Научная статья на тему 'Qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different sports qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions'

Qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different sports qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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Ключевые слова
functional readiness / qualitative characteristics / physiological indices / female athletes / athlete all-round competitions

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Tatiana S. Chernova, Gaik D. Aleksanyants

Functional potential of an organism among sportsmen is mainly conditioned by the following features: power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness and they are considered the main characteristics of physiological systems activity, which determine and limit a high level of special sports physical working capacity, which is an integral index of functional readiness. Material. Comparative analysis of the development level of the main qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, testing, comparative analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. For the set objective realization, the research work was held among two groups of female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions. At rest and in case of physical loads the indices, which reflect qualitative characteristics (functional qualities) – power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness of organism functioning were determined. It was revealed that the parameters of morpho-functional power have bigger values among more qualified female athletes. At the same time, this advantage is not so significant and is within the range of 1,0 10,7%. It is shown, that the parameters, which reflect mobilization and utilization opportunities of an organism among the female athletes of different qualification on the average differed insignificantly in both groups of female athletes. At the same time, the indices of functional steadiness in the groups of female athletes of different qualification differed significantly: more qualified athletes validly exceeded qualified ones – to 9,0-14,3%. Also more significant and mainly statistically valid was the preponderance of the qualified female athletes concerning the indices of functional efficiency (to 6,4-16,4%). Conclusion. The received results lead to the conclusion that the level of the organism functional readiness in general (in integrative expression) and its different qualitative characteristics is considerably higher among highly-qualified female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions, in comparison to qualified ones. The greatest differences between highly-qualified and qualified female athletes are in the parameters of functional steadiness and functional efficiency.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different sports qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions»

Sports Sciences]. 2017, Vol. 35, pp. 1484-1492 (SCOPUS).

Submitted: 25.05.2017 Received: 28.05.2017

Oleg A. Chemerchey - competitor "UralState University of Physical Culture" 1, Ordzhonikidze str., Chelyabinsk, 454091, Russia

Alexander V. Eganov - doctor ofpedagogical sciences "Ural State University of Physical Culture ", 1, Ordzhonikidze str., Chelyabinsk, 454091, Russia, South Ural State University (National Research University), 62, Sonya Krivoi str., Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russia, E-mail: eganov@bk.ru

For citations: Chemerchey O.A., Eganov A.V. Factor structure of sportsmen engaged in applied uniform species limbons motor dichotomy, The Russian journal ofphysical education and sport (pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.2, pp. 175-182.

DOI 10.14526/01_2017_227

QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNCTIONAL READINESS AMONG FEMALE ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS QUALIFICATION, WHO SPECIALIZE

IN ATHLETE ALL-ROUND COMPETITIONS

Tatiana S. Chernova — post graduate student, Gaik D. Aleksanyants - doctor of medicine, professor Federal State Budgetary Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Kuban State University

of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism" 161, Budennyj str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia

E-mail: alexanyanc@mail.ru

Annotation. Functional potential of an organism among sportsmen is mainly conditioned by the following features: power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness and they are considered the main characteristics of physiological systems activity, which determine and limit a high level of special sports physical working capacity, which is an integral index of functional readiness. Material. Comparative analysis of the development level of the main qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, testing, comparative analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. For the set objective realization, the research work was held among two groups of female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions. At rest and in case of physical loads the indices, which reflect qualitative characteristics (functional qualities) - power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness of organism functioning were determined. It was revealed that the parameters of morpho-functional power have bigger values among more qualifiedfemale athletes. At the same time, this advantage is not so significant and is within the range of 1,0 - 10,7%. It is shown, that the parameters, which reflect mobilization and utilization opportunities of an organism among the female athletes of different qualification on the average

differed insignificantly in both groups of female athletes. At the same time, the indices of functional steadiness in the groups of female athletes of different qualification differed significantly: more qualified athletes validly exceeded qualified ones - to 9,0-14,3%. Also more significant and mainly statistically valid was the preponderance of the qualified female athletes concerning the indices of functional efficiency (to 6,4-16,4%). Conclusion. The received results lead to the conclusion that the level of the organism functional readiness in general (in integrative expression) and its different qualitative characteristics is considerably higher among highly-qualified female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions, in comparison to qualified ones. The greatest differences between highly-qualified and qualifiedfemale athletes are in the parameters of functional steadiness and functional efficiency.

Keywords: functional readiness, qualitative characteristics, physiological indices, female athletes, athlete all-round competitions.

Urgency. Functional potential of an organism among sportsmen is mainly conditioned by the following features: power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness and they are considered the main characteristics of physiological systems activity, which determine and limit a high level of special sports physical working capacity, which is an integral index of functional readiness [ 1, 5, 10, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23].

The effectiveness of physiological mechanisms, which condition functional abilities of an organism mainly depend on the level of qualitative characteristics (functional qualities) - power, mobilization, efficiency and steadiness of functioning [ 5, 16]. Qualitative characteristics of functional abilities of an organism to a large extent condition the effectiveness and the result of a person's specific sports activity, at the same time, their role in physical working capacity provision changes considerably depending on qualification of athletes [ 3, 17, 20].

That is why it is very important to reveal the regularities of different qualitative characteristics demonstration of an organism functional abilities, as it will help to receive the results, which can be the base for the strategy of a long-term training determination and tactics of development process control of athletes' adaptedness. Moreover, this information can be used for the objectiveness improvement in the system of functional readiness diagnostics and estimation among the athletes of different adaptedness level to physical loads. All mentioned above will help to realize an effective individualization of the

training process and considerably increase its effectiveness [12, 14].

On the basis of all mentioned above, the objective of our research work is the current qualitative characteristics level revelation and comparison of an organism functioning among female athletes of different qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions.

Methodology. In order to solve this objective complex research works were held among two groups of female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions. The first group included female athletes, who had the qualification of the 1st category and candidate master (n =18), the second group included the athletes with the qualification of master of sports and World-class athlete (n =7 ).

At the beginning of the research the following indices were measured at rest among female athletes, who took part in the research: body length (L) and weight (P), vital capacity (VC), maximal voluntary ventilation (MMV) and heart rate ( HRrest ). Moreover, at rest hypoxic steadiness was revealed, which was estimated according to the time of maximum breath holding while inhalation (TA in.) and exhalation (TA ex.).

Further determination of the main indices, which form different categories of qualitative characteristics of female athletes' functional abilities, was realized during a specialized test fulfillment with muscular loads of different power. The fulfilled test was a modification and integration of two generally adopted tests: general physical working

capacity test- PWC170, and maximum aerobic capacity for work determination test. Physical load in this modified test was in a form of three-stage physical loads fulfillment, the power of which was dosed in accordance with individual volume of heart rate (HR) so as at the first stage it was within the range of 120150 beats per minute, at the second stage within the range of 150-170 beats per minute. These two loads were fulfilled within 5 minutes with 5 minutes interval for rest between them. The third load was fulfilled with the maximum for each female athlete power during maximum available time period (but not less than a minute).

The degrees of power of the first two loads and corresponding to them values of heart rate were used for PWC170 degree calculation. The power of the third load was considered as maximum (Wmax). During this load oxygen consumption, which was the index of aerobic capacity of an organism during a short-term load of maximum power (VO2 max ), and heart rate ( HRmax ) were measured.

Other indices were received by means of calculation. Mobilization abilities of the functional systems of an organism were estimated according to the indices of heart rate increase during muscular load fulfillment of a standard and maximum power relative to the state of rest (HRW1/ HRrest and HRmax/HRrest) and according to the volume of own vital capacity and maximum ventilation potential use, calculated as the ratio of the values of a working breathing volume and a working ventilation, stated during maximum power physical load fulfillment to VC ( VTmax/ VC ) and to MMV ( VEmax/ MMV ) in percentage.

As the parameters, which reflect the effectiveness of physiological systems

functioning, we analyzed the following indices: watt-pulse ( Wmax/HRmax ), oxygen pulse ( V02max/HRmax ),oxygen effect of a breathing cycle ( V02max/fbmax ) and an oxygen value of the working unit( VO2max/Wmax ).

With the help of calculations the value of the coefficient of volume and time parameters ratio of external respiration was received (VTmax/fbmax ), which was used as the effectiveness index of the breathing function [12].

Research results: Mean values of the analyzed indices, which characterize morphological-functional status and reflect power of physiological systems functioning, among female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions and have different level of sports qualification, are presented in table 1.

Comparative analysis of the mean values of morphological development indices among female athletes of the examined qualification groups showed, that according to these parameters they don't differ from each other considerably. At the same time, according to the value of body length and weight more qualified female athletes have some advantage (within the range 1,0-6,7%, P>0,05).

The situation is different if we compare functional indices of power. Mean value of the maximum ventilation potential among female athletes, who belong to the group of masters of sports and World-class athletes, was higher than the same index among the female athletes from the group of the 1st category and candidate masters to 7,9% (P<0,05). Maximum power of a short-term muscular work and maximum oxygen consumption also were statistically higher among more qualified female athletes to 6,2 and 10,7% (P<0,05).

Table 1 - Mean values of functional power indices among female athletes of different qualification _level, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions (X ± m)_

Indices Sports qualification

Candidate master- I category ( n = 18 ) World-class athlete - master of sports ( n = 7 )

L, cm 173,0 ± 1,6 174,7 ± 2,8

P, kg 58,2 ± 1,9 62,1 ± 3,1

VC, ml 3652,7 ± 176,0 3442,9 ± 240,1

MMV, l/min 123,2 ± 3,2 132,9 ± 2,1*

W max, kGm/min 1163,6 ± 24,4 1235,7 ± 14,3*

VÜ2 max, ml/min 3250,0 ± 39,6 3596,4 ± 38,4*

Notes: * - here and further validity of differences in case p<0,05.

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It is known that adaptedness increase to physical loads is accompanied by functional potential of an organism increase, readiness to its mobilization and is seen in physical working capacity level increase among sportsmen [ 4, 9, 11, 12, 17, 18 ].

That is why further we fulfilled comparative analysis of functional mobilization parameters among female athletes of different level of special readiness.

The indices, which reflect mobilization abilities of an organism, were compared. These indices are the following: the value of heart rate increase during physical load of a standard power ( HRw1/HRrest) and during maximum power work ( HRmax/HRrest ) in terms of the same indices, set at rest; the value of own maximum ventilation potential use in case Wmax ( VEmax/MMV, % ), the value of own vital capacity use in case Wmax (VTmax/VC, %

according to Student t-test

); heart rate during physical load of maximum power ( HRmax ).

Mean values of the analyzed indices, which characterize mobilization abilities of functional systems, among female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions and have different level of sports qualification, are presented in table 2.

Parameters comparison, which reflect functional mobilization of female athletes' cardiovascular system, showed that the values of heart rate increase index during the work relative to it at rest, while a standard and maximum power work fulfillment among female athletes from both groups were almost the same (differences were ±3,8-3,9%, P>0,05), according to an absolute value being considerably high and corresponding to the level of these indices among female athletes of high qualification.

Table 2 - Mean values of functional mobilization indices among female athletes of different

Sports qualification

Indices Candidate master- I World-class athlete -

category (n = 18) master of sports (n = 7)

HRwi/ HRrest, % 210,5 ± 7,7 202,5 ± 4,8

HRmax/HRrest, % 283,1 ± 11,7 294,2 ± 5,9

VEmax/ MMV, % 65,9 ± 1,8 63,9 ± 2,1

VTmax/ VC, % 56,5 ± 3,9 66,4 ± 5,9

HRmax, beats per minute 187,9 ± 1,1 185,3 ± 1,6

During mean values of ventilation capacity realization indices comparison - the degree of maximum ventilation potential use (VEmax/MMV, % ) and the degree of individual vital capacity use during the maximum load (VTmax/VC, % ), stated among female athletes of different qualification level, the following results were received.

In both groups the values of VEmax/MMV index in case of maximum load in the average didn't differ statistically

(P>0,05). At the same time mean value of individual vital capacity use index ( VTmax/VC ) in case maximum power load in the group of more qualified female athletes was considerably higher (to 17,5%, P<0,05), than in the group of candidate masters and the 1st category athletes.

Then we fulfilled comparative analysis of functional steadiness and functional efficiency parameters.

Mean values of the indices, which

reflect the level of functional steadiness and functional efficiency, stated among female athletes of different qualification at rest and

Steadiness of functioning was estimated by us according to the indices of induced apnea holding, which reflects hypoxic resistance of an organism, measured according to the time of breath holding after a full inhalation and after full exhalation (TAin., TAex

The studied indices comparison showed, that more qualified female athletes had higher values of breath holding time after a full inhalation ( to 9,0%, P>0,05 ) and after a full exhalation ( to 14,3%, P>0,05 ). It fully corresponds with the information in the literature, where hypoxic resistance is understood as an important and integrative index of functioning steadiness of an organism [5].

In physiology of sport efficiency is understood as a functional and metabolic rate of a high power of the fulfilled muscular work [ 5, 7]. In order to estimate the efficiency of physiological systems functioning the following indices are determined: energy expenditure per unit of the fulfilled work, regulatory mechanisms tension and the ratio optimality of volume and time parameters of oxygen supply system.

When female athletes were fulfilling a short-term muscular work of maximum power we determined the following indices: watt-

during maximum muscular load, are presented in table 3.

pulse ( Wmax/HRmax ), oxygen pulse (V02max/HRmax ),oxygen effect of a breathing cycle ( V02max/fbmax ), value of an energy expenditure per unit of the fulfilled work ( VO2max/Wmax ), the coefficient of volume and time parameters ratio of external respiration was received (VTmax/fbmax ).

Mean values of heart rate, stated at muscular rest, in both groups of female athletes with different qualification level were almost the same (P>0,05). At the same time, in a group of more qualified female athletes this index was lower (to 6,4%), than in a group of candidate masters and the 1st category athletes.

For a high level of physical working capacity and sports effectiveness great importance have the processes of economization, which this or that way are seen at all levels of organism functioning. These processes are also important while muscular loads of maximum power fulfillment. Also for physical working capacity demonstration it is very important to have consistency of vegetative and motional systems and especially during maximum power physical loads [ 7, 8, 16 ]. On the basis of this we fulfilled a comparative analysis of the indices, which characterize these parameters of functioning among the studied qualification groups of female athletes.

Table 3 - Mean values of functional steadiness and efficiency indices among female athletes of different qualification level, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions (X ± m)

Sports qualification

Indices World-class athlete -

Candidate master- I master of sports

category ( n = 18 ) ( n = 7 )

TA in., s 103,7 ± 7,2 113,0 ± 6,5

TA ex., s 46,9 ± 3,7 53,6 ± 7,5

HRrest, beats/min 67,4 ± 2,5 63,1 ± 1,5

Wmax/HRmax, kGm/beats/min 6,2 ± 0,2 6,7 ± 0,1*

V02max/HRmax, ml/beats/min 17,3 ± 0,3 19,4 ± 0,3*

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V02max/fbmax, ml/cycle/min 80,6 ± 1,8 93,8 ± 3,4*

VO2max/Wmax, ml/kGm/min 2,8 ± 0,1 2,9 ± 0,1

VTmax/fbmax, C.U. 49,8 ± 2,2 57,5 ± 2,4*

Mean values of watt-pulse ( Wmax/HRmax ) comparison in two groups showed its great values among female athletes, who have special training of World-class athlete and master of sports, in comparison with the group of candidate masters and the 1st category athletes (to 8,1%, P<0,05).

Another index of functioning effectiveness and efficiency is "oxygen pulse" (V02max/HRmax ) also was considerably higher among more qualified female athletes (to 12,1%, P<0,05).

Mean value of "oxygen effect of a breathing cycle" (V02max/fbmax) index in the group of more qualified female athletes also exceeds the index in the group of candidate masters and the 1st category athletes (to 16,4%, P<0,05).

Mean values of muscular working oxygen value (the value of energy expenditure (in oxygen equivalent) per unit of the fulfilled work - VO2max/Wmax) turned out to be almost equal in both groups of female athletes (more qualified female athletes had advantage according to this parameter to 3,6%, P>0,05).

Respiratory system efficiency estimation in the groups of female athletes with different qualification, was realized in a form of mean values comparison of external respiration volume coefficient and time parameters ratio, which was calculated as the ratio of respiratory capacity volume to the volume of breathing frequency- VT/fb. It is mentioned in the literature, that the effectiveness-efficiency of respiratory system functioning is also reflected in the definite ratio of volume and time parameters of external respiration [15]. Some authors show that in case of a slower and deeper breathing the most favorable conditions for gas exchange appear, with a considerable decrease of energy expenditures for the work of respiratory muscles [ 2, 19 ].

This index comparison among female athletes of different special training level showed its considerable increase from 49,8±2,2 c.u. among candidate masters and the 1st category athletes till 57,5±2,4 c.u. among World-class athletes and masters of sports (the difference was 15,5%, P<0,05).

In order to present the differences in functional readiness level among female athletes of different qualification in an integrative terms, we created graphic "functional readiness profiles" for each examined group. In order to provide the opportunity to compare the indices of different size, they were normalized (brought to a single scale). The studied indices normalization was fulfilled by means of the estimation scale of "the chosen points" creation [ 6, 16 ].

"Profiles" of the functional abilities (functional readiness) among the female athletes of different qualification, created on the basis of normalized mean values of the studied parameters, are presented in picture 1.

From the presented graphic "profiles" it is seen, that the total "area", an integrative index, which reflects the level of female athletes functional readiness - candidate masters and the 1st category athletes, is smaller (to 10,9%), than among World-class athletes and masters of sports. In figures the "area" of female athletes' functional abilities (received by means of all studied indices (normalized) values summing in the first group was 6,95 c.u., in the second group - 7,71 c.u.).

Conclusion. It was revealed that the parameters of morpho-functional power have bigger values among more qualified female athletes. At the same time, this advantage is not so significant and is within the range of 1,0 -10,7%. Comparison showed, that the parameters, which reflect mobilization and utilization opportunities of an organism among the female athletes of different qualification on the average differed insignificantly in both groups of female athletes. At the same time, the indices of functional steadiness in the groups of different qualification female athletes differed significantly: more qualified athletes validly exceeded qualified ones - to 9,0-14,3%.Also more significant and mainly statistically valid was the preponderance of the qualified female athletes concerning the indices of functional efficiency (to 6,4-16,4%).

Picture 1 - Functional abilities profiles of different qualification female athletes, specializing in athlete all-round competitions (normalized values)

A - (candidate masters and the 1st category athletes), B - (World-class athletes and masters of sports)

1 - L; 2 - P; 3 - VC; 4 - MMV; 5 - W max; 6 - HR max; 7 - VO2 max; 8 - HR wi/ HR rest; 9 -HR max/HR rest; 10 - VE max / MMV; 11 - Vt max/ VC; 12 - TA in.; 13 - TAex.; 14 - HR rest; 15 - W max/ HR max ; 16 - VO2 max/ HRmax; 17 - VO2 max/ fb max; 18 - VO2 max/W max.; 19 - Wfb max.

The received results lead to the conclusion that the level of the organism functional readiness in general (in integrative expression) and its different qualitative characteristics is considerably higher among highly-qualified female athletes, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions, in comparison to qualified ones. The greatest differences between highly-qualified and qualified female athletes are in the parameters of functional steadiness and functional efficiency.

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Tatiana S. Chernova - post graduate student, Federal State Budgetary Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism" 161, Budennyj str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia

Gaik D. Aleksanyants - doctor of medicine, professor Federal State Budgetary Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism" 161, Budennyj str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia, E-mail: alexanyanc@mail.ru

For citations: Chernova T.S., Aleksanyants G.D. Qualitative characteristics of functional readiness among female athletes of different sports qualification, who specialize in athlete all-round competitions, The Russian journal of physical education and sport (pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.2, pp. 182-190.

icSPORTS 2017

5-th International Congress on Sport Science and Technological Support

Funchai, Madeira, Portugal 30-31 October 2017

icSPORTS 2017 will be held in conjunction with NEUROTECHNIX 2017.

Registration to icSPORTS allows free access to the NEUROTECHNIX congress (as a non-speaker).

UPCOMING DEADLINES

Extended Abstract Submission June 30, 2017

Authors Notification: July 24, 2017

Extended Abstract Authors Notification: August 4, 2017

Camera Ready and Registration: September 1, 2017

Extended Abstract Camera Ready and Registration: September 8, 2017

Most human activities, including sports, are becoming more and more technological. Engineering in general and Information Technology in particular are important in the support for many activities directly or indirectly related to sport sciences, including improvement of physical activities, sports medicine, biotechnology and nutrition, sports management, and all other application areas in sports. This congress intends to be a meeting point for both academics, sport professionals and practitioners to exchange ideas and develop synergies. CONGRESS AREAS

1. Computer Systems in Sports

2. Health and Support Technology

3. Signal Processing in Human Movement

4. Sport Performance and Support Technology CONGRESS CHAIR

Jan Cabri, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway PROGRAM CO-CHAIRS

J. Paulo Vilas-Boas, Faculty of Sport, CIFI2D, and Porto Biomechanics Laboratory (LABIOMEP), University of Porto, Portugal

Pedro Pezarat Correia, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

Andrey Koptyug, Mid Sweden University, Sweden

Andreas Mierau, International University of Health, Exercise and Sports (LU:NEX), Luxembourg

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