:

1. The principle of learning in play. Play activity in preschool age is the leading activity. Therefore, it is most effective to conduct training sessions in a playful way.

2. Classes should be interesting for children and in an active manner. If the classes are interesting for the child, he actively takes part in them and thus knowledge is assimilated faster and more reliably.

3. The principle of visibility. In working with kids, this teaching principle is one of the leading. In preschoolers, visual-figurative thinking still prevails. This is

why it is so important to provide your child with visual examples and material.

4. The principle of consistency. Learning should be consistent, that is, knowledge is given from simple to complex, and not vice versa.

5. The principle of accessibility and individuality. This means that knowledge and skills should be given to a child, taking into account his age and individual characteristics.

Compliance with these principles will help the baby to develop harmoniously and effectively.


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