Научная статья на тему 'Study on the energy saving strategy for residential building in Kazakhstan'

Study on the energy saving strategy for residential building in Kazakhstan Текст научной статьи по специальности «Строительство и архитектура»

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Ключевые слова
ENERGY SAVING / SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT / ‌COMFORT

Аннотация научной статьи по строительству и архитектуре, автор научной работы — Kim Yuliya Sinovna, Sun Cheng, Yussupova Akmaral Ardasherovna

This paper focuses on research to determine the feasibility of the design to improve energy efficiency and to improve climate conditions in residential buildings. The methods and recommendations intended for the local building tradition. As a result, evaluate the real effectiveness of the design of energy efficient processes and provides recommendations on the development of residential buildings.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Study on the energy saving strategy for residential building in Kazakhstan»

Section 1. Architecture

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-16-9.10-3-6

Kim Yuliya Sinovna, Harbin Institute of Technology, PhD student, the Faculty of Architecture E-mail: yuliyakim8610@yahoo.com Sun Cheng, Harbin Institute of Technology, Professor, supervisor of PhD student, the Faculty of Architecture E-mail: suncheng@hit.edu.cn Yussupova Akmaral Ardasherovna, Harbin Institute of Technology, PhD student, the Faculty of Architecture E-mail: akmaral_bibon05@yahoo.com

Study on the energy saving strategy for residential building in Kazakhstan

Abstract: This paper focuses on research to determine the feasibility of the design to improve energy efficiency and to improve climate conditions in residential buildings. The methods and recommendations intended for the local building tradition. As a result, evaluate the real effectiveness of the design of energy efficient processes and provides recommendations on the development of residential buildings.

Keywords: energy saving, sustainable development, comfort.

1. Introduction

The main objective ofthe paper presented in to identify the problems of the energy of residential buildings in Kazakhstan and to preserve or improve the thermal comfort. In Kazakhstan, today there is no implementation ofnational green standards. Nevertheless, the need for people to reduce energy consumption costs especially in winter is high. Kazakhstan has energy- efficient housing projects, but they have not yet issued. Recently, the government pays more attention to correct and integrate the principles of sustainable development [1], for new and existing buildings. Aspects include passive and active energy-efficient technologies, building orientation, natural ventilation.

In the construction industry, Kazakhstan included basic concepts of the passive house, but to obtain a certificate of international green standard rating system such as LEED, BREEAM lack experience. Includes some mandatory energy efficiency measures, leading to a different way of designing. The shape and relationship between the materials used the elements of the passive devices. The introduction of buildings by either using only the reasonable rules not based on local environmental conditions led to difficult comparable results.

Due to two main reasons is firstly, the use of advanced materials lacks sufficient design capability. Secondly, the difference from the traditional architecture and culture that to separate between modern materials and technology and the needs of users.

By monitoring the actual living conditions of thermal and energy behavior in the residential sector can be understood and highlight weaknesses study presented fits in this context. The ultimate goal is to give a simple but practical advice to planners regarding appropriate design procedures for cold climate conditions of Kazakhstan, taking into account the energy efficiency ofbuildings and their systems, as well as user comfort and needs in urban areas.

2. Methods

For more accurate recommendations of the study consists of basic steps:

— Critical analysis and classification of residential buildings in Kazakhstan;

— The pilot building monitoring tested the internal parameters of the microclimate;

— Offering methods to improve energy efficiency and interior comfort, when evaluating the results of using a virtual model;

— Use of best practices for sustainable design of low energy and passive house construction with local techniques and materials for new construction.

The process of improving residential building is typological unit continuously. The typology classifies residential buildings using different criteria: the number of floors, type of communication of the room, type of load-bearing structures, three-dimensional structure, and other private settings. Construction practice of housing construction in Kazakhstan has a narrow typological near the low-rise buildings and high-rise buildings, in particular. This investigation was one of the concepts of development of housing construction in the USSR, undertaken for several post war decades. Mass housing construction was carried out in the north of the city with hints of a typical sectional height of houses 5, 9 (10), 12, 16 floors. With the change of social system in Kazakhstan, were private property, private investors, and developers, but for more than two decades typological series of houses did not change significantly [2].

The relevance of the design and construction of building types

considered due to the need to improve the quality of the home

and, at the same time reducing its cost. Without this solution to the housing problem in Kazakhstan is impossible. For proxy authentica-

tion, residential sector in Kazakhstan should be analysed based on statistical data fig.2. Kazakhstan residential area is dominated the urban population, but it is worth noting that in a small amount of 18% less than rural housing [3].

Nowadays, the researchers and engineers are used in the designing of buildings modelling program that can illustrate the energy consumption of the building. The process involves

mathematical algorithms that produce optimal search spaces. The problem designs the passive buildings in Kazakhstan, as well as cold climate. The priority is to reduce energy consumption reduction in the thermal load. The government has paid attention to the need for social housing. To this end, funds allocate from the budgets of different levels.

Fig 1. Housing Fund of Kazakhstan mln m 2 (statistic data)

Among the issues to resolve and is shaping residential buildings, which is affected by many factors related to climatic, socio-demographic, urban and other objective and subjective [4].

3. Results

The architectural form of residential development in Kazakhstan at the present stage can emphasize such features — style variety, high and high-rise buildings, the complexity, the monumental, multi-functionality. Among the variety of styles in the architecture of residential buildings, can select the style, which bases on elements of the national culture. The tops of these architectural landmarks are reminiscent of the sharp spear, the traditional headgear of these places.

The typological model analysis and shown in Fig. 2, one-storey, square-shaped building with a flat roof. Some assumptions made when creating the building model:

— the house is designed for a standard residence, consisting of four members;

— the compact shape of the building flat roof allows for better compactness;

This model includes a variety of buildings; a building structure divided into cells bearing walls. Impaired visual isolation premises with monotonous repetition where two or more cells connected dwelling at ground level at the ground floor, but not in any direction, and in various. As a rule, it is a living cell, separated by load-bearing walls, but each of them focused on a nearby open space. Shared entrance to the apartment is possible but usually organized in the form of individual records from one of the outer facades. The most significant advantages of this configuration — separate the cost of construction of houses in combination with a relatively large open space around each living cell.

Fig. 2. Typical apartment block scheme and plan

In cold climates, it is not sufficiently compact, and it is hard to solve the problem of cleaning areas from snow. Therefore, this type of development certainly plays other kinds, and when to lock it long enough buildings to be forced to acquire the features of a perimeter or network structure development.

On the contrary, attention to energy efficient and passive green technologies is insufficient. Also, the lack of eco-friendly materials, the introduction of the construction process of green technologies, such as the system has resulted in a relatively high total cost of green buildings and to prevent its development in Ka-

zakhstan, according to fig.3 can follow recommendation. Reducing energy consumption in homes in need of modernization in the major sectors such as energy transmission, power generation, power consumption.

The designing energy-efficient apartment complex multivariate approach is taken into account, the selection of suitable thermal protection of protecting designs, engineering equipment and the ef-

ficiency of the use of renewable energy sources. Another important and challenging stage of the study was the implementation of a virtual model of the building with the help of special software Autodesk Green Building Studio to determine the energy costs presented as a graph in Figure 3. The software used for imitation properties of

buildings, which allow us to ascertain the behavior of the user (heating lighting).

Fig 3. Energy consumption in the average a

Options in the virtual model allowed bringing recommendations for passive buildings to improve building energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The following options considered:

— Cover with insulating opaque element or with a simple external curtain;

— Modernization is systems engineering;

— Introduction norms energy consumption, performance of commissioning engineering systems;

— Improving the quality of technical services, through innovative technical systems for the control and automation of consumption;

— Change of outdated technical equipment and networks;

— The use of innovative technologies.

These choices can define a simple, efficient design patterns based on the comparison results, according to the methods in tab.1.

The urgency of the use of energy saving technologies is comparable to the production of energy. Modern energy-saving technolo-

flat create by Autodesk Green building studio

gies in construction in addition to saving the financial and material resources offer opportunities for reducing environmental emissions of harmful substances formed during the heating and cooling of residential homes.

An integrated approach to the design and the study of energy indicators, as well as finding the right solutions to optimize their energy efficiency determine the solution of related problems, which cover key areas as:

1. The organization of a residential building and indoor environment;

2. Minimize the cost of energy;

3. The appropriate use of material resources.

Even ordinary apartment buildings have many opportunities to improve energy savings due to more compact layouts and the proper use of spaces for possible devices in their conservatories and greenhouses in local area. The houses of this type can use as efficiently as a closed heat-insulating sheath covering the comfort zone. This

shell provides improved thermal insulation ofwalls, basement, roof location, and orientation, squares of translucent apertures, climate through the creation of a continuous thermal circuit of the building. control facilities can reduce the negative impact of climate on the Selection of the optimal shape of a dwelling house shows tab 1, its heat balance of a house.

Table 1. - Methods influence negative impact

Methods The negative impact

dust protection wind protection Protection from frost Protection from exposure to rainfall Protection from solar radiation

Space-planning decisions - + - + +

Orientation about the negative climatic factors - + - + +

Architectural composition - + - + +

Compact space-planning novel developing solutions + + + - +

Using the wind and regulatory barriers + + + + -

Greening + + - + +

Solution walling - + + + -

Creating a water surface + - - - +

Energy-saving measures can classify into the following types:

— Architectural design and space planning decisions;

— Increased protection is heated translucent, opaque fences;

— Cost reduction of thermal energy and electricity for air conditioning and ventilation while maintaining the air (waste heat and cold, night ventilation, recycling, regulated electric fans, and pumps);

— Measures reduce water and heat;

— Engineering solutions using external and internal heat gain (automation of heating systems);

4. Conclusion

Applied Technology for Sustainable Development in Kazakhstan.

The main technologies used, vertical gardening, outdoor permeable surface modelling of the external environment of the wind, the optimization of transportation, utilization, design and noise prediction, analysis of thermal insulation properties are mainly low-technology additional costs. Since all the technology used in this section are in the passive use. Nevertheless, the ratio of the use of certain technologies with low incremental costs remains low in Kazakhstan; for example, space planning decisions, utilization, design and noise prediction.

Regional economic development is unbalanced Kazakhstan; the government should provide support by creating incentives

to increase the adoption of green technologies. The idea of integration must strengthen, which includes two steps: (1) use passive technology with priority, and take full advantage of passive technologies; (2) Apply optimized (very efficient) technology intelligently active.

In most northern regions with a low level of economic development, the project developer should first focus on the development and application oflow-income incremental price (passive) technology and then intelligently apply active technology claimed to boost the development of green buildings.

In the most of the developed southern regions and parts of the industrialized northern regions, the developer must not only focus on the development of technologies with little additional costs but also to develop active technologies to gain experience. The implementation of active technologies and invent optimization measures to reduce the cost of technology increases the activity of the same or a higher level and performance of environmental resources.

An effective way to disseminate the experience and technology to optimize the active measures of the economically developed regions in economically developing regions, as well as to improve the efficiency of the incremental costs of cleaner technologies and green building certification promotes in Kazakhstan.

References:

1. Kazakhstan Development Strategy "Kazakhstan - 2030" Long-term strategy of development of Kazakhstan "Kazakhstan - 2030" -Nursultan Nazarbayev.

2. Lisician M. B., Paszkowski V. L., Petunina Z. V. Architectural design of residential buildings, - 2006 - ISBN 5-9647-0104-3 (Russian)

3. URL: http: www.stat.kz

4. Low-rise urban dwellings. Catalog ofprojects - M., - 1992.

5. Lisician M. B., Paszkowski V. L., Petunina Z. V. Architectural design of residential buildings, - 2006 - ISBN 5-9647-0104-3 (Russian) P. 43.

6. Impact ofArchitectural Form on the Potential Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, Housing Research at CMHC.

7. SCE "Research and Design Institute of the general plan ofAstana." Correction Master Plan ofAstana city until 2030.//Astana. 2010 S. 15-44.

8. Mahjoub Elnimeiri, and Ayman Almusharaf The Interaction between Sustainable Structures and Architectural Form of Tall Buildings. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development/September - 2010.

9. Construction norms and regulations of RK 3.02-43-2007 Residential buildings.

10. Yong Han Ahn, Yuhong Wang, Kang Hee Lee, and Myung Hwa Jeon (2014) The Greening Of Affordable Housing Through Public And Private Partnerships: Development OfA Model For Green Affordable Housing. Journal of Green Building: Winter - 2014, - Vol. 9, - No. 1, P. 93-112.

11. Toskina V. V. The evolution of architectural and planning structure of settlements of Northern Kazakhstan in the XIX-XX centuries. On the example of the Akmola region: abstract candidate of architecture: 18.00.01. - Astana, - 2002. - P. 6-18.

12. Tabunschikov Y. A., Brodach M. M. Scientific bases of designing energy efficient buildings//AVOK. - 1998. - No I.

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