THEORETICAL BASIS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
methodology / theory / tactics / technique / activity / formation / development

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Gimazutdinov Radik Galimovich

Physical education for children is the same as the foundation for a building. The more solid the foundation is, the higher the building can be erected; the more worries about the child's physical education, the more success he will achieve in general development; in science; in the ability to work and be useful to society as a person

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Radik Galimovich Gimazutdinov

Teacher, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan


Physical education for children is the same as the foundation for a building. The more solid the foundation is, the higher the building can be erected; the more worries about the child's physical education, the more success he will achieve in general development; in science; in the ability to work and be useful to society as a person.

Keywords: methodology, theory, tactics, technique, activity, formation, development.


Raising children healthy, strong, and cheerful is the task not only of parents, but also of every preschool institution, since children spend most of the day there. In kindergartens, physical education classes are provided, which should be built in accordance with the psychological characteristics of a particular age, the availability and appropriateness of exercises. Complexes of exercises should be exciting, and also should provide for physiological and pedagogical justified loads that satisfy the child's need for movement. Properly organized physical education contributes to the formation of a good physique, prevention of diseases, and improvement of the activity of internal organs and systems of the child's body.

Physical culture is a limited part of universal human culture, its special independent area. At the same time, it is a specific process and result of human activity, a means and method of physical improvement of a person. Physical culture is based on purposeful physical activity in the form of physical exercises, which effectively form the necessary skills and abilities, physical abilities, improve health and performance. Physical culture is represented by a set of material and spiritual values. The first includes sports facilities, inventory, special equipment, sports equipment, medical support. The latter include information, works of art, various sports, games, exercise complexes, etc.


1. Increasing the body's resistance to environmental influences by hardening it. With the help of reasonably dosed health-improving factors of nature (solar, water, air procedures), the weak defenses of the child's body increase significantly. At the same time, the resistance to colds (acute respiratory infections, runny nose, cough, etc.) and infectious diseases (tonsillitis, measles, rubella, flu, etc.) increases.

2. Strengthening of the musculoskeletal system and the formation of correct posture. It is important to pay attention to strengthening the muscles of the foot and

lower leg in order to prevent flat feet, since it can significantly limit the child's motor activity.

3. Assistance in increasing the functionality of vegetative organs. The active motor activity of the child helps to strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, improve metabolic processes in the body, optimize digestion and heat regulation.

4. Education of physical abilities (coordination, speed and endurance). Where the process of developing physical abilities should not be specifically directed towards each of them. On the contrary, on the basis of the principle of harmonious development, one should select the means in such a way, change the activity in terms of content and character, and regulate the orientation of motor activity, so that a comprehensive education of all physical abilities is ensured.

At no other age is physical education so closely related to general education as the first seven years. In the period of preschool childhood (from birth to seven years), the child lays the foundations for health, longevity, all-round physical fitness and harmonious physical development (V.A.Doskin, L.G. Golubeva, 2002).

A sick, poorly developed child usually lags behind healthy children in school. He has a worse memory, his attention gets tired faster, and therefore he cannot study well, and parents and even teachers are often mistaken, considering the child to be lazy. This weakness also causes a variety of disorders in the activity of the body, leads not only to a decrease in abilities, but also undermines the will of the child (V.A.Doskin, L.G. Golubeva, 2002).

Positive emotions, emotional saturation of classes are the main conditions for teaching children to move. Imitation - creates emotions that activate the child. In addition, interest has a positive effect on the motor activity of children, especially sedentary and inert ones. Mastering movements has a good effect on the development of a child's speech. The understanding of an adult's speech is improving, the vocabulary of active speech is expanding. That is why the outstanding Soviet teacher V.A. Sukhomlinsky: "I am not afraid to repeat once again: taking care of health is the most important work of an educator." Therefore, it is extremely important to put physical education correctly at this age, which will allow the baby's body to accumulate strength and ensure in the future not only full-fledged physical, but also mental development. And such important human data as strength, will, endurance, health, cheerfulness, physical activity are instilled in childhood.


The result of activity in physical culture is physical fitness and the degree of perfection of motor skills and abilities, a high level of development of vitality, sports achievements (E.Ya. Stepanenkova, 2005).Physical exercise as the essence of physical education is the main means of directed influence on physical development (T.I. Osokina, 1986). Physical development as a result of physical education, in turn, can act in two aspects - to designate anthropometric indicators and as a process of development of the body (N.N. Kozhukhova, 2002). Physical fitness is an indicator

of the level of development of motor skills, skills, physical qualities (N.N. Kozhukhova, 2003). This is the set of concepts that determine the physical culture of a preschooler (N.N. Kozhukhova, 2003).

Knowledge of the age-related characteristics of the child's development will help to choose physical exercises, hardening procedures, to monitor the physical and mental development of children. The preschooler's body is developing intensively. During the first seven years of his life, not only all internal organs increase, but also their functions improve. The main indicators of a child's physical development are height, body weight and chest circumference. Knowing these indicators, it is possible to compare the data of the physical development of children of a particular child in the group with the average indicators of the development of children of the corresponding age (see Table 1)

Table 1. Average indicators of physical development of children 3 -6 years old (according to Shebeko V.N. et al., 1996)

Physical Age, year

development 3 4 5 6



Body weight, kg 13,8 - 17,1 16,8 - 19,8 17,5 - 22,0 19,9 - 25,0

Body length, cm 96,0 - 104,0 103 - 110,0 109,0 - 116,0 115,0 - 123,0

Chest circumference, 52,0 - 54,0 54,0 - 56,0 56,0 - 58,0 58,0 - 61,0



Body weight, kg 14,7 - 17,5 16,0 - 20,1 18,0 - 22,9 20,0 - 25,0

Body length, cm 99,0 - 106,0 105,0 - 111,0 109,0 - 118,0 115,0 - 125,0

Chest circumference, 53,0 - 54,0 54,0 - 57,0 57,0 - 58,0 58,0 - 60,0


In order to ensure the normal physical development of the child, to give him the necessary load in physical training, it is necessary to take into account the anatomical characteristics of the child's body. The peculiarities of children's movements, their coordination abilities from age to age change significantly, which significantly affects the organization of physical culture classes.

The muscular system in children is formed on the basis of the development of the nervous system and an increase in the mass of skeletal muscles, and this process occurs unevenly. At an early age, the bones of a child are rich in blood vessels and contain a small amount of salt. They are elastic, flexible, easily deformed and bent, since the skeletal system of 2-3 year old children has significant areas of cartilage tissue, weak, soft joints and ligaments. Babies do not yet have stable curves of the spine, which appear only by the age of four. All this must be taken into account when conducting physical education classes.It is recommended to pay special attention to the development of the arch of the foot, since it is flattened in the second and partially

in the third year of life. Therefore, it is useful to exercise kids in lifting, walking on an inclined plane and a ribbed board.

Small children breathe shallowly, often, unevenly, since the respiratory muscles are not yet fully formed. The development of the child's body, mastering walking, leads to a restructuring of the breathing process and the gradual strengthening of the corresponding organs. The frequency is normalized, the abdominal and then the chest type of breathing appears, the lung capacity increases. Breathing quickens only with excitement or physical exertion. Taking into account the peculiarities of the respiratory system of preschoolers, care should be taken to ensure that they are in the fresh air as much as possible (A.P. Chabovskaya, 1971).

Prolonged physical and mental stress can adversely affect the activity of the heart and lead to violations of its function. Therefore, you should be very careful to dose the physical activity on the child's body. The work of the heart is closely related to muscle development. Regular exercise trains the heart muscle, leading to a gradual decrease in heart rate.

Early and preschool age is characterized by significant changes not only in physical, but also in motor development (Zh.K. Kholodov, VS Kuznetsov, 2004) (see table. 2).

Table 2. Features of the development of movements in preschool children.

Age, years Motor abilities of the child

3-4 years Runs, jumps on two or even one, climbs a gymnastic wall, catches and throws a ball, rides a tricycle, and skis. Able to consistently perform several motor actions in a row.

5 years

6 years

Mastering holistic motor actions. The movements become more precise and more energetic, the ability to maintain the starting position appears, to maintain the direction, amplitude and pace of movements, the ability to participate in games with catching and dodging is formed,

moves on skis on weak rough terrain (can ski up to 1000m). Successfully masters long and high jumps from a run, jumping rope, climbing a pole, rope, gymnastic wall, throwing at a distance and at a target, etc. Rides a two-wheeled bicycle, skates, skis, swims. Expressiveness, smoothness and accuracy appear in the movements, especially when performing general developmental exercises.

Taking care of physical education should begin with creating a favorable emotional microclimate, ensuring a well-established daily routine, proper nutrition, systematic hardening, and the widespread use of physical exercises in the lives of children.


Analyzing the literature on the physical education of preschool children, guided by the experience of teachers - researchers: L.D. Glazyrina, N.N. Kozhukhova, J.K. Kholodova and others - the features of physical education of preschool children were determined. The main feature of the physical education of preschoolers is the game form of physical education. She is one of the most interesting and common forms of children's activity. The main educational and developmental value of play lessons is that they serve as a natural form of

transferring the necessary volume of knowledge to children in the field of physical culture. In order to optimize the physical activity of children in preschool conditions, much attention is paid to the organization and management of outdoor games in physical culture lessons.

In the process of playing, children make many movements. At the same time, their reaction speed, agility, endurance, courage, determination, resourcefulness and independence are manifested. The unity of health-improving, educational and upbringing tasks, a variety of means and methods, a variety of forms of organizing physical education classes - all this has a beneficial effect on the physical education of preschool children.

The introduction of a child to physical education from an early age is important not only from the point of view of health promotion, but also for the development of physical qualities, for the development of sports habits.

Preschool age is the most important period in the formation of a human personality, a period when the foundations of physical health are laid. What is overlooked in childhood is difficult to catch up. This obliges preschool workers to work in depth on the problems of physical education of children.


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