Научная статья на тему 'Factors of cadets’ physical working capacity dependence in extreme conditions of battle missions realization'

Factors of cadets’ physical working capacity dependence in extreme conditions of battle missions realization Текст научной статьи по специальности «Энергетика и рациональное природопользование»

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Ключевые слова
cadets / physical working capacity / factors / indices dependence / physical load

Аннотация научной статьи по энергетике и рациональному природопользованию, автор научной работы — Stanislav A. Pauesov

The article presents the results of the main factors analysis, which characterize cadetsphysical working capacity. The main aim of the research work was the main factors revelation, which influence cadetsphysical working capacity, in terms of physical load of different intensity fulfillment. Physical working capacity, on the one hand, can be the part of general physical working capacity and it can’t be isolated from other kinds of working capacity, such as mental and psychic working capacity. On the other hand, specialists connect physical working capacity with endurance. As the specialists consider, high level of endurance development provides high level of physical working capacity and a long-term effective work. Research methods. Scientific-methodical literature analysis, testing, mathematical processing of research results were used. Material. The article presents the main aspects of endurance development organization and planning as the main factor of cadetsphysical working capacity increase. Results. In order to estimate cadetsphysical working capacity in terms of extreme conditions we offered to reveal the level of physical readiness; estimate the level of functional state; estimate reserve capacities and organism adaptation; estimate the effectiveness of different physical loads influence; reveal the main factors, which limit cadets’ physical development; create criteria for physical working capacity effectiveness increase. We defined the indices decrease in test exercises among cadets by the 3rd and the 4th course depending on functional readiness. Physical working capacity support is revealed during different intensity loads only owing to functional mobilization, not owing to functional economization. At the same time, correlation connections in all studied indices from the 1st to the 4th course are revealed. Dependence of the studied indices on cadets’ organism readiness for physical loads of different intensity is determined. After the load interconnection change between the studied indices is revealed. Mobilization abilities of the cadets’ organism to physical loads fulfillment depend on physical readiness and general physical working capacity. Dynamics of physical working capacity from stage to stage has different tendency. If at the 1st and the 2nd courses cadetsphysical working capacity doesn’t decrease to the 4th stage, and even increases, at the 3rd and the 4th courses, there is physical working capacity level decrease. The results, received by us, prove that physical working capacity in extreme conditions should be high. Conclusion. Analyzing comparative data of cadets, who go in for different kinds of motional activity and the results of physical load fulfillment in extreme conditions, we can come to the conclusion that it is necessary to develop and improve cadets’ metabolic and cardiorespiratory systems as the base of physical improvement and special physical working capacity effectiveness increase in extreme conditions. For this purpose it is necessary to create training programs, where extreme conditions of battle missions fulfillment are taken into account, and calculate beforehand time and quality of such kind of loads overcoming.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Factors of cadets’ physical working capacity dependence in extreme conditions of battle missions realization»

5. Fursov, A.V. Sinyavsky N.I., Sadykov R.I. Rating schoolchildren''s physical fitness for Ready for Labour and Defence (GTO) Complex Stage III tests at general education schools / // Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka, 2017 , No 2.- C. 62-64(in Russian).

Khamitov, M.I. "Evaluation of the effective eness of methods of training students to meet the requirements of the IV stage of the complex RLD", Pedagogical-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports, 2017, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 107-116. Availed at: http://journal-science.org/ru/article/793.html. DOI: 10.14526/01_2017_211.

6. Cherkasov, V.V., Contents and structure of regional complex system of physical education in

Submitted: 27.03.2018 Received: 30.03.2018

leisure activities of children and youth // Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, 2017, No 1 (143). p. 215-218(in Russian).

7. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes preparation based on a complex assessment of functional state. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus)

8. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Recerve Capacity of young Athletes' Organizm. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

Author's information:

Alexsey V. Fursov — Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor Surgut State Pedagogical University, House 9, Artem str., Surgut, 628400, Russia, E-mail: physical_science@surgpu.ru

Nikolay I. Sinyavskiy — Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor Surgut State Pedagogical University, House 9, Artem str., Surgut, 628400, Russia, E-mail: physical_science@surgpu.ru Nikolay N. Beznosko - Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor Surgut State Pedagogical University, House 9, Artem str., Surgut, 628400, Russia, E-mail: physical_science@surgpu.ru

Mariay Yu. Glukhova - Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Lecturer Surgut State Pedagogical University, House 9, Artem str., Surgut, 628400, Russia, E-mail: physical_science@surgpu.ru

For citations: Fursov A.V., Sinyavskiy N.I., Beznosko N.N., Glukhova M.Yu. Physical Readiness of 13-15 Year-Old Students on the Basis of Tests of the iv Stage of RLD Complex, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 76-80. DOI 10/14526/01 2018 288

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_289

FACTORS OF CADETS' PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY DEPENDENCE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS OF BATTLE MISSIONS REALIZATION

Stanislav A. Pauesov - Senior Lecturer "Perm Military Institute of National Guards Army of the Russian Federation", House 1, Gremyachiy Log str., Perm, 614112, Russia

E-mail: and1518@yandex.ru

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018 _ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Annotation. The article presents the results of the main factors analysis, which characterize cadets' physical working capacity. The main aim of the research work was the main factors revelation, which influence cadets' physical working capacity, in terms of physical load of different intensity fulfillment. Physical working capacity, on the one hand, can be the part of general physical working capacity and it can't be isolated from other kinds of working capacity, such as mental and psychic working capacity. On the other hand, specialists connect physical working capacity with endurance. As the specialists consider, high level of endurance development provides high level of physical working capacity and a long-term effective work. Research methods. Scientific-methodical literature analysis, testing, mathematical processing of research results were used. Material. The article presents the main aspects of endurance development organization and planning as the main factor of cadets' physical working capacity increase. Results. In order to estimate cadets' physical working capacity in terms of extreme conditions we offered to reveal the level ofphysical readiness; estimate the level of functional state; estimate reserve capacities and organism adaptation; estimate the effectiveness of different physical loads influence; reveal the main factors, which limit cadets' physical development; create criteria for physical working capacity effectiveness increase. We defined the indices decrease in test exercises among cadets by the 3rd and the 4th course depending on functional readiness. Physical working capacity support is revealed during different intensity loads only owing to functional mobilization, not owing to functional economization. At the same time, correlation connections in all studied indices from the 1st to the 4th course are revealed. Dependence of the studied indices on cadets' organism readiness for physical loads of different intensity is determined. After the load interconnection change between the studied indices is revealed. Mobilization abilities of the cadets' organism to physical loads fulfillment depend on physical readiness and general physical working capacity. Dynamics of physical working capacity from stage to stage has different tendency. If at the 1st and the 2nd courses cadets' physical working capacity doesn't decrease to the 4th stage, and even increases, at the 3rd and the 4th courses, there is physical working capacity level decrease. The results, received by us, prove that physical working capacity in extreme conditions should be high. Conclusion. Analyzing comparative data of cadets, who go in for different kinds of motional activity and the results of physical load fulfillment in extreme conditions, we can come to the conclusion that it is necessary to develop and improve cadets' metabolic and cardiorespiratory systems as the base of physical improvement and special physical working capacity effectiveness increase in extreme conditions. For this purpose it is necessary to create training programs, where extreme conditions of battle missions fulfillment are taken into account, and calculate beforehand time and quality of such kind of loads overcoming.

Keywords: cadets, physical working capacity, factors, indices dependence, physical load.

Introduction. Nowadays the specialists from different countries are interested in the problem of physical working capacity increase among cadets of military higher educational establishments. In terms of military environment it is caused by continuous increase of physical and psychic loads. Modern level of requirements for the future professional activity of internal military forces servicemen conditioned the necessity to improve the quality of training people for the work in extreme conditions. Professional activity of internal military forces cadets is connected with different oriented activity fulfillment in different conditions. For the specialists in physiology and medicine the

problem of physical working capacity is very urgent as the part of servicemen's health, which is characterized by important organs and the systems of an organism functioning in extreme conditions.

In order to study physical working capacity of cadets, who go in for physical activity, many specialists consider sports activity, as in sports training physical and psychic loads of sportsmen can be controlled and it is also possible to control the whole process of training.

Physical working capacity of sportsmen and cadets of military higher educational establishments were studied by many authors [1,2,3,4]. However, functional

state of cadets using the increasing loads wasn't studied.

The main aim of the work was the main factors revelation, which influence physical working capacity of cadets, in terms of different intensity physical load fulfillment.

Research methods. Scientific-methodical literature analysis, testing, mathematical processing of research results were used.

Results. During the process of literature analysis we revealed, that the notion "physical working capacity" is considered by the specialists from different points of view, it means that there is no one generally adopted definition. Physical working capacity, on the one hand, can be the part of general physical working capacity and it can't be isolated from other kinds of working capacity, such as mental and psychic working capacity. On the other hand, specialists connect physical working capacity with endurance. As the specialists consider, high level of endurance development provides high level of physical working capacity and a long-term effective work.

Endurance is considered by the specialists in sports practice as the ability to fulfill a long-term physical activity without its effectiveness decrease. With a moderate regimen it is possible to fulfill physical load of a moderate intensity for a long time. However, it doesn't mean that in other kinds of sport, for example, weight lifting and speed-weight lifting ones, physical working capacity is not revealed.

Physical working capacity of military higher educational establishments cadets should be considered depending on the specificity of professional-applied physical training. In this connection general physical working capacity should be considered as the condition for the systems and organs functioning on a definite level of different oriented physical loads fulfillment. In case of specific kinds of activity it can be the base for special physical working capacity development, taking into account the definite kind of activity. It is known that with physical working capacity increase the degree of its overcoming decreases. We can't constantly

increase general physical working capacity (GPWC), when it is necessary to develop specific working capacity, where it is necessary to fulfill work in terms of close to maximum intensity.

Taking into account all mentioned above it is necessary to conclude that physical working capacity of cadets should be considered from two sides: as general and special one. How should cadets' physical working capacity be considered during battle missions fulfillment? At the moment we can't speak about general physical working capacity, as none of the definitions reflects the essence of the fulfilled by cadets work. During battle missions realization cadets fulfill mental and physical work of different intensity and experience increasing psychic load. In this connection for cadets' physical working capacity estimation in terms of battle missions fulfillment it is necessary to take into account the diversity of the forms of physical working capacity demonstration.

First, during battle missions realization working capacity depends on the set goals. It is known that during battle missions realization great role in the final aim achievement belongs to physical readiness. In order to achieve the aim during different professional objectives realization it is difficult to define physical working capacity. In this connection we offer to characterize PWC of cadets as the ability to fulfill the definite professional objectives in terms of different environmental conditions influence, it means we should estimate the effectiveness degree of objectives fulfillment, connected with cadets' professional activity. That is why cadets' PWC during battle missions fulfillment gains special sense depending on the solved problems.

For cadets' PWC estimation in extreme conditions we offer the following: to define the level of physical readiness; to estimate the level of functional state; to estimate reserve capacities and adaptation of an organism; to estimate the effectiveness of different physical loads influence; to reveal the main factors, which limit physical development of cadets; to create the criteria

for the effectiveness of physical development increase.

Picture 1 presents strong correlation connections of the cadets' studied indices before and after physical loads fulfillment.

As the example we present the indices change during physical loads fulfillment. We

We underlined the decrease of indices in test exercises among cadets by the 3rd and the 4th course and dependency on functional readiness. Physical working capacity support is mentioned during the loads of different power only owing to functional mobilization and not owing to functional economization. At the same time, correlation connections in all studied indices from the 1st to the 4th course were revealed. Dependency of the studied indices on cadets' organism readiness for different power physical loads overcoming was revealed. After the load there was interconnection change between the studied indices. Mobilization abilities of the cadets' organism to physical loads fulfillment depend on physical readiness and general physical working capacity.

can mention, that cadets' respiratory system indices during maximum loads fulfillment decrease depending on the level of their physical and functional readiness.

Physical activity of cadets in extreme conditions of battle missions realization is very often considered by specialists. Different extreme stimuli during battle missions fulfillment demand special attitude to the process of cadets physical training. The main and general features of conditions extreme character are tough conditions of environment, such as gas pollution, high or low temperature and etc.. It is mentioned that one and the same conditions for one person can be normal and for another person they are not adequate.

A.G. Kuznetsov in 1979 revealed the factors, which cause the state of dynamic mismatch, the criterion of which is physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions disorder. According to the concept of A.G. Kuznetsov, the state of a person's

organism during extreme conditions can be divided into two types: the state of an adequate mobilization and the state of dynamic mismatch. In case of the first type there is an organism restructuring for the increasing demands fulfillment. For example, the speed of task fulfillment increase leads to oxygen consumption increase owing to aerobic mechanisms. Further intensity increase of the load can demand other mechanisms of anaerobic metabolism activation. If the organism is ready for the increasing loads overcoming, the systems of an organism have an adequate reaction. During physical loads fulfillment, which are higher than anaerobic threshold, there can be a mismatch in an organism.

Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of cadets' readiness for battle missions fulfillment in extreme conditions, it is necessary to create special programs of training, taking into account the classification of physical loads.

During cadets' organism training for the loads fulfillment in extreme situations it is necessary to use a universal classification, presented by V.S. Farfel, the base of which is physical load fulfillment depending on its power.

V.S. Farfel offers the following zones of power: maximal- with the duration of physical load fulfillment 20-30 seconds,

submaximal - with the duration of physical load fulfillment from 30 seconds to 5 minutes, big- with the duration of physical load fulfillment from 5 to 30 minutes, moderate -with the duration of physical load fulfillment from 30 minutes.

The main criterion of cadets' physical working capacity demonstration is different energy sources of muscular activity realization. For a person's life the process of aerobic oxidation prevails. However, in extreme conditions anaerobic regimen of energy supply is more shown. Owing to such kind of sources of energy supply a person can support activity fulfillment in different conditions, even in case of definite hypoxia. In order to estimate the processes of energy-supply it is necessary to determine power and capacity of their demonstration.

As the main index, which characterizes productivity of cadets' physical working capacity demonstration, we took maximum oxygen consumption (MOC).

Picture 2 presents the dynamics of cadets' MOC indices with different physical activity. The picture shows that cadets' aerobic productivity during the period of the research work according to courses had different dynamics. There was the indices decrease at the 3rd and the 4th courses, also there were low values in comparison with the results of literature sources.

Picture 2 - Maximum oxygen consumption indices of cadets from the 1st till the 4th course Picture 3 presents the dynamics of cadets' physical working capacity indices.

1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

1 course

2 course

3 course 14 course

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

Picture 3 - Physical working capacity indices of cadets from the 1st to the 4th course

Picture 3 shows that the dynamics of cadets' physical working capacity from stage to stage of the research has different tendency. If at the 1st and the 2nd courses cadets' physical working capacity doesn't decrease to the 4th stage, and even increases, at the 3rd and the 4th courses, there is physical working capacity level decrease. The results, received by us, prove that physical working capacity in extreme conditions should be high. Such kind of physical working capacity dynamics doesn't give an opportunity to support high level of productivity in extreme conditions. We didn't consider cadets' physical working capacity during greater intensity loads, however, there is a hypothesis that the more we create the stock of physical development during aerobic loads, the higher are anaerobic abilities of cadets' organism. During specialized test fulfillment we can mention the ability of the trained cadets' organism perseveringly stand homeostasis disorder.

Factorial analysis was held in two groups of cadets, who go in for cyclic kinds of sport, who were examined according to the complex of the studied parameters (treadmill running, aerobic and anaerobic tests, veloergometric test and Letunov test). In the first group of cadets three factors are determined, contribution into general factorial structure was 83,2% (maximum oxygen consumption - 38,9%, speed of fulfillment -32,1%, time index of test fulfillment - 12,2). In our example the speed of the training tsk fulfillment by cadets, which is characterized by heart rate indices, played the role of cadets' organism cardiorespiratory activity economization factor.

It is important to examine heart rate index of anaerobic metabolism threshold (amt) level, which characterizes transfer of the load power from aerobic to anaerobic regimen. During factorial analysis the indices, which characterize the level of cadets' organism maximum functional abilities during extreme conditions (heart rate, rate of respiration, MOC, physical working capacity), can be estimated as the existing interconnections between the increase of an absolute level of functions and processes economization. This factor was considered by us as the key component of adaptive abilities of cadets' organism demonstration to close to maximum physical loads fulfillment, it was 73,9% from general factorial structure.

Anaerobic metabolism indices in our example formed the third factorial structure with the volume 16,3% as the factor of the realized anaerobic mechanisms of energy-supply.

Analyzing comparative results of cadets, who go in for different kinds of physical activity, and the results of physical load fulfillment in extreme conditions, we can come to the conclusion that it is necessary to develop and improve cadets' metabolic and cardiorespiratory systems as the base of physical development effectiveness increase and special physical working capacity increase in extreme conditions. For this purpose it is necessary to create training programs, where extreme conditions of battle missions fulfillment are taken into account, and calculate beforehand time and quality of such kind of loads overcoming.

References

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Stanislav A. Pauesov - Senior Lecturer "Perm Military Institute of National Guards Army of the Russian Federation", House 1, Gremyachiy Log str., Perm, 614112, Russia, E-mail: and1518@yandex.ru

For citations: Pauesov S.A. Factors of cadets' physical working capacity dependence in extreme conditions of battle missions realization, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 80-86. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_289

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