Научная статья на тему 'CURRENT PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING'

CURRENT PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
methods of teaching / skimming reading / introductory reading / searching reading / language material / text’s content / skills and abilities / методика обучения / поисковое чтение / языковой материал / содержание текста / навыки и умения

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — D.S. Narzullayeva

The article is considered the main methods of teaching students to read professionally oriented foreign texts. This article deals with the ways of learning a foreign language in a non-linguistic university by developing the reading skills of a foreign language text taking into account the students' basic knowledge, the features of interpreting a foreign language text into Russian, as well as background knowledge in one or another specific area. The problem of improving the effectiveness of teaching foreign languages in non-linguistic universities remains relevant until today. It is no secret that, after graduating from high school, a large percentage of graduates go to various courses to “complete their education” or to re-learn a foreign language.

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АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

В статье рассматриваются основные методы обучения студентов чтению профессионально ориентированных иностранных текстов, способы изучения иностранного языка в нелингвистическом университете путем развития навыков чтения текста с учетом базовых знаний студентов, особенностей перевода текста на русский язык, а также фоновые знания в той или иной конкретной области. Проблема повышения эффективности обучения иностранным языкам в неязыковых вузах остается актуальной до сегодняшнего дня. Не секрет, что после окончания средней школы большой процент выпускников посещают различные курсы, чтобы «завершить свое образование» или заново изучить иностранный язык.

Текст научной работы на тему «CURRENT PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING»

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) ТЕОРИЯ И МЕТОДИКА ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

УДК 378-054.6:372.893

D.S. Narzullayeva Д.С. Нарзуллаева

CURRENT PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

The article is considered the main methods of teaching students to read professionally oriented foreign texts. This article deals with the ways of learning a foreign language in a non-linguistic university by developing the reading skills of a foreign language text taking into account the students' basic knowledge, the features of interpreting a foreign language text into Russian, as well as background knowledge in one or another specific area. The problem of improving the effectiveness of teaching foreign languages in non-linguistic universities remains relevant until today. It is no secret that, after graduating from high school, a large percentage of graduates go to various courses to "complete their education" or to re-learn a foreign language.

Key words: methods of teaching, skimming reading, introductory reading, searching reading, language material, text's content, skills and abilities.

В статье рассматриваются основные методы обучения студентов чтению профессионально ориентированных иностранных текстов, способы изучения иностранного языка в нелингвистическом университете путем развития навыков чтения текста с учетом базовых знаний студентов, особенностей перевода текста на русский язык, а также фоновые знания в той или иной конкретной области. Проблема повышения эффективности обучения иностранным языкам в неязыковых вузах остается актуальной до сегодняшнего дня. Не секрет, что после окончания средней школы большой процент выпускников посещают различные курсы, чтобы «завершить свое образование» или заново изучить иностранный язык.

Ключевые слова: методика обучения, поисковое чтение, языковой материал, содержание текста, навыки и умения.

Introduction

Recent years, great attention has been paid to learning foreign languages. And this is not only a "tribute to fashion" in foreign languages, but also the need for the all-round development of a future specialist in a particular area. Now, more than ever, there are all conditions for learning a foreign language: this is the opportunity to travel abroad, and communication with native speakers via the Internet, and the opportunity to invite foreign specialists. A significant expansion of international

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) contacts in various spheres of human activity significantly influenced the changing needs and goals of mastering the language of international communication.

When learning a language, simultaneously with the condition of each lexeme, the lexical concept associated with it is formed. If the lexeme is acquired and articulated correctly, this does not yet indicate that the lexical concept has been completed. In the educational process, it should be borne in mind that the word is simultaneously a sign of reality and a unit of language. Therefore, nonequivalent and background vocabulary needs comment, requires special attention of the teacher. Equivalent vocabulary is the property of culture. If we compare two national cultures, then we can conclude that they never completely coincide. This follows from the fact that each language consists of national and international elements, and for each culture, the totality of these elements will be different. We introduce students to language units that most clearly reflect the national characteristics of the culture of the native speaker of the language and among its existence. In addition, the content of the national culture also includes the social component, on the basis of which knowledge about the realities and rights of the countries of the studied language, knowledge and skills of communicative behavior in acts of speech communication, skills and abilities of verbal and non-verbal behavior are formed.

Aim of the article

The intension of this article is to stimulate interest in making the study of modern foreign languages more interesting, real, and profitable to the student. So it does not seem out of place, first, to sum up the aims commonly accepted as the goal in studying modern foreign languages; secondly, to compare these aims with the results now obtained; and, lastly, to suggest a few changes in method by which the results may be brought into closer proximity with those aims.

The direct aim in studying a modern foreign language is of course to master that language as an instrument for the purposes of recognition (reading, hearing) or application (speaking, writing).

The indirect aim in studying a modern foreign language is twofold: to improve one's command of one's native tongue, and to discipline one's mental processes.

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2)

The problems and causes of communicative problems in foreign students

For many persons, their first- and very often their only-real approach to the study of grammar occurs in their foreign language study. For the first time they become linguistically conscious, and soon reflect this in their own speech and writing.

The article explores the problems and causes of their occurrence in foreign students who graduated pre-university training. English is taught throughout all the years of study, in all specialties; electrical engineering, programming and management, and the main task of training is the mastery of students' communication skills in English. If we consider the first two specialties, then much attention is paid to teaching students to "communicate" with technology, and managers, in turn, can not do without communication with people. Therefore, last year of training, the emphasis is on business English, where the communicative method of instruction is the main one. However, here we are faced with a number of communicative problems of linguistics. The experience of teaching shows that even at advanced stages of training students admit a significant number of errors both in the performance of exercises and in the use of substantive constructions in conversational practice. Incorrect use of these structures in the composition of a complex sentence leads to a violation of the logic of the utterance and, as a consequence, to nonfulfillment of the tasks of communication. In this regard, we see the need for more detailed equipping of this topic and the development of relevant recommendations. Another obstacle on the way to solve the communicative problem of linguistics is the correct perception of the said form, that is, the perception of what has been said by ear.

The problem of the translation of the form into a common meaning

The next problem is the translation of the form into a common meaning. At this stage, it is important that the listener knows at least one, the most common meaning of the word, which was told to others. Therefore, when teaching English as a means of communication, it is important to make it clear to students that a person perceives what is said through their individual and cultural prism, and therefore, it is necessary, as accurately as possible, to convey all the meanings that the word carries within

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) itself. The transition from cultural to individual values is manifested in the projection of cultural values through the prism of some of their own properties, attitudes. This is the barrier in communication, which is called psychological, and is the most difficult to overcome in communication between individuals, because for all people the mechanism of "encryption" and "decryption" is different and depends on various reasons, one of which is the different psychology of people.

Expansion of background knowledge of students

This problem is also connected with one of the problems of the theory of translation, namely with the methods of transfer of the equivalent vocabulary, i.e. vocabulary, which has no analogues in a different culture. It, in turn, creates a great obstacle in communication between people of different cultures. The solution to this problem we see in the expansion of background knowledge of students. Background vocabulary are words or expressions that have additional content and accompanying semantic or stylistic nuances that overlap with its basic meaning, known to the speaker and listener belonging to a given language culture. Therefore, an important stage in teaching communication is to familiarize students with the realities, traditions and customs of English-speaking countries.

The use of the linguistic and cultural aspect contributes to the formation of the motivation of the teaching, which is very important in the conditions of studying in the college because foreign language communication is not supported by the language environment.

In this regard, we are trying to select the language material reflecting the culture of the country of the studied language, the so-called realities. in realities, the closeness between language and culture is most clearly manifested. A distinctive feature of reality from other words of the language is the nature of its subject content, i.e. the close connection of the designated reality of the object or phenomenon with the national, on the one hand, and the historical interval of time-on the other hand. Reality as a linguistic phenomenon is most closely connected with the culture of the country of the studied language, since it has a national and historical color.

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) It should be noted that students need speech practice not only on colloquial and everyday topics, but also in the practice of communication at a professional level. Representatives of another national culture, studying subjects of a natural specialty, meet with significant difficulties in understanding professional terminology. And also educational situational themed modules are distributed depending on grammatical topics. The teaching material in the textbooks can be distributed in different ways, but the basic structure of the textbook presentation can be as follows: after the new grammatical material, a speech pattern, micro texts and dialogues follow, in which the new vocabulary is found. Thus, foreign students see how words change in combination with different word forms.

The effective methods to prevent problems in speech It is interesting to note the fact that foreign students after the end of the preparatory department encounter difficulties in understanding the lecture material on special subjects. Often, this problem is that at the stage of pre-university training, the training of foreign students is isolated from the speakers of the language being studied, and secondly, during the year of pre-university training foreigners get used to the slow pace of speech, as well as the adapted language during the classes, thirdly, after the end of the preparatory department, foreigners are completely immersed in the language learning environment, which does not take into account the national psychological characteristics of the foreign contingent, where the training system university cardinally differs from the system of vocational education in the home country of foreign students. The article suggests possible effective methods for preventing future students from problems in the first years of study at the university. For writing this work, such methods of research, as observation, analysis and generalization were used. The article examines the learning situations in the teaching foreign language, as well as in vocational subjects at the stage of pre-university training, during which problems of foreign students arise that impede successful study at the university. The work examines the methodological point of view of the teachers mistakes, identified by the author based on monitoring the method of working with foreign students in the preparatory department. Classes in vocational

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) subjects, where attention is focused on the method of submitting educational material, are of particular interest. The author of this article believes that the methods of vocational subjects should also be developed in accordance with the principle of taking into account the contingent of foreign students. This approach will help students to understand better the language of the vocational subject, and the teacher to understand and eliminate the possible cause of failures, during the learning of the vocational subject. Today we have greater freedom in establishing direct international contacts. Due to this, it became possible to have a variety of authentic materials on the basis of which training is carried out. These are textbooks published in the countries of the language being studied, periodicals, videos, phonetic materials read by native speakers, etc. As a result, the formation of foreign language competence has become one of the main goals of teaching foreign languages. A positive factor in the reform of language education is the possibility of international cooperation. Many educational institutions participate in international projects, joint training materials are being developed, Internet programs, intercollegiate conferences, experience sharing workshops etc. A large reserve of increasing the motivation of learning and improving foreign languages lies in the possibility of using mass media: news programs, feature films, music programs, youth programs [2, р. 103].

When studying at a university in conditions of a shortage of study hours, there are objective difficulties in the development of key skills leading to non-language universities in reading professional literature in a foreign language.

The effective development of these skills makes it possible to concentrate while reading mainly on the semantic perception of the text. Zh.A. Suvorova and R.P. Milrud conducted a serious analysis of the problems of learning a foreign language and prepared a "Program of educational institutions for the study of foreign languages in modern conditions" [6, p. 29, 41]. They argue that the root of all deficiencies in the study of a foreign language is still in school, so applicants who came to college from a regular secondary school often do not have the above-mentioned skills or possess, but at the level of insufficient for a full, mature reading of foreign language literature.

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2)

Conclusion

Have graduates schools specializing in the in-depth study of a foreign language are usually speaking skills are much more developed than reading skills. We completely agree with similar remarks, because in our everyday work we are faced with the inability of students to work correctly with a foreign language text. At the same time, it is in the conditions of school education that the mechanisms of "proper" reading should be formed in the process of working on so-called "educational" reading.

Based on the final level of reading skills requirements, high school graduate should be able to read silently simple texts from the socio-political, popular science, as well as adapted texts from fiction, containing up to 9% of unfamiliar vocabulary, realizing the following skills in the process of reading: all sorts of conjectures; semantic synthesis; semantic processing. If the school graduate possessed the skills of the three groups mentioned above, he would have an excellent base for the development of professional reading skills.

But, unfortunately, this is not always the case, and university teachers face the task of developing or adjusting these skills in relation to reading professional literature. To do this, we have to imagine for what purpose, as a rule, the future specialist reads professional literature.

The use of sources in a foreign language most often has the following objectives: familiarity with publications on a particular problem; finding out the main trends or directions of foreign research in or another area; selection of material for scientific work; compilation of a bibliography on a specific issue.

Guess depending on the leading supports is divided into the following types that make up general skill: within the verbal, contextual, within the verbal-contextual. Inside the verbal guess involves the disclosure of the meaning of the word based on the analysis of its derivational elements.

Contextual guess can be used when the context with its thematic, semantic and structural links actualizes the categorical meaning of the word, which narrows down to the concrete. Its mechanism is complex, it is based on individual associative links,

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) but it is possible to teach her, because Students can establish conceptual associations, classify language units as necessary grammatical categories, and language material as lexical categories.

The ability of students to intensive analytical and synthetic activities, high the degree of development of their intellectual and logical thinking skills, facilitating quick search and establishment of cause-and-effect relationships, provide an opportunity to teach the special skills of the skill group of semantic synthesis. These private skills these are: the ability to identify certain elements in the text (semantic milestones, key words, supporting facts) and, based on them, select an essential thought or meaning from the flow of speech; the ability to summarize individual facts in their logical sequence; the ability to relate individual parts, to determine the logical connection between them.

The criteria for the formation of skills of semantic synthesis are the correct understanding of the content of the read and the completeness of understanding, which characterizes the formation of the above-mentioned skills and is determined by the level of combination of the understood meanings (the permissible level should not be less than 75% of the ideal (100%)). The ability to use supports in the text to understand an unfamiliar word or contextual meaning of a known word. The ability to effectively use a dictionary that includes the following skills: a) receptive speech lexical skill - correctly learn and understand the lexical unit in context; b) receptive language lexical skill - to set the value of the lexical unit when referring to the dictionary; c) dictionary use skill - quickly and accurately find the word in a bilingual dictionary; d) language grammatical skill - to determine, by formal signs, the belonging of a lexical unit to a certain part of speech; e) grammatical linguistic retrains formational skill - to transform the grammatical form of a word into the original dictionary form; f) the ability to choose the meaning of the desired word - to find a value that is suitable in context; g) the ability to rationally use the dictionary -provided that the general content of the text is understood, contact the dictionary only if it is broken; h) the ability to guess the meaning of certain words, reducing the number of word searches; i) the ability to compress the text - to neglect the details

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) that do not carry basic information; j) receptive grammatical skill - to recognize the syntactic structure of a sentence, to determine its main members.

References

1. Dyakova O.N., Gagarina E.Yu. Vzaimosvyaz' urovnya vovlechennosti inostrannyh studentov s uchebnoj motivaciej i obrazovatel'nymi dostizheniyami [The relationship between the level of involvement of foreign students with educational motivation and educational achievements] v sbornike: Aktual'nye problemy obucheniya inostrannyh studentov v medicinskom vuze / Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem, posvyashchennoj 100-letiyu Astrahanskogo GMU, pod redakciej Satretdinovoj A.H. 2018. - pp. 20-27.

2. Madzhaeva S.I. Gagarina E.Yu. Meditsinskiy internet-forum i sotsialnaya set: opredeleniye i funktsii [Medical Internet Forum and Social Network: Definition and Functions]. Vestnik chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2019. - № 6 (428). - pp. 101-106.

3. Milrud R.P., Goncharov A.A. Theoretical and practical problems of teaching the understanding of communicative meaning of foreign texts // Foreign languages in school. 2003. - № 1

4. Socoilogical encyclopedic Russian-English dictionary / S.A. Kravchenko. M., 2004.

5. Solovey S.S. English course for law enforcement colleges of the Interior of the Russian Federation. Omsk, 2001.

6. Suvorova Zh.A., Milrud R.P. English language. Programs for educational establishments. Subjectical line of texts books «Star English». M., 2011.

Литература

1. Дьякова О.Н., Гагарина Е.Ю. Взаимосвязь уровня вовлеченности иностранных студентов с учебной мотивацией и образовательными достижениями в сборнике: Актуальные проблемы обучения иностранных студентов в медицинском вузе / Материалы научно-практической конференции

ISSN 2712-9519. ЛИНГВИСТИКА И ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. 2020. № 2 (2) с международным участием, посвященной 100-летию Астраханского ГМУ, под редакцией Сатретдиновой А.Х. - 2018. - С. 20-27.

2. Маджаева С.И., Гагарина Е.Ю. Медицинский интернет-форум и социальная сеть: определение и функции // Вестник челябинского государственного университета. 2019. № 6 (428). - C. 101-106.

3. Милруд Р.П., Гончаров А.А. Теоретические и практические проблемы обучения пониманию коммуникативного значения иностранных текстов // Иностранные языки в школе. - 2003. - № 1.

4. Социологический энциклопедический русско-английский словарь / С.А. Кравченко. - М., 2004.

5. Соловей С.С. Английский курс для правоохранительных колледжей МВД России Федерация. - Омск, 2001.

6. Суворова Ж.А., Милруд Р.П. Английский язык. Программы для образовательных учреждений. Тематическая строка текстов книг «Звездный английский». - М., 2011.

УДК: 378 - 054.6:81.271

Л.Н. Юсупалиева L.N. Yusupalieva ИЗЛОЖЕНИЕ КАК СПОСОБ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ПИСЬМУ ИНОСТРАННЫХ СТУДЕНТОВ ESSAY AS A WAY OF TEACHING OF FOREIGN STUDENTS TO WRITE

Статья посвящена анализу работы с изложением, представляющим собой важный способ обучения письму иностранных студентов. Автор статьи подвергает анализу учебное пособие, в котором описывается работа с текстом изложения. Основное содержание исследования составляет анализ заданий, направленных на подготовку студентов к написанию данного вида письма. В результате анализа учебного пособия выделены и охарактеризованы основные этапы работы с текстом изложения.

Ключевые слова: изложение, письмо, текст, задание, учебное пособие, план, иностранный студент.

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