Научная статья на тему 'Theoretical-methodical aspects of the factors interaction, directed at motional abilities improvement, during firepower training of cadets'

Theoretical-methodical aspects of the factors interaction, directed at motional abilities improvement, during firepower training of cadets Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

CC BY
66
14
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Ключевые слова
motional abilities / factors / block-scheme / training pulse

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Alexsey V. Chaban

The speed of cadets’ motional action fulfillment is conditioned by the whole complex of physiological systems of an organism mobilization. Physiological systems of an organism involvement into the process of work, depends on the speed of functional interaction and the separate systems of an organism and the source of energy supply of muscular activity predominance. Depending on the conditions of motional actions fulfillment muscular system activation happens in the direction of physical qualities predominant development. Motional actions of cadets during shooting are directed at quickness of motional tasks, speed of movements, speed of motions and cognitive activity realization. In motional activity of cadets in terms of firepower training the following motional abilities are demonstrated: motor efficiency, coordination, power abilities, endurance. These forms of cadets’ motional abilities are underlined as they are the main abilities during firepower training improvement. Research methods: scientific and methodical literature analysis and summarizing, pedagogical observation, the block-scheme creation of motional action speed fulfillment, documents study. Materials. The article presents theoretical-methodical aspects of factors revelation, which influence motional actions improvement during cadets’ firepower training. Results. The block-scheme creation of factors interaction, which provide demonstration of motional action speed fulfillment by cadets during firepower training. The scale of the training pulse choice during the training loads fulfillment was formed depending on the zones of intensity. Conclusion. Organizational-methodical peculiarity of the training programs formation, directed at cadets’ motional abilities improvement, is the necessity to take into account the following: the range of individual oscillation of the training pulse; the initial level of physical and functional readiness; maximal level of speed qualities manifestation and time of its preservation; individual tempo of movement; the zones of the training pulse. A motional action fulfillment should happen without stops of breathing in an even tempo, so that a cadet could talk and control his breathing. Physical loads fulfillment by cadets can happen in terms of combat tasks realization, where a cadet can’t even talk, in order to control breathing. At the same time, heart rate can be higher than 85% of maximum one. In order to improve motional abilities training pulse is used, which is the main condition for physical loads of different orientation realization.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.

Текст научной работы на тему «Theoretical-methodical aspects of the factors interaction, directed at motional abilities improvement, during firepower training of cadets»

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_290

THEORETICAL-METHODICAL ASPECTS OF THE FACTORS INTERACTION, DIRECTED AT MOTIONAL ABILITIES IMPROVEMENT, DURING FIREPOWER

TRAINING OF CADETS

Alexsey V. Chaban - Senior Lecturer Tyumen Higher Military-Engineering Command College (Military Institute) Named After Marshal

of Engineer Troops A. I. Proshlyakov House 1, Tolstoy str., Tyumen, 625028, Russia

E-mail: chaban-zon-baron@mail.ru

Annotation. The speed of cadets' motional action fulfillment is conditioned by the whole complex of physiological systems of an organism mobilization. Physiological systems of an organism involvement into the process of work, depends on the speed of functional interaction and the separate systems of an organism and the source of energy supply of muscular activity predominance. Depending on the conditions of motional actions fulfillment muscular system activation happens in the direction of physical qualities predominant development. Motional actions of cadets during shooting are directed at quickness of motional tasks, speed of movements, speed of motions and cognitive activity realization. In motional activity of cadets in terms of firepower training the following motional abilities are demonstrated: motor efficiency, coordination, power abilities, endurance. These forms of cadets' motional abilities are underlined as they are the main abilities during firepower training improvement. Research methods: scientific and methodical literature analysis and summarizing, pedagogical observation, the block-scheme creation of motional action speed fulfillment, documents study. Materials. The article presents theoretical-methodical aspects of factors revelation, which influence motional actions improvement during cadets' firepower training. Results. The block-scheme creation offactors interaction, which provide demonstration of motional action speedfulfillment by cadets during firepower training. The scale of the training pulse choice during the training loads fulfillment was formed depending on the zones of intensity. Conclusion. Organizational-methodical peculiarity of the training programs formation, directed at cadets' motional abilities improvement, is the necessity to take into account the following: the range of individual oscillation of the training pulse; the initial level of physical and functional readiness; maximal level of speed qualities manifestation and time of its preservation; individual tempo of movement; the zones of the training pulse. A motional action fulfillment should happen without stops of breathing in an even tempo, so that a cadet could talk and control his breathing. Physical loads fulfillment by cadets can happen in terms of combat tasks realization, where a cadet can't even talk, in order to control breathing. At the same time, heart rate can be higher than 85% of maximum one. In order to improve motional abilities training pulse is used, which is the main condition for physical loads of different orientation realization. Keywords: motional abilities, factors, block-scheme, training pulse.

Introduction. Cadets' motional activity during firepower preparation is characterized by motional and statistical actions. Depending on conditions, in which motional actions are fulfilled, there is muscular system activation, which is mainly directed at physical qualities development.

Cadets' motional activities during shooting from a shooting iron are directed at manifestation of motional tasks quickness, speed of movement, speed of motions and cognitive activity realization. In cadets' motional activity in terms of firepower training the following motional abilities are

demonstrated: motor efficiency, coordination, power abilities, endurance. These forms of cadets' motional abilities are underlined as they are the main abilities during firepower training improvement [1,2,3]. Firepower training of cadets at military higher educational establishments is a compulsory subject and includes different kinds of shooting iron mastering and use. The success of combat missions depends on the mentioned above motional abilities improvement.

Scientific-methodical and special literature analysis showed, that firepower training improvement among cadets of military higher educational establishments should be started from scientifically substantiated methodologies creation, which include the factors of motional abilities manifestation and upbringing, taking into account the regularities of sports training formation in kinds of sport.

Presented by us work considers the forms of motional abilities, which form the base of training cadets, taking into account their military specialty.

The aim of the research is theoretical-methodical preconditions of firepower training improvement among cadets of military educational establishments on the basis of the factors revelation, which condition the speed of movement during motional actions fulfillment.

The objectives of the research:

1. Estimating the existing theoretical-methodical aspects of firepower training improvement among cadets of military

educational establishments.

2. Determining the ways of factors interaction, which condition the speed of cadets' movement.

3. A block-scheme creation of factors interaction, which provide the speed manifestation of a motional action fulfillment by cadets during firepower training.

4. The scale of the training pulse limits creation during training loads fulfillment depending on the zones of intensity.

Research organization. The research was held on the basis of Federal State Public Military Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Tyumen Higher MilitaryEngineering Command College (Military Institute)" in Tyumen. Pedagogical observation was held over firepower training of military higher educational establishments cadets. Characteristic was given to structural content and interaction of factors, which determine the speed of cadets' motional actions.

Results. It is known that the speed of a motional action fulfillment is conditioned by the mobilization of the whole complex of physiological systems of cadets' organism. Physiological systems of an organism introduction into the work depends on the speed of the functional interaction and the predominance of an organism separate systems and the source of muscular activity energy supply.

Picture - Block-scheme of the factors interaction, which provide speed of motional action

fulfillment manifestation

The picture presents a block-scheme of the factors interaction, which determine the speed of cadets' motional actions fulfillment.

The picture shows that a motional action fulfillment by cadets with the definite speed is conditioned by all factors manifestation. At the same time, environmental conditions also influence the speed of a motional action. For this purpose it is possible to create the conditions, which would intensify the speed of movement. It can be a light shell, big targets use.

It is well-known that the speed of any motional action fulfillment depends on organism motional, vegetative and muscular systems functional abilities manifestation. Coordinating abilities take an important place in this process as the base of the efforts demonstration in a necessary direction depending on the objective, which is set before cadets.

During a motional action fulfillment, with a shooting iron, cadets face external resistance. Even during a ready position cadets choose a comfortable initial position and during aiming a rifleman should reveal beforehand predominant efficiency of a shot fulfillment.

Motional actions fulfillment happens during all the systems of an organism interaction on the basis of physical qualities manifestation, such as speed, power, endurance in different compositions. With the number of shots increase important role have muscular system and the mechanisms of muscular activity energy supply.

The initial position preservation during aiming strains muscular and vegetative systems of an organism. In order to decrease the tension of motor system, it is necessary to include into the training process the exercises, which provide power and special speed endurance development.

Thus, all mentioned above gives an opportunity to mention, that the speed of cadets' motional action manifestation during shooting from a shooting iron can't be considered only as motional abilities demonstration, such as power, dexterity, coordination, quickness and endurance; it is

important to involve all systems of the organism into work in interaction. In this connection theoretical-methodical base of cadets' speed abilities development is motor, muscular and vegetative systems development.

Sports practice showed that cadets' physical qualities manifestation during firepower training is not so significant, as their stabilized functional state. That is why during special firepower training of cadets there appears the question of their including into training means of aerobic and anaerobic orientation. Physical qualities manifestation forms the base for functional abilities of an organism stabilization and increase, especially during the exercises fulfillment in experimental conditions. Competitive actions in terms of effective firepower training estimation influence mostly the stabilization of a sportsman functional state, then physical qualities development.

The peculiarity of firepower training among cadets from military higher educational establishments is shooting from a shooting iron from different positions: lying, standing, into a moving target and also the positions of shooting change. Depending on the conditions in which a rifleman's motional actions are fulfilled, motional tasks are changed. Systematic training activates the process of an organism functional systems mobilization in order to develop speed abilities during a gradual objective realization. The purpose of firepower training of cadets is a successful shooting and hitting the target. In this connection the main aim during training should be a rifleman's motor efficiency development, which is formed by repeated shooting in case of external resistance absence. Cadets' coordination abilities are also important, as they are necessary for the effective fulfillment of motional tasks during the process of their fulfillment change conditions. Cadets' firepower training demands attention paid to power abilities and conditions of their manifestation. It is, first of all, connected with weapon carrying, the initial position fulfillment, aiming and their transfer during position change, taking into

account motional tasks. Endurance is a quality, which is necessary for cadets as it provides continuous fulfillment of muscular work and tiredness overcoming.

Special physical training of cadets considers motional abilities development, taking into account the future professional activity.

Motor memory forms the base of cadets' motional coordination. It is connected with the character of central nervous system to memorize and reproduce movements, when it is necessary. Motor density widening helps cadets to preserve in the memory a lot of motional elements and reproduce them in different combinations. In this connection physical exercises introduction into the process of firepower training with different conditions of their fulfillment helps to broaden the range of practical experience of shooting iron use.

By the example of endurance improvement lets' consider cadets' firepower training. In scientific-methodical and special literature we meet information about different forms of endurance manifestation. Different methodologies of general and special endurance upbringing are also presented to specialists. Many authors mention that physical exercises, used for endurance development, have aerobic, shifted orientation. In this aspect we can suppose that endurance is characterized by high maximum oxygen consumption and physical working capacity indices. However, sports practice proves the necessity to train muscles adaptation for a long-term physical load. In other words, it is possible that this is the essence of endurance training and the mechanisms of aerobic energy production development. It is known that a high level of specific endurance can be received only if: 1) functional abilities of an organism physiological systems are broadened for different intensity work; 2) all motional abilities development happens systematically, gradually and is directed at special functional system formation, which is conditioned by the

effectiveness of professional-applied physical readiness of cadets.

An important factor in firepower training of cadets is the training tempo choice, the time of the definite motional action fulfillment taking into account pulse indices. Pulse range of cadets' training determination during shooting from a shooting iron helps to control the state of cadets' organisms through pulse values, decreasing the influence of unfavorable factors, such as environment, extreme situations, difficulties and obstacles. It is important to know that there is a training and competitive tempo. In this connection in firepower training of cadets the following problem becomes urgent: the skill formation to control the speed of exercise fulfillment by means of a motional action tempo fulfillment. With cadets' training level increase, by means of movement tempo regulation according to pulse indices, increases the tempo of a motional action fulfillment. In order to form and develop a competitive tempo of shooting it is necessary to fulfill a motional action 4-6 times a week during training, but, at the same time, it is important to choose the days of rest after intensive trainings, after each case of rough speed work, before competitions.

Thus, theoretical-methodical base of cadets' firepower training is speed readiness control by means of motional abilities complex development, at the same time, the main moment should be training the tempo of a motional action fulfillment and its control owing to pulse control.

For the cadets' training pulse choice it is necessary to include aerobic exercises into training, which are directed at cardiorespiratory system development, where the conditions for a strong functional base are created, which provides sufficient training effect. The main zone of the training pulse can be the range within 75%-85% from a maximum volume of pulse. Pulse index85% from a maximum is a conditional border between aerobic and anaerobic zones of loads. In order to determine the condition of physical loads fulfillment by cadets we created the scale of the training pulse (table).

Table - The scale of the training pulse control for cadets with different level of readiness

(points)

Heart rate range The scale of point estimation system of the training pulse choice

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Levels low average above the average high

70% 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 48 49

80% 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 68 69

85% 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 71 75

The table presents the range of the training pulse determination among cadets during firepower training, taking into account the levels of physical loads. For example, for an aerobic load fulfillment in an even tempo during 6 minutes a cadet has to be in a pulse regimen 70% from a maximum one, in order to fulfill a training load of the average level getting "good". It is necessary to fulfill the load in the zone of anaerobic threshold at a pulse regimen from 163 beats per minute, 80% from a maximum pulse, so that the fulfilled training load was of the average and above the average level.

In order to determine a permissible training pulse a point system of estimation is used, taking into account physical and functional state of cadets depending on the level of readiness and age. Presented by us range of the training pulse is used for cadets within the age range of 18-25 years old (table).

Correctly chosen pulse range of the training pulse during the process of physical loads fulfillment of different orientation helps to develop effectively functional state and broaden reserve and adaptive capacities of cadets' organisms. Creating conditions of pulse registration during the period of the training and competitive loads fulfillment, it is possible to plan rationally the tempo of exercises fulfillment not violating breathing.

Control over the tempo of exercises fulfillment in the regimen of the training pulse can be realized owing to control over breathing. If breathing is even, deep and is controlled by consciousness during exercises fulfillment, the tempo and pulse of the exercise fulfillment is adequate to the set objectives and a functional state of a cadet.

Conclusion. The factors revelation, which influence the effectiveness increase of firepower training among cadets of military higher educational establishments, demands organizational-methodical peculiarities

revelation of firepower training programs formation. Organizati onal -methodical

peculiarity of the training programs formation, directed at cadets' motional abilities improvement, is the necessity to take into account the following:

- the range of the training pulse individual oscillation;

- the initial level of physical and functional readiness;

- maximal level of speed qualities manifestation and time of its preservation;

- individual tempo of movement;

- the zones of the training pulse.

Speaking about the choice of cadets'

training pulse zones, it is necessary to mention, that the load is chosen quickly enough, but fulfilled in an even tempo, this aerobic load in the zone of fulfillment 70%

from maximum pulse. A motional action fulfillment should happen without stops of breathing in an even tempo, so that a cadet could talk and control his breathing. Physical loads fulfillment by cadets can happen in terms of combat tasks realization, where a cadet can't even talk, in order to control breathing. At the same time, heart rate can be higher than 85% of maximum one.

Thus, in order to improve motional abilities training pulse is used, which is the main condition for physical loads of different orientation realization.

References

1. Zhuzhgov A. I. The level of physical load at military-applied physical training lessons of military higher educational establishments cadets. Pedagogiko-psihologicheskie I mediko-biologicheskie problemy fizicheskoj kul'tury I sporta [Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sport]. 2015, Vol. 10, no 1, pp. 42-46. Availed at: http://www.iournal-science.org/ru/article/117.html. DOI 10.14526/26 2015 26.

2. Kalashnikov A. F. Profession-important qualities formation among cadets by means of professional-applied physical training. Sbornik statej "Aktual'nye problemy fizicheskoj kul'tury I sporta kursantov, slushatelej I studetnov [Collections of the articles "Urgent problems of physical culture and sport of cadets, listeners and students"]. Moscow. 2016, pp. 53-57. (in Russian).

3. Kuznetsova Z. M. The program realization of students' personal qualities formation in educational activity as one of real preconditions of content renewal of training specialists in the system of higher education

Submitted: 09.01.2018 Received: 11.01.2018

(by the example of students of Povolzhskaya State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism in "Service and tourism" specialty). Pedagogiko-psihologicheskie I mediko-biologicheskie problemy fizicheskoj kul'tury I sporta [Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sport]. 2011, Vol. 6, no 1, pp. 143-149. Availed at: http ://www/kamgifk.chelny.net/i ournal.

4. Kuznetsova Z. M., Simakov Yu.P. Historical preconditions of physical culture education formation. Pedagogiko-psihologicheskie I mediko-biologicheskie problemy fizicheskoj kul'tury I sporta [Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sport]. 2007, Vol. 2, no 4, pp. 8-14. Availed at: http://www.iournal-science.org/ru/magazine/48.html.

5. Kuznetsova Z. M. About the history of physical culture education development during Soviet period. Pedagogiko-psihologicheskie I mediko-biologicheskie problemy fizicheskoj kul'tury I sporta [Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sport]. 2008, Vol. 3, no 2, pp. 9-19. Availed at: http://www.iournal-science.org/ru/magazine/42.html

6. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes training based on a complex assessment of functional state. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus).

7. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Reserve Capacity of young Athletes' Organism. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

Author's information:

Alexsey V. Chaban - Senior Lecturer Tyumen Higher Military-Engineering Command College (Military Institute) Named After Marshal of Engineer Troops A. I. Proshlyakov, House 1, Tolstoy str., Tyumen, 625028, Russia, E-mail: chaban-zon-baron@mail.ru

For citations: Chaban A.V. Theoretical-methodical aspects of the factors interaction, directed at motional abilities improvement, during firepower training of cadets, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 87-92. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_290

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.