Научная статья на тему 'Mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic major students'

Mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic major students Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
INFORMATIZATION OF EDUCATION / INFORMATIZATION OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION / MOBILE TEACHING / LANGUAGE ABILITIES / LANGUAGE SKILLS

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Kapranchikova Kseniya

The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students'' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic major students»

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

UDC 373.167.1

MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING

A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO NON-LINGUISTIC MAJOR STUDENTS

K.V. Kapranchikova

Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter I (Voronezh, Russian Federation) E-mail: ksenialive@rambler.ru

Abstract. The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.

Keywords: informatization of education; informatization of language education; mobile teaching; language abilities; language skills.

Informatization of a modern Russian society could not but influence the informatization of education in general and language education informatization in particular [1-3]. The beginning of the XXI century is characterized by an intensive process of introducing new information and communication technologies in foreign language teaching, creating new and innovative forms of education and training. Mobile foreign language teaching is a form of organization and control of the learning process based on the use of mobile communication devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.), in which students in any place and at any time can shape and improve language skills, develop oral skills (by means of synchronous and asynchronous communication), to form the sociocultural and intercultural competence in order to use a foreign language as a means of communication in the social and domestic and professional spheres.

The term "mobile learning" is inextricably linked with the concept of "distance education". This concept should be described as a form of learning in which the interaction between teachers and students and between students is carried out at a distance and involves all the typical components of the educational process (objectives, content, methods, organizational forms, and learning tools). Depending on the means of implementation of distance learning, the latter can be divided into types: a) correspondence model of distance learning, based on the use of printed materials in hard-copy form; b) multimedia model, based on the study of printed, multimedia, video, audio materials, local computer programs; c) tele-education, based on the establishment of communication

between teacher and students using TV systems (audio teleconferencing, videoconferencing, audiographic communication, TV broadcast); d) Web-based training, carried out through a variety of communication and presentation of educational content suggested by Internet (access to Web resources, interactive multimedia), e) intellectual model of learning, including interactive multimedia, access to Internet resources, computer communication between all participants of the educational process. It is obvious that mobile learning is the latest form -intellectual model - of the distance learning.

In practice, mobile learning is implemented by mobile technologies -mobile means of communication between people or obtaining instant access to relevant information. In foreign language teaching you may use the following mobile technologies: e-mail, blogging technology, wiki technology, podcasts, web forum, linguistic corpus, electronic dictionaries, reference Internet resources, tools of synchronous video Internet communication and navigators. Each of the mobile technologies has distinctive didactic properties, didactic and methodical features. According to P.V. Sysoyev [4], the didactic qualities of mobile technology should be interpreted as "main characteristics and features that distinguish one information technology from the other" [Ibid: 13]. Didactic functions are interpreted as representations of mobile technologies. Within the framework of different courses the same mobile technologies with their inherent properties and relevant didactic functions will represent different methodological functions within the discipline. Accordingly, methodical functions within foreign language teaching will be the methodical abilities of these technologies in the development of oral skills and language skills as well as the formation of students' socio-cultural and intercultural competences [5].

Let us briefly examine each of the technologies and denote types of performance or aspects of the language being developed on its basis.

A) E-mail or electronic mail group - Internet service for the exchange of written communications between users. On the basis of E-mail, this can be organized by telecommunication projects based on information exchange among participants. Methodological potential of e-mail and e-mail group was covered in dissertations by V.G. Apalkov [6] and N.A. Sushkova [7]. As a result, techniques have been developed for implementation of language telecommunication projects aimed at the development of writing skills of pupils and students, as well as the formation of their socio-cultural and intercultural competences.

B) Blog technology is a modern Internet technology that allows users to submit information on the page in multimedia format in the form of a diary or journal, as well as to comment on reports of users. Researches provided by P.V. Sysoyev, M.N. Evstigneev [8, 9], I.A. Evstigneeva [10] and O.V. Borscheva [11] indicate that on the basis of blog technology can be developed some of pupils' and students' writing skills (levels B1 - C2) and socio-cultural skills.

C) Wiki technology - one of the modern Internet technologies, enabling one person or group of persons located an indefinite (and unlimited) distance from each other to work on a common written (multimedia) document. Empirical studies of P.V. Sysoyev, M.N. Evstigneev [12, 13], Y.Y. Markova [14], I.K. Zabrodina [15] indicate that on the basis of wiki technology can be developed some of pupils' and students' writing skills (levels B1 - C2) and socio-cultural skills.

D) Podcasts - modern Internet technology, on the basis of which you can discover, listen, browse featured podcasts, and record and host your personal podcast. In the Internet there are a large number of academic and non-academic (authentic) podcasts services that can be used for the development of students' listening skills. There are also services that allow users to post podcasts and arrange discussion of shared network podcasts in micro-blog or forum. The scientific literature lacks for methodological papers on the use of podcasts in the development of students' verbal skills. P.V. Sysoyev and M.N. Evstigneev [12] identified a range of oral and listening skills developed on the basis of podcasts service. This nomenclature has been extended in the thesis of A.G. Solomatina [16], which also paid attention to the socio-cultural content of foreign language teaching based on this service. Thus, we can conclude that on the basis of podcasts service it is possible to develop oral and listening skills, as well as social competence of students.

E) Web Forum - section of the site, developed for network users to discuss any issue. In his study A.K. Cherkasov [17] developed a methodology for the development of students' socio-cultural skills based on a web forum. The analysis of this study and other studies leads to the conclusion that based on a web forum we can develop writing and reading skills, as well as social competence components. However, we must note that a web forum gave out a bit after the development of blog technology that has additional technological capabilities.

F) Means of synchronous video online communication, which, according to D.A. Ezhikov, should be classified as "technology providing the ability to communicate in real-time on the basis of Internet programs securing video and audio communication" [18: 8]. Means of synchronous video online communication have distinctive didactic functions: organization of remote synchronous learning; development of students' cognitive activity; developing abilities for learning in cooperation; developing abilities for autonomous learning. D.A. Ezhikov's study testifies that mobile technologies allow developing language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening) and socio-cultural and cross-cultural skills. The researcher proved the methodological potential of means of synchronous video online communication in the development of all components of foreign language communicative competence under conditions of tele-education as a form of distance learning. Therefore, in pure technology, this technology can be used in the implementation of the model of comprehensive mobile learning.

G) Electronic dictionaries. On the basis of electronic dictionaries we can organize students' research (during reading), develop their cognitive activity, develop skills of cooperative learning and develop students' abilities for autonomous learning. Electronic dictionaries are used to develop students' lexical skills and to form their competence at translation.

H) Linguistic corpus - arrays of texts in electronic form, grouped according to certain parameters (chronology, author, region, etc.). On the basis of linguistic corpus we can organize students' research work, develop their cognitive activity, develop skills of cooperative learning and develop students' abilities for autonomous learning. Recently there appeared a sufficient number of methodological papers [19, 20] indicating the possibility for developing students' grammatical and lexical skills on the basis of monolingual corpuses and corpus of parallel texts.

I) Informational and reference network resources are available for all users of mobile devices through mobile applications of the Internet browsers. The informational and reference network resources include encyclopedias, directories, online media, virtual tours of museums, galleries, theaters, cities, etc. Informational and reference resources have the following common didactic properties: accessibility, multimedia, hypertext structure. This allows us to organize students' research work, to develop their cognitive activity, to develop skills of cooperative learning and abilities for autonomous learning.

Methodological papers on the use of network reference resources in foreign language teaching testify that on its basis we can develop a whole range of productive and receptive language skills, as well as develop aspects of socio-cultural and intercultural competence [21, 22].

J) Navigators - mobile applications, allowing to determine the optimal path from one place in a particular locality to another. They are characterized by accessibility and multimedia. Traditionally, drivers use navigators to determine the desired route. In the educational process the use of navigators will facilitate the organization of students' research, development of their cognitive activity, development of their abilities for learning in cooperation and skills for autonomous learning. In foreign language teaching navigators can be used for developing productive language skills (speaking and writing) (under discussion in a foreign language the route in one of the towns in Russia or abroad), as well as for developing student's sociocultural skills.

Analysis of studies dedicated to the use of the above mentioned technologies in foreign language teaching testifies that on their basis we can develop productive (speaking and writing) and receptive (listening and reading) types of speech activity, develop students' language skills (grammatical and lexical) and their sociocultural and intercultural competence.

One of the main goals in foreign language teaching at various stages is to develop communicative competence in all the diversity of its components [23, 24]. According to the Federal Standard of Higher Education in nonlin-

guistic areas of training, such as the area of training 030900 "Jurisprudence" (qualification / degree "bachelor"), graduates must possess the necessary skills for professional communication in a foreign language (OK-13) (GEF VPO on the area of training "Jurisprudence"). Graduates should possess foreign language competence of the level B 2 (threshold advanced level (Vantage)) on the European scale of language proficiency. This level of language proficiency is characterized by understanding of general content of professional texts, fast and spontaneous speech, ability to produce clear, detailed reports on professional issues, express original views on the basic problem of the text, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of various options.

On the basis of identified didactic properties, didactic functions and methodological functions of mobile technology we can develop a range of students' oral and language skills formed on the basis of this type of technology (table 1).

T a b l e 1

Oral skills formed on the basis of mobile technologies

Oral Skills / Mobile technology E-mail Blog-technology Wiki-technology Podcasts Web-forum Synchronous Internet video communication Navigators Informational and reference resources

Oral skills

make reports containing the most important information on the issue + + + + + + + +

summarize briefly the received information + + - + + + + +

speak about oneself, one's relations, one's plans, providing arguments for one's intentions / actions + + - + + + - -

speculate about facts and events, giving arguments and examples, making conclusions + + + + + + + +

describe the specifics of life and culture of one's own country and country of native speakers of a foreign language being studied + + + + + + + +

exchange information in the process of dialogic interaction on the content of a text been read / heard + + + + + + + +

start, keep on and finish conversation in typical communicative situations, observing rules of communicational etiquette, addressing clarification questions if necessary + + - - + + - -

question a partner and answer his questions, suggesting one's own opinion, respond a request, agree or refuse partner's statement, relying on the adopted subject areas and lexical and grammatical material + + - - + + + +

produce remarks (answers to the questions, comments, notes, attitudes to remarks) + + - + + + + +

Listening skills

identify informational value of semantic accent in sentences - - - + - + - -

identify shortened lexical and grammatical forms - - - + - + - -

identify word order for various types of sentences - - - + - + - -

identify active vocabulary while listening a text on a certain topic - - - + - + - -

identify key words in audio-text - - - + - + - -

define the meaning of unknown words from the context - - - + - + - -

identify connective words in audio-text - - - + - + - -

appreciate audio-text varying in rate and recorded by bearers of various accents and dialects - - - + - + - -

identify registers of sentences - - - + - + - -

identify and interpret variability of linguistic realization of statement depending on involvement of the speaker to a certain social / cultural group (age, social, ethnical, etc.) - - - + - + - -

understand the goal of communication / audio-text - - - + - + - -

understand the subject of audio-text - - - + - + - -

identify the participants of communication / speaker - - - + - + - -

understand logic in representing information or argumentation (sequence of facts, events) - - - + - + - -

understand interconnections between facts, reasons, events, etc. - - - + - + - -

identify speaker's attitude towards the subject of discussion - - - + - + - -

predict the course of events - - - + - + - -

express one's own judgment, opinion about the matters been heard - - - + - + - -

Reading skills

define structure and communicative orientation of the whole text and its parts, functions of paragraphs + + + - + + - +

identify subject, to single out the main thought + + + - + + - +

pick out the basic facts from the text, skipping the minors + + + - + + - +

predict the contents of the text on the headline, beginning of the text + + + - + + - +

single out the key points and landmarks + + + - + + - +

predict the meaning of key words and escape unknown words which do prevent from understanding of the basic contents + + + - + + - +

have an accurate understanding of the text on the level of sense and meaning + + + - + + - +

understand structure and organization of the text, and therefore to be able to formulate (in one's mind) a coherent and contiguous whole + + + - + + - +

Writing skills

fill in forms (name, surname, sex, age, citizenship, address) +

write formal letters; + + + - - + - -

carry on personal / e-mail correspondence + + - - - + - -

write applications + + + - - + - -

fill in various types of forms +

present information about oneself in the form adopted in the native speakers' country (curriculum vitae/ resume) + + - - + + - +

make up a plan, theses + + + - + + - -

On the basis of linguistic corpus and electronic dictionaries we may develop students' lexical and grammatical skills. Table 2 represents students' lexical and grammatical skills developed on the basis of these two mobile technologies.

T a b l e 2

Students' lexical and grammatical skills developed on the basis of mobile technologies

Lexical and grammatical skills / Mobile technology Linguistic corpus Electronic dictionary

Productive lexical skills in the sphere of professional communication

choose correctly professional terms and polysemantic words, one of the meanings of which is used in professional communication, to express thoughts in written or oral statement on professional subject + +

combine new terms with already adopted lexical units + +

make equivalent substitutions of terms, to use paraphrase + +

Receptive lexical skills in the sphere of professional communication

correlate acoustic (during listening) or graphical (during reading) image of a term with its semantics + +

identify and understand professional terms and polysemantic words one of the meanings of which is used in professional communication, under perception audio or graphical text and during communication on professional subject + +

single out meanings of polysemantic words one of which is referred to sphere of professional communication + +

identify distinctions in the functioning of terms similar in meaning + +

reveal meaning of professional term or polysemantic words one of the meanings of which is used in professional communication with the help of the context + +

understand meaning of terms or commonly used polysemantic words relying on their acoustic / graphical features + +

understand meaning of commonly used polysemantic words relying on the context of professional communication + +

Students' productive grammar skills

make up grammatical forms and constructions + +

choose and use grammatical constructions depending on the communicative situation + +

vary grammatical representation of the statement under variation of communicative intension + +

formulate grammatical rule relying on the results of search in the linguistic corpus or electronic dictionary + +

single out grammatical representation of oral and written texts; to use grammatical phenomena in oral speech + +

be competent at the interpretation of meanings and translation of the basic grammatical categories into native language + +

Students' receptive grammar skills

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be competent at the interpretation of meanings and translation of the basic grammatical categories into native language + +

differentiate and identify grammatical phenomena (on formal criteria and function words) + +

correlate the meaning of grammatical forms / constructions with their semantics + +

predict grammatical forms of the word / construction + +

set up logical, temporal, causal, coordinative and subordinate relations and connections between the elements of the sentences + +

In conclusion it should be noted that regular use of mobile technologies in foreign language teaching will facilitate the development of the aspects of communicative competence.

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