Научная статья на тему 'Plants extracts on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products'

Plants extracts on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products Текст научной статьи по специальности «Животноводство и молочное дело»

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Аннотация научной статьи по животноводству и молочному делу, автор научной работы — Feofilova J. B., Nesteruk N. V.

Plants extracts contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, they are relevant in nutrition for poultry because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to prove that plants extracts are on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Plants extracts on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products»

UDC 636.


Feofilova J.B., Associate Professor Nesteruk N.V., Post-graduate student Orel State Agrarian University, Orel City, Russia Email: nat.nesteruk2012@yandex.ru


Plants extracts contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antiinflammatory properties. Currently, they are relevant in nutrition for poultry because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to prove that plants extracts are on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products.


Plants extracts; Poultry; Eco-friendly; Nutrition.

In 2006 year, in the countries of European Union, the using of antibiotics in a feed for improving the parameters of the growth of animals and birds is banned legislatively. Antibiotics were used in a feed for increasing the performance, preventing some diseases and for increasing the number of some useful microorganisms in intestine’s microflora.

The problem of resistance poultry to antibiotics is actual now, and the consumer is more demanding in choosing of products, prefer eggs and meat products, which were getting in safe conditions. Many European countries began to use the natural promoters of growth, which were effective and long-term, than the synthetic drugs. [19]

New direction in organic poultry. One of the modern directions in poultry is the use of natural promoters of growth of animals and poultry, cancellation of antibiotics for getting eco-friendly production. In this plan high interest is paid to the using extracts of plants (phytobiotics). [18].

From ancient times, herbs and their essential oils are well-known for their variety of antimicrobial activity. [9].

Different kinds of extracts medical's herbs in last time were developed and suggested for using in a feed as the natural antimicrobial substances. [16, 30]. However there are too little experiments about the influence of plants extracts on the weight and performance of poultry. This article is directed to the study of influence of different kinds of extracts medical herbs which are added in a feed as alternative antibiotics.

Organic poultry is a well-known direction in western countries which is spread in other countries too. Farmers don’t use chemical components in this direction, instead that they use alternative substances such as organic acids, probiotics and medical plants.

There are a lot of investigations on positive effects of herbs such as anticoccidial, antioxidant, antifungal and etc. Some of medical effects of herbs are associated with their secondary metabolites such as phenols, necessary oils, saponins. [31].

Plants and their extracts are used traditionally in the world for the treatment of some diseases for a long time, and they play an important role in maintenance of human’s health. Herbs, spices and plant extracts have received increasing attention as possible antibiotics alternatives. Plants and their extracts especially essential oils were used for study of their influence on the broiler’s performance. The effects of essential oils are widely known in their usage by animals and humans. Essentials oils, natural products of plant's origin are extracted by distillation of water / steam [29, 32, 16, 13, 39].

Most of essential oils contain blend of chemical components, such as phenols and polyphenols, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, esters, flavones and flavonoids, tannins,

alkaloids and nonvolatile residues. Such components have a lot of effects such as antimicrobial, stimulating digestive systems, antioxidants, anticoccidial, increase the production of digestive enzymes and improve the utilization of digestive products by enhancing liver functions. Some aromatic plants and their essential oils have results in research in the broiler performance the addition to the feeds or water improved feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield action [29, 32, 13, 16, 39].

Today the use of plants and their derivatives is increasing, because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health.

Besides it, feed additives derived from plants, also called phytogenics or phytobiotics or botanicals, can be included in animal's diet to improve their performance and the properties of the resulting feed and animal products. Among these natural additives, aromatic plants, their extracts and their essential oils have been examined due to their advantages over the antibiotics as growth promoters. They are residue free and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) [4, 37, 38]

Properties of herbal plants. Major mechanisms of herbal plants are: antimicrobial (Guo et al, 2004a), antioxidant (Hashemi et al, 2009a), anti-stress (Chattopadhyay et al, 2005), gut micloflora manipulation (Hashemi et al, 2009b), nutrigenomics effect (Franco-Jimenez et al, 2007), and immune enhancement (Guo et al, 2004b). These mechanisms exert the positive effects on growth performance and health of animals. [25, 26, 27, 28, 10, 20]

Windisch et al (2006) Peric et al (2008) Steiner et al (2006)

Increase performance Steiner et al (2006), Silabo et al (2007), Kroismayr et al (2008)

Figure 1 - Main mechanisms of herbal plants exert the positive effects on the growth performance

and health of animals

Apart from in vitro experiments examining the biological activities of herbs and spices, many in vivo experiments have examined their beneficial impact as dietary supplements in nutrition. A summary of these results is presented in Table 1.

Using of plant extracts in the world’s poultry industry. Let us examine the use of various plant extracts in the diet of broilers and their effects on the body and performance of broilers in different countries.

Table 1 - Use of aromatic plants in animal nutrition [1-4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 17, 21-24, 33, 36, 40]

Aromatic plant Component Effects

Broiler Chickens

Oregano Essential oils No effect on performance Improved performance Anticoccidial effect Improved antioxidant capacity of products

Oregano Dried Improved performance Anticoccidial effect Improved antioxidant capacity of products

Anise Essential oils Improved performance

Seeds Improved performance

Cinnamon Extracts Improved performance

Essential oils

Rosemary Extracts Improved antioxidant capacity of products

Sage Extracts Improved antioxidant capacity of products

Artemisia annua Dried leaves Anticoccidial effect

Sophora flavescens Extracts

Sideritis scardica Dried

Blend Essential oils Anticoccidial effect

Blend Extracts

In Russia, the scientists showed that from all herbs, oregano has the highest antimicrobial property. The essential oil which get from the leaves and flowers of oregano is more effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Such properties of plant became the base for study, which was finished preparing the drug "Orego-Stim”. [19]. On the base of results of the study at learning the efficiency of feed additive "Orego-Stim” for growing chicken’s broilers and production test we can make the conclusion.

Use of feed additive "Orego-Stim” in the diet of broilers did positive effect on the weight and development, safety, metabolism and meat production of poultry. Including in the diet such feed additive promoted the improve qualities parameters of meat. The analysis of meat’s tissue shows that feed additive promotes the reduction of water quantities in the meat of experimental groups broilers. The reduction quantity of water in the meat can lead to increase quantity of dry substance, especially protein and fat.

Another example of use phytonutrients in Russia is the using biotechnical substance "OBP-2099”, which was produced of LLC "Microcellular technology”, for improving feed conversion and increasing the production of poultry[42].

Normal poultry’s microflora on skin and in gastro-intestinal tract plays the major role in the maintenance of poultry’s health. One of the ways of decision the problems with feeding broilers without using the chemical components is the using the extracts of plants, which are positively influence by the controlling the condition of the intestinal microflora.

Company "Microcellular technology” developed the organic biodegradable product "OBP-2099” on the base of extract of plant Ucca Shidigera, the main ingredients of this plant are steroidal saponins. At the hydrolysis in an animal body saponins are converted into sapogenin and into sugar.

"OBP-2099” helps to development and maintenance healthy bacterial microflora in intestinal tract of poultry, increasing the digestibility of feed nutrients, reduction the quantity of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gastro-intestinal tract, provides increase the performance and weight, reducing the cost of feed, reduction of the fattening period

At the result of the study it was claimed, that this feed additive directs activity not only on optimization functional condition in intestine, but on the participation in regulation main mechanisms of homeostasis on the level of macroorganism. The study of the using feed additive "OBP-2099” in nutrition of broilers was conducted in a vivarium "Zagorskoe” in 2006 year on cross "Cobb-500”. The study showed that the highest effect is reached by using "OBP-2099”, in doses 500-600 ml per tonne feed.

The using feed with the addition of drug "OBP-2099" in the optimal doses we can see a significant increase in digestibility of feed nutrients. Chemical analysis of composition broiler’s liver and breast muscle showed that usage of drug "OBP-2099” in a feed of broilers

hasn’t negative activity on the composition and organoleptic characteristics of meat production. Testings of drug “OBP-2099” produced in Russia as an additive to feed for broilers showed his high efficiency as a promoter of digestion and growth.

Cancelation influence drug “OBP-2099” on the chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of meat production, allows using it all the time until slaughter, obtaining the eco-friendly production.

The “OBP-2099” - is a high active plant product, that combines the properties of feed antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, its action selectively inhibit the development of pathogenic microorganisms, saving the useful bacteria that lead to restore normal intestinal microflora of birds and as the result increase the resistance of organism to stress and infections, reduce the appearance of toxins, improve the intake of feed nutrients, increase the safety, production of animals and birds, reduces the cost of feed for production

The research with using aloe vera was conducted by Felisiano Bezhar and Remedios Colapo in Philippines. It is widely known that aloe valued for its medicinal properties, besides it this plant plays an important role in increasing the growth of broilers.

Bezhar has conducted 42 days experiment for study the growth of broilers with using extract aloe vera in water. Chickens were selected on 5 groups for experiment: with using the 5 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml of extract and the normal water as a control. For the value the effect of extract used five parameters: 1) body weight, 2) feed intake, 3) conversion feed ratio, 4) water intake, 5) return of investments.

The result of experiment showed that final weight and gain of broilers were increased significant with the addition in water the extract of aloe vera comparing with control. However, addition the extract of aloe vera haven’t effects on carcass and organoleptic characteristics of broilers. [34]

In Austria, the company Delacon suggests to use the plant feed additive “Biostrong 510” for increasing the digestibility of nutrients, that improves feed conversion and reducing feed costs. Also Biostrong 510 lead to reduce of excretion of ammonia and emissions ammonia. About 18 tests were conducted that to evaluate the effect of additive Biostrong 510 on the performance of birds, protein digestibility and nitrogen balance on broilers.

The results show, that there is no significant effect on feed intake by feeding Biostrong 510, such results were got in a similar nitrogen intake. Final body weight and feed conversion ratio of birds fed Biostrong 510 were improved, respectively as was digestibility of crude protein.

The results showed that feeding Biostrong 510 increased nitrogen retention by 5.5% while N excretion was reduced 7.8% compared with birds fed without the phytogenic feed additive. It can be concluded that the addition of Biostrong significantly improves protein digestibility and there by improves performance, especially feed conversion, and reduces nitrogen excretion. These changes lead to reduced feed costs and reduced ammonia emissions [35]

Experiment which was conducted in Egypt consists in the using of eucalyptus, pomegranate, lime and thyme as the natural biological feed additives for the increasing of performance, strengthening of the skeleton, blood components and an economic efficiency to chickens broilers. Control group got the diet without medical and aromatic plants. Others groups have got the plants in such concentrations: the 2nd and the 3d groups got the main diet + 0,1 and 0,2 % of eucalyptus, the 4th and the 5th groups got the main diet + 0,1 and

0,2% of pomegranate, the 6th and the 7th groups got the main diet + 0,1 and 0,2% of lime, the 8th and the 9th got the main diet + 0,1 and 0,2% of thyme.

In common, addition of medical and aromatic plants by compare with control diet increased the gain of the body. The feeding with addition medical and aromatic plants didn’t show the significant influence on the feed conversion, carcass characteristics and blood components.

The results showed that the mortality has decreased of chickens were fed the starter and finishing diet supplemented aromatic medicinal plants. At the end as a conclusion was suggested near 0,1% of eucalyptus for using as the natural feed additive in diet to broilers, to get the best work and high output per chicken. [41]

In Slovakia for experiment 3 groups chickens broilers were prepared (control and two experimental). These groups of chickens got next feed additives: alfalfa (Medicago sativa) meal (4% - experimental group I) and origanum (Origanum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) oils together (0.05% - experimental group II) in mutual rate of 3:2:1. Broilers were fattening for 36 days. By introducibg plant oils into the feed mixture, we noted slightly positive influence on decrease of losses of cooling after 24 and 48 h, on decrease of losses of freezing and on shear force in mammary muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of breast and thigh muscle. The including of alfalfa meal, positive influence on losses of cooling (24 and 48 h), losses of freezing, baking losses, on shear force of breast muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of thigh muscle was found. Conversely, shear force of thigh muscle and overall sensorial evaluation of breast muscle after application of alfalfa meal showed slightly negative values in compare with control group. [6] In Turkey an experiment on the application of phytonutrients as growth promoters in broilers was conducted. About one hundred and five one day old chickens cross Ross 308 were used for experiment. Chickens were divided on 7th nutrition groups. Feed added to groups so: 1. Control group (got the main diet), 2. with adding of antibiotics (main diet + 10 mg flavomicin /kg diet), 3. using the plant Ucca Shidigera (main diet + 120 mg extract of Ucca Shidigera /kg of diet), 4. using the origanum (main diet + 120 mg essential oil origanum/ kg of diet), 5. with adding of thyme (main diet + 120 mg essential oil thyme/ kg of diet) 6. Using the clove (main diet + 120 mg essential oil clove/ kg of diet). 7. Supplement the ginger (main diet + 120 mg essential oil ginger / kg of diet). Each groups of chickens got the feed ad libitum during the 42nd days.

The study found that antibiotic and addition plants extracts didn’t influence on the increasing the weight of the body, feed intake and efficiency of conversation ratio. Though the production parameters of the addition of these additives were higher. Those chickens that have got the additions of ginger had the high parameters of carcass weight.

About blood characteristics were got next results: concentration of cholesterol hadn’t changes, though the concentration of glucose was higher there where was used the ginger and the concentration of triglycerides was increased by using the ginger and clove.

On such parameter as quantity of bacteria the result was obtained, that on addition of ginger is increased the quantity of lactic acid bacteria in jejunum. Stimulation of lactic acid bacteria is lead to balance of intestine’s microflora. The highest quantity of coliform was found on addition the ginger in a diet.

Plants extract which were used in experiment lead to change of the weight and length of some departments gastro-intestinal tract. Especially by the application of the origanum, ginger and clove is reduced the common length of gastro-intestinal tract, but is increased the weight of jejunum. [15]

Platel et al. (2003) showed that the spice mix of coriander, turmeric, red chilli, black pepper and cumin favorably enhanced the pancreatic lipase, chymotrypsin and amylase activity when consumed via diet. In addition, these spice mix brought about a pronounced stimulation of bile flow and bile acid secretion. Activities of pancreatic lipase, amylase and chymotrypsin were elevated by 40, 16 and 77%, respectively. The higher secretion of bile, especially with an elevated level of bile acids, and a beneficial stimulation of pancreatic digestive enzymes, particularly lipase, could be two mechanisms by which these combinations of spices aid in digestion and increased performance.


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