Научная статья на тему 'THE ATTITUDE TO SPIRITUAL HERITAGE OR WESTERN SCIENTIST STUDIED "ATVAKUZ ZAHAB"'

THE ATTITUDE TO SPIRITUAL HERITAGE OR WESTERN SCIENTIST STUDIED "ATVAKUZ ZAHAB" Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
tafsir / hadith / fiqh / nahv / puberty / eloquence / fiction and narration / spiritual education and ethics / literature and poetry / Jarullah / cover / translation / great cultural heritage / literary sources

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Ikhtiyor Madirimovich Babanazarov

This article analyzes the work of Mahmud Az-Zamakhshari, one of the most famous scholars of the Eastern world, and the scientific research of the great German scholar Joseph von Hammer, who studied it. The translation of the work and its peculiarities, the special aspects of this translation, which led to the popularity of the work throughout Europe, are considered.

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Текст научной работы на тему «THE ATTITUDE TO SPIRITUAL HERITAGE OR WESTERN SCIENTIST STUDIED "ATVAKUZ ZAHAB"»

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

THE ATTITUDE TO SPIRITUAL HERITAGE OR WESTERN SCIENTIST

STUDIED "ATVAKUZ ZAHAB"

Ikhtiyor Madirimovich Babanazarov

Tashkent State University of Uzbek Language and Literature named after Alisher Navoi

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the work of Mahmud Az-Zamakhshari, one of the most famous scholars of the Eastern world, and the scientific research of the great German scholar Joseph von Hammer, who studied it. The translation of the work and its peculiarities, the special aspects of this translation, which led to the popularity of the work throughout Europe, are considered.

Keywords: tafsir, hadith, fiqh, nahv, puberty, eloquence, fiction and narration, spiritual education and ethics, literature and poetry, Jarullah, cover, translation, great cultural heritage, literary sources.

INTRODUCTION

Mahmoud Zamakhshari's life and scientific legacy have been the focus of Eastern and Western researchers for centuries. Many historians left valuable information in their works about Zamakhshari's life and scientific activity, in particular, Samani, Yaqut Hamawi, Ibn Khallikan, Ibn Qutlubga, Jalaluddin Suyuti, Tashkuprilizoda, Haji Khalifa Chalabi, Abdulhay Laknavi, Zirikli, Western scholars such as Joseph von Hammer, Heinrich Leberecht Flaycher, Gustav Weil, Barbier de Maynard, Brokelman, Gibb, Krachkovsky, Belkin, and others were seriously interested in Zamakhshari's personality and works. Mahmud Zamakhshari is one of the scholars who left a great spiritual legacy for the next generation in the fields of tafsir, hadith, jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric and eloquence, literary art and narration, spiritual education and morality, literature and poetry.

One of such sources is the work "Atvoquz zahab fil mavaizi val khutab" ("Golden branches of admonition and advice"). This work, which is a practical example of the science of literature, contains a hundred articles (wise literary passages on various topics) consisting of advice and guidance on zuhd and good morals, forsaking evil and commanding good. The writing of the work "Atvoquz zahab fil mava'izi val khutab" is connected with a strange situation. This book by Zamakhshari, known among scholars as "Jarullah" (Allah's neighbor), was written

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

during the circumambulation of the Ka'bah. He wrote one article on paper during each circumambulation of the Ka'bah, thus filling the number of articles to one hundred.Zamakhshari's Atvokuz Zahab has been published several times in different parts of the world, and the following is a German translation in 1835 by german scholar Joseph von Hammer. First of all, let us give some information about the biography of this german scientist and his place in the world of Western science.

Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (full name: Joseph Freyherr von Hammer-Purgstall) is an Austrian historian, orientalist and diplomat, researcher and translator of oriental literature. He graduated from the Imperial Academy of Oriental Languages in Vienna. He knew Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Arabic, Persian and Turkish. From 1796 to 1807 - was in the diplomatic service. In 1799 he served in Istanbul. In 1800 he took part as a translator in the British military operation against the French. He visited London and studied English there. He worked in Paris for some time and met Sylvester de Sacy. Then He lived in Moldova (Yasi). After returning to his homeland, he worked as an adviser to the Vienna Court. In 1835, the Countess received the title of "Baron" as heir to Purgstall.Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall left the diplomatic service in 1839 and devoted himself to scientific research in history and literature. He was the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences as its founder (1847-1849). He also served as a foreign honorary member of the French Academy of Writing and Fine Literature and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Founded in 1959, the Austrian Society of Oriental Studies was called Joseph von Hammer-Purgstal. In 1981, a postage stamp depicting the scientist was issued to mark the 125th anniversary of his death.

MATERILAS AND METHODS

The following historical works by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstal are famous: "History of the Killers" (1818), "History of the Ottoman Empire" (1827-1835) in 10 volumes, "History of Arabic Literature" (1850-1856). "History of the Golden Horde in Kipchak or the Mongols in Russia" (1837-1840). In addition to historical works, Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall translated works written in Arabic, Persian and Turkish. In particular, he translated Hafiz's "1001 Night Tales" and "Devon" and had a great influence on the work of the famous German writer and poet Goethe.He was the first in Western Europe to report on Fuzuli. In Cairo, he bought a manuscript of the Nabothian author Ibn Wahshi on "Hidden Hieroglyphs and Alphabets," which he translated and published in London in 1806. He discovered a number of ancient inscriptions and Egyptian hieroglyphs and contributed to the formation of Egyptian

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

studies. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall is the person who translated the great scholar Mahmud Zamakhshari's work "Atvokuz zahab fil mavoizi val khutab" into German and introduced the scholar and his work to the whole Western world. This translation was published in Vienna in 1835 under the title Samachschari's Goldene Halsbänder with separate texts in German and Arabic. This was the first German translation of Zamakhshari's collection of articles "Atvoq uz-zahab" and the first lithographic edition. The Arabic text of the lithograph is 60 pages, and the German translation is 54 pages. The cover is solid, the gilded edges of the cladding are gilded with green additions, and the title page and cover are distinguished by a marble background. The face of the cover is slightly rubbed and the inside is brown.

The notes of the text in Arabic is copied in Naskh. The first page is decorated with a circle with a floral pattern, among the floral patterns is written the name and author of the work:^j^Oll Jlj^l

The second page is decorated with a flowery rectangular pattern with the inscription . The author's introduction begins throughout the page

¿rO fejf ¿i

The teacher of the world, the chairman of the nobles, the teacher of the Arabs and non-Arabs, the great imam, ascetic, perfect and skilled scholar Jarullah Abul Qasim Mahmud ibn Muhammad az-Zamahshari says ...

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

After the introduction, the articles were arranged in a series, starting with the first article number 1 and the word Subsequent articles are checked only with numbers and the last article is numbered 99 and 100 articles are added to it. Therefore, the last article is not separated by the number 100. Perhaps the position can be connected with the manuscript text used by Joseph von Hammer. Joseph von Hammer writes in the concluding part of this book:

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

Translation: These articles were published in Dorun Naim Publishing House in 1834 in the blessed city of Vienna (may God protect him from various calamities for a long time) with the help of God, the Lord of the worlds, the King of the world, who gives their language to all peoples. One the 12th of Jumu'ad ul auwal, 1250 date after the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the poor translator Yusuf (Joseph) von Hammer, who needed the help of God who could do everything and whose prayers would be answered in a proper manner, ended it. The German text has a unique historical meaning because it is written in the Gothic style. The Tutul page has the following inscriptions: Samachschari's goldene Halsbänder (Zamakhshari's Gold Collection), new edition, in Arabic and German, Joseph von Hammer, seal with Arabic inscription, place of publication: Vienna, publishing house: publisher Gedruckt bey A. Strauss', published in 1835.

On the next, that is, on the second

page: e\tQcU auf Dem XMblattt.

Überseßung des Giegels auf dem Titelblatte.

"Capmeya са%и$асидаги MyypHU^ mapwuMacu ".

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

SHein Segeferen if* ni$t @ol&, Um fce« Wut)cn& mid> |u freuen, eonbern Hufrm tinfc ©$renfol&, ©et Imtner (ott erneuen*

Mein Begehren ist nicht Gold, um des Nußens mich zu freuen, Sondern Ruhm und Ehrensold Der sich immer toll erneuen "My soul is not golden, nor is my eye happy Perhaps it is a glory and honor that is constantly renewed. " Joseph von Hammer begins the translation by first addressing and dedicating himself to his fellow orientalists. This is reflected on the third

3ueigttung* Xtt alle £)rientatijien

page ^r<m ®*ltflen°ff<n' fifofitttr»

"Dedication from your reader to all orientalists!"

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, it should be noted that Joseph von Hammer translated the work of the scholar Mahmud Zamakhshari "Atvoquz zahab fil mavoiz val khutab" into German, making the scholar and his work more popular in the whole Western world. This translation was published by A. Strauss in Vienna in 1835 under the name Samachschari's Goldene Halsbänder, and it became very popular in the West, greatly influencing the translations of German and French scholars such as Heinrich Leberecht Flaycher, Gustav Weil and Barbier de Maynard. In addition, this publication was published in Munich by Kant, who owned Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. from 1990-94. G. It is reproduced by Saur Verlag Publishing House in a large number of microfilm formats and placed in various and numerous libraries of the Western world, including nearly 30 libraries in Germany, more than 25 libraries in the United States, as well as Canada, France, Slovenia, Israel, Spain and South Africa. Mahmud Zamakhshari's work "Atvokuz zahab fil mavoiz val khutab", has been recognized by Western scholars as a high example of world literature and a rare work of art. Representatives of the American publishing house Kessinger Publishing acknowledge the value of the work as follows: "Since this unique ancient work is a

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

huge cultural heritage, we considered it important to republish it facsimile from the original. In order to fulfill our duties and responsibilities, such as the protection and preservation and promotion of world literature in modern publications, we have presented this rare work in a high quality, but affordable for all, given its commitment to its originality.

. The fact that this work of our ancestor Zamakhshari, which consists of invaluable advice and guidance, has received so much attention in the western world, certainly makes us proud. There is no doubt that the generation that is proud of its ancestors is in the right way. However, this is still the beginning of the road. Now is the time to be proud of our ancestors and become the true heirs of the spiritual legacy they left behind. To do this, it is necessary to study fundamental and complex works such as "Atvokuz zahab fil mavo'izi val khutab" on the basis of originality, to systematize the results, to determine the general laws of ancient sources, to determine the place of source and textology in the philological sciences. Only then can research on ancient literary sources serve as a ready methodological template for further research. At the same time, the question of the attitude to the spiritual heritage will be in the right and healthy direction

REFERENCE

1. D.Fozil Salih Samroiy. "Zamakhshari's grammatical and lexical views", Baghdad .: "Matbaatul Irshod", 1971. 420 b.

2. Juraev O. Mahmud Zamakhshariy, T .: "Tafakkur", 2010.-56p., 3-p.

3. Zamakhshari. "Atwaq uz-zahab fil-mawo'iz val-khutab", Ahmad Abdut-Tawvab Awaz research, Cairo: "Darul fazilat", 1994. 202b.

4. Islamov Z.M. "Sochinenie" Zolotye ojerelya "i ego vliyanie na razvitie literatury narodov vostoka" "Sotsiosfera" № 2, 2014.

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9. Fozil Zohid. Zamakhshar tasbehi or 101 manzuma (based on the work "Atvoqu-z-zahab") / Translated by R.Zahid. - T .: Muharrir Publishing House, 2011. Page 60

ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 6 | 2021

ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 DOI: 10.24412/2181-1385-2021-6-509-515

10. G. Pfannmüller, Handbuch der Islam-Literatur, Berlin-Leipzig 1923, p. 127, 275, 282, 291, 396, 397.

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