Научная статья на тему 'PUBLISHING AND PRINTING ACTIVITIES: CONCEPT AND PLACE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY'

PUBLISHING AND PRINTING ACTIVITIES: CONCEPT AND PLACE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
publication / structural / transformations / industry / organization / print / book chamber. / издание / структура / преобразования / отрасль / организация / печать / книжная палата.

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Boltayeva, Farangis

The purpose of the article is to give students studying in the specialty "Publishing and Editing" a general idea of the basics of modern publishing in Uzbekistan and abroad, its system, concepts, principles and directions. Brief historical data on the development of printing, technology of the publishing process, job responsibilities are covered. and functions of employees, the system of relationships between departments and editorial offices, publishing house and author. The rules for evaluating manuscripts are given, principles of formation of thematic, production and commercial planning, activities for the distribution of book products.

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ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКАЯ И ПОЛИГРАФИЧЕСКАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ: ПОНЯТИЕ И МЕСТО В НАЦИОНАЛЬНОМ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕ

Цель статьи дать студентам, обучающимся по специальности «Издательское дело и редактирование», общее представление об основах современного издательского дела в Узбекистане и за рубежом, его системе, понятиях, принципах и направлениях. Приведены краткие исторические данные о развитии книгопечатания, технологии издательского процесса, должностных обязанностях. и функции сотрудников, система взаимоотношений отделов и редакций, издательства и автора. Приведены правила оценки рукописей, принципы формирования тематического, производственного и коммерческого планирования, деятельности по распространению книжной продукции.

Текст научной работы на тему «PUBLISHING AND PRINTING ACTIVITIES: CONCEPT AND PLACE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY»

Oriental Renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences Scientific Journal Impact Factor Advanced Sciences Index Factor

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VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 3 ISSN 2181-1784 SJIF 2022: 5.947 ASI Factor = 1.7

PUBLISHING AND PRINTING ACTIVITIES: CONCEPT AND PLACE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

Boltayeva Farangis

Student of Journalism and mass communications university, Uzbekistan.

The purpose of the article is to give students studying in the specialty "Publishing and Editing" a general idea of the basics of modern publishing in Uzbekistan and abroad, its system, concepts, principles and directions. Brief historical data on the development of printing, technology of the publishing process, job responsibilities are covered. and functions of employees, the system of relationships between departments and editorial offices, publishing house and author. The rules for evaluating manuscripts are given, principles of formation of thematic, production and commercial planning, activities for the distribution of book products.

Keywords: publication, structural, transformations, industry, organization, print, book chamber.

Цель статьи - дать студентам, обучающимся по специальности «Издательское дело и редактирование», общее представление об основах современного издательского дела в Узбекистане и за рубежом, его системе, понятиях, принципах и направлениях. Приведены краткие исторические данные о развитии книгопечатания, технологии издательского процесса, должностных обязанностях. и функции сотрудников, система взаимоотношений отделов и редакций, издательства и автора. Приведены правила оценки рукописей, принципы формирования тематического, производственного и коммерческого планирования, деятельности по распространению книжной продукции.

Ключевые слова: издание, структура, преобразования, отрасль, организация, печать, книжная палата.

INTRODUCTION

A distributor of printed periodicals under a subscription agreement is an editorial office, a publisher performing distribution functions, another organization, an individual entrepreneur selling printed periodicals both in Uzbekistan and in other states (including through wholesale and retail trade).

The publication of printed publications is made on the basis of an agreement with the author (legal successor) in accordance with the current legislation. The

ABSTRACT

АННОТАЦИЯ

Oriental Renaissance: Innovative, educational, natural and social sciences Scientific Journal Impact Factor Advanced Sciences Index Factor

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VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 3 ISSN 2181-1784 SJIF 2022: 5.947 ASI Factor = 1.7

commercial risk of publishing printed publications lies with the publisher if the contract with the author or customer does not provide otherwise. The activities of editorial and publishing houses have some features that cannot be ignored.

Firstly, the release of printed materials is carried out after receiving orders, which are collected by the relevant organizations (post offices, agencies, etc.). Consequently, the main part of the printed matter is produced by the editors on the basis of orders, i.e. by subscription.

Secondly, the distribution of printed materials is also mainly carried out by special organizations. According to the Rules for the distribution of periodicals by subscription, all functions for the distribution of periodicals are assumed by the distributor of products, in particular agencies.

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

Printing activity - preparation of printed forms (including the production of seals and stamps), printing, production of print runs of any kind. The printing industry is one of those sectors in the industry, the role of which is hard to overestimate. It is also not difficult that in our time, printing has always been a branch of industry, without which no large organization can do, and nevertheless print publications and all sorts of companies that produce printed products. Newspapers, print ads, books -something without which it is impossible to see the modern world. What is printing? Printing is a set of technical special tools, collected in one, for the reproduction of graphic images and textual material in large volumes. This is created by imprinting paint on a surface, usually paper, textiles, plastic.

Structural transformations in the printing industry, the expansion of the scope of printing processes in various areas of the economy, as well as qualitative changes in the composition of the range of printed products have made fundamental adjustments to the concepts of the printing industry and industry affiliation of enterprises. The previously prevailing administrative and organizational definition of the community of enterprises and the vertically integrated principle of organizing the printing industry have lost their practical significance. In the development of the modern publishing system in Russia, a long-standing trend is clearly traced, which is inherited from the pre-revolutionary past. Despite the negative nature that she wears, she still cannot be overcome.

We are talking about the attraction of the entire book business to the central regions of Uzbekistan and the high concentration and publishing entrepreneurial activity. It is clear that such a situation slows down the functioning of the book

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market, makes it difficult to effectively provide the population with books, and also hinders the development of regional book publishing, including the publication of books in the languages of the peoples of Uzbekistan. As already mentioned, the publishing system operating today in Uzbekistan from the very beginning was formed as a market one, focused mainly on the fact that its equal participants are independent business entities operating on the basis of uniform rules determined by civil law legislation. This fundamentally distinguishes it from the publishing system of the Soviet period, which was based on an administrative-command resource and in which the publishing house itself was mainly an ideological institution that carried out the party-state order for the release of a certain information product with the specified properties of impact on a potential reader and the expected feedback. The state took upon itself the problems of selling these products, providing the corresponding working capital to the state bookstore for centralized buying up and subsequent distribution of published literature. Under these conditions, the publishing system itself was nothing more than a state entity. The nationalization of book publishing, which began at the end of the 20s of the last century, led by the end of the century to the establishment of total party-state control and control over the activities of the entire publishing business in the country. Therefore, the most important component of the reform of book publishing on a democratic, market basis was its denationalization, that is, its transformation from a completely state-owned to a predominantly non-state one. At present, it is non-state structures that form the basis of the country's publishing system [3, 55].

A serious factor in the development of the publishing business during this period was the increasing development and application of new information technologies. The legal and economic aspects of the book business received a scientific and technological basis, which made it possible in just a few years to cover a path that would previously have taken decades to overcome. Finally, the formation of a new publishing system in Russia was largely facilitated by the globalization of the information space, the integration of domestic book publishing into the world publishing community. This made it possible to study rich international experience and use it more productively in domestic practice. Of course, as in other countries, not all registered publishing structures are equally active in the book publishing business. If we take as a criterion for the inclusion of an organization in the publishing system the fulfillment by it of the requirements of Law "On the legal deposit of documents" on the submission to the Uzbekistan Book Chamber of the established number of legal copies of each published publication, then it turns out

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that the country's book market is active every year. 5-6 thousand publishing houses. At the same time, it should be pointed out that the overwhelming majority of this abundance of publishing organizations is made up of medium and mainly small enterprises, which, generally speaking, is a reflection of a more general trend in the development of modern entrepreneurship, which concerns not only the book business and not only our country. In the development of the modern publishing system in Uzbekistan, a long-standing trend is clearly traced, which is inherited from the pre-revolutionary past [2, 25].

Despite the negative nature that she wears, she still cannot be overcome. We are talking about the attraction of the entire book business to the central regions of Russia and the high concentration of publishing entrepreneurial activity here. Domestic printing in recent years has made a powerful breakthrough in its qualitative and quantitative development. New printing complexes have been created, thousands of modern printing houses have emerged, hundreds of operating enterprises have undergone a comprehensive modernization. Investment activity in the printing industry had a stable positive trend. Nevertheless, the issues of unfavorable developments in the regional and federal printing markets have been constantly discussed in the professional business community recently: increased competition, falling profitability as a result of increasing production capacity in isolation from the idea of the real state of the printed products market and the prospects for its development; price pressure from customers, competition with foreign polygraph base.

CONCLUSION

The last decade of the last century was the time of formation and development of a new publishing system in Russia. The number of publishing houses has increased many times, the printing system has expanded, today publishing organizations operate in more than 300 cities of world [1,35].

Suffice it to say that at the same time, all pre-printing processes began to be almost completely concentrated in the publishing house, proofreading exchanges and other routine operations have become a thing of the past, and the quality of publishing preparation and printing execution of publications has significantly improved. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that modern information technologies make it possible to solve issues related to the constant decline in the circulation of many publications to levels that were previously unprofitable for either publishing houses or printing companies. Today, processes and technologies have been

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developed to produce high-quality publications in multiple copies, which greatly expands the capabilities of the new publishing system. It should also be noted that the factors put forward and substantiated are constantly acting stimulants for further self-development and self-improvement of the publishing and printing system in Russia. In this regard, the study of the factors stimulating the development of the system should become permanent, since in the foreseeable future both the book and book publishing will remain an important information resource of society, allowing a person, on the basis of consistent coexistence with constantly improving information technologies, to master new knowledge and solve a variety of problems in the economic, cultural and social spheres, in all areas of life.

REFERENCES

1. Есенькин, Б. С. Предпринимательство в книжном деле: Учебное пособие / Б. С. Есенькин, А. Ф. Коган. М.: МГУП, 2004.

2. Жарков, В. М. Экономика и организация издательского дела: Краткий курс / В. М. Жарков, Б. А. Кузнецов, И. М. Чистова. М.: МГУП, 2002.

3. Жарков, И. A. Технология редакционно-издательского дела: Конспект лекций / И. A. Жарков. М.: МГУП, 2002.

4. Ильницкий, А. М. Книгоиздание в современной России / А. М. Ильницкий. М.: Вагриус, 2002.

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