Научная статья на тему 'the orienters of development of forms of communicative influence of civil society on the public policy'

the orienters of development of forms of communicative influence of civil society on the public policy Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
forms of communicative influence / state administration / mass media / public sector / форми комунікативного впливу / державне управління / засоби масової інформації / державний сектор

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Chaplay Iryna Vitaliivna

The article presents the theoretical and methodological foundations of the development of forms of communicative influence of civil society on the public policy, provides the main methods and conditions of their use for gaining advantages in solving problems of public-management relations. A wide range of issues related to the peculiarities of public relations organization, taking into account domestic and foreign experience, is covered. The specifics of the use of marketing communications in communicating of public authorities with the public are shown. It is substantiated that in the institutional sense, the greatest interest is the classification, depending on the scope of distribution. The public, when communicating with government, through certain communication tools, is called the external form of communication. The external forms of the communicative influence of civil society on state policy help them convey to the state authorities the necessary information about their thoughts, needs, requests, etc. Of course, such information should be constantly updated and accurate. All non-governmental organizations should maintain friendly relations with state organizations and prevent any misinformation of the latter. At the same time, informatization of public administration contains both positive potential and difficulties and contradictions, neglection which, as practice shows, turns negative result. To date, they are insufficiently developed and require scientific comprehension and substantiation, in particular, the issue of organizational, regulatory and legal support for the implementation and implementation of modern marketing tools and management in public administration. Concerning the prospects for further research on the concept of "the form of communicative influence of civil society on state policy", they consist in streamlining its conceptual apparatus as the basis for improving its system, since incomplete and inaccurate information becomes, as a result, the cause of many problems in the system of reforming public administration .

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ОРІЄНТИРИ РОЗВИТКУ ФОРМ КОМУНІКАТИВНОГО ВПЛИВУ ГРОМАДЯНСЬКОГО СУСПІЛЬСТВА НА ДЕРЖАВНУ ПОЛІТИКУ

У статті викладено теоретичні та методологічні основи розвитку форм комунікативного впливу громадянського суспільства на державну політику, надано основні прийоми та умови їх використання для отримання переваг у вирішенні проблем державно-управлінських відносин. Висвітлено широке коло питань, що стосуються особливостей організації зв’язків із громадськістю, із урахуванням вітчизняного та зарубіжного досвідів. Відображено специфіку застосування маркетингових комунікацій у спілкуванні органів державної влади з громадськістю. Обґрунтовано, що в інституціональному змісті найбільший інтерес становить класифікація залежно від сфери розповсюдження. Громадськість, коли вона спілкується з органами державної влади, за допомогою певних комунікаційних інструментів, називається зовнішньою формою комунікації. Зовнішні форми комунікативного впливу громадянського суспільства на державну політику допомагають їм донести до органів державної влади необхідну інформацію щодо їхніх думок, потреб, запитів та ін. Звичайно, така інформація постійно повинна оновлюватися та бути точною. Всі громадські організації повинні підтримувати доброзичливі стосунки з державними організаціями і не допускати будь-якої дезінформації останніх. Разом з тим інформатизація публічного управління містить як позитивний потенціал, так і труднощі й протиріччя, нехтування якими, як свідчить практика, обертається негативним результатом. На сьогодні недостатньо розроблені та потребують наукового осмислення й обґрунтування, зокрема, питання організаційного, нормативно-правового забезпечення впровадження та реалізації сучасних інструментів маркетингу, менеджменту у публічному управлінні. Щодо перспектив подальших досліджень поняття “форми комунікативного впливу громадянського суспільства на державну політику”, то вони полягають в упорядкуванні його понятійного апарату, як підґрунтя удосконалення його системи, адже неповна та неточна інформація стає, в результаті, причиною виникнення багатьох проблем у системі реформування державного управління.

Текст научной работы на тему «the orienters of development of forms of communicative influence of civil society on the public policy»

UDC: 728

Chaplay Iryna Vitaliivna,

PhD in Public Administration, Executive Director of the Presidium of the civic scientific organization, "Ukrainian Assembly of doctors of science in public administration ", PhD student of the Department of Public Administration, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, 03039, Kyiv, Str. Frometivska, 2, tel.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610

Чаплай 1рина Вталйвна,

кандидат наук з державного управлтня, виконавчий директор Президп Всеукрат-cbKoï асамблеï докторгв наук з державного управлтня, докторант кафедри публiч-ного адмШстрування, Мiжрегiональна Академiя управлтня персоналом, 03039, м. Кшв, вул. Фрометiвська, 2, тел.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610

кандидат наук по государственному управлению, исполнительный директор Президиума Всеукраинской ассамблеи докторов наук по государственному управлению, докторант кафедры публичного администрирования, Межрегиональная Академия управления персоналом, 03039, г. Киев, ул. Фрометовская, 2, тел.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610

DOI https://doi.org/10.31618/vadnd.v1i12.94

THE ORIENTERS OF DEVELOPMENT OF FORMS OF COMMUNICATIVE INFLUENCE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ON THE PUBLIC POLICY

Abstract. The article presents the theoretical and methodological foundations of the development of forms of communicative influence of civil society on the public policy, provides the main methods and conditions of their use for gaining advantages in solving problems of public-management relations. A wide range of issues related to the peculiarities of public relations organization, taking into account domestic and foreign experience, is covered. The specifics of the use of marketing communications in communicating of public authorities with the public are shown.

It is substantiated that in the institutional sense, the greatest interest is the classification, depending on the scope of distribution. The public, when communicating with government, through certain communication tools, is called the external form of communication. The external forms of the communicative influence of civil society on state policy help them convey to the state authorities the necessary information about their thoughts, needs, requests, etc. Of course, such information should be constantly updated and accurate. All non-governmental organizations should maintain friendly relations with state organizations and prevent any misinformation of the latter.

At the same time, informatization of public administration contains both positive potential and difficulties and contradictions, neglection which, as practice shows, turns negative result. To date, they are insufficiently developed and require scientific comprehension and substantiation, in particular, the issue of organizational, regulatory and legal support for the implementation and implementation of modern marketing tools and management in public administration.

Concerning the prospects for further research on the concept of "the form of communicative influence of civil society on state policy", they consist in streamlining its conceptual apparatus as the basis for improving its system, since incomplete and inaccurate information becomes, as a result, the cause of many problems in the system of reforming public administration .

Keywords: forms of communicative influence, state administration, mass media, public sector.

оршнтири розвитку форм комушкативного впливу громадянського сусп1льства на державну пол1тику

Анотащя. У статт викладено теоретичш та методолопчш основи розвит-ку форм комушкативного впливу громадянського сусшльства на державну пол^ику, надано основш прийоми та умови ïx використання для отримання переваг у виршенш проблем державно-управлшських вщносин. Висв^ле-но широке коло питань, що стосуються особливостей оргашзацп зв'язив Í3 громадсьюстю, Í3 урахуванням вггчизняного та зарубiжного досввдв. Ввдо-бражено специфжу застосування маркетингових комушкацш у сшлкуванш оргашв державно'1 влади з громадсьистю.

Обгрунтовано, що в шститущональному змют найбшьший штерес ста-новить класифжащя залежно ввд сфери розповсюдження. Громадсьисть, коли вона сшлкуеться з органами державно'1 влади, за допомогою певних комушкацшних iнструментiв, називаеться зовнiшньою формою комушка-цй'. Зовнiшнi форми комунiкативного впливу громадянського сусшльства на державну пол^ику допомагають !'м донести до оргашв державно'1 влади необxiдну iнформацiю щодо 'ixнix думок, потреб, запитiв та ш. Звичайно, та-ка шформащя постiйно повинна оновлюватися та бути точною. Bti громад-ськi оргашзацп повинш пiдтримувати доброзичливi стосунки з державними оргашзащями i не допускати будь-яко'1 дезiнформацi'i останнix.

Разом з тим шформатизащя публiчного управлшня мiстить як позитив-ний потенщал, так i труднощi й протирiччя, нехтування якими, як свiдчить практика, обертаеться негативним результатом. На сьогодш недостатньо розробленi та потребують наукового осмислення й обгрунтування, зокрема, питання оргашзацшного, нормативно-правового забезпечення впроваджен-ня та реа^заци сучасних iнструментiв маркетингу, менеджменту у публiч-ному управлшш.

Щодо перспектив подальших дослiджень поняття "форми комушкатив-ного впливу громадянського сусшльства на державну пол^ику", то вони по-лягають в упорядкуванш його понятiйного апарату, як шдгрунтя удоскона-лення його системи, адже неповна та неточна шформащя стае, в результату причиною виникнення багатьох проблем у системi реформування державного управлшня.

Ключовi слова: форми комушкативного впливу, державне управлшня, засоби масово! шформаци, державний сектор.

ОРИЕНТИРЫ РАЗВИТИЯ ФОРМ КОММУНИКАТИВНОГО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ГРАЖДАНСКОГО ОБЩЕСТВА НА ГОСУДАРСТВЕННУЮ ПОЛИТИКУ

Аннотация. В статье изложены теоретические и методологические основы форм коммуникативного воздействия гражданского общества на государственную политику, предоставлены основные приемы и условия их использования для получения преимуществ в решении проблем государственно-управленческих отношений. Освещен широкий круг вопросов, касающихся особенностей организации связей с общественностью, с учетом отечественного и зарубежного опытов. Отражено специфику применения маркетинговых коммуникаций в процессе коммуникации органов государственной власти с общественностью.

Обосновано, что в институциональном смысле наибольший интерес представляет классификация в зависимости от сферы распространения. Общественность, когда она общается с органами государственной власти, с помощью определенных коммуникационных инструментов, называется внешней формой коммуникации. Внешние формы коммуникативного воздействия гражданского общества на государственную политику помогают им донести до органов государственной власти необходимую информацию относительно их мыслей, потребностей, запросов и др. Конечно, такая информация постоянно должна обновляться и быть точной. Все общественные организации должны поддерживать доброжелательные отношения с государственными организациями и не допускать любой дезинформации последних.

Вместе с тем информатизация публичного управления содержит как положительный потенциал, так и трудности и противоречия, пренебрежение которыми, как показывает практика, оборачивается негативным результатом. На сегодня недостаточно разработаны и требуют научного осмысления и обоснования, в частности, вопросы организационного, нормативно-право-

вого обеспечения внедрения и реализации современных инструментов маркетинга, менеджмента в публичном управлении.

Относительно перспектив дальнейших исследований понятия "формы коммуникативного воздействия гражданского общества на государственную политику", то они заключаются в составлении его понятийного аппарата, как основа совершенствования его системы, ведь неполная и неточная информация становится, в результате, причиной возникновения многих проблем в системе реформирования государственного управления.

Ключевые слова: формы коммуникативного воздействия, государственное управление, средства массовой информации, государственный сектор.

Articulation of the problem. The

decision of complex state-management problems that arise in the process of market changes in Ukraine, the scientific substantiation of exit strategy ways from difficult socio-political situation, in which Ukraine stays, unfortunately, since its independence, requires the use of the most modern methodological solutions concerning formation of mechanisms and channels of civil influence on public policy in Ukraine.

Priority is given to issues of improving the functioning of public administration system by developing the mechanisms of motivation, innovation, communication, organizational transformations, quality management, human resources management, crisis management, etc.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Some organizational and legal, as well as state-management aspects of the communicative interaction of state authorities and the public in Ukraine have already been reflected in the writings of such Ukrainian and foreign researchers as V. Averyanov, S. Andreyev, V. Bakumenko, R. Voytovych, A. Drugova, I. Koliushko, F. Kotler, S. Kravchenko, Yu. Kutsa, A. Lipent-

seva, K. Nikolayenko, A. Pankrukhin, O. Polyak, E. Romanenko, E. Romata, V. Soroko, A. Starostina, Yu. Surmin, T. Fedoriv, O. Cheban, A. Chemerys, Yu. Sharov et al.

However, despite a sufficient amount of literature devoted to the study and analysis of the formation of strategy for social development of state and public relations in Ukraine, the study of directions for developing strategy for the advance development of its marketing potential remains one of the current topical issues of public administration.

The research objective is to analyze the main forms of communicative impact of civil society on state policy, the allocation of the main priorities of their functioning.

Presentation of basic material of the research. It is quite clear that successful and dynamic development of modern state governance is impossible without an effective study of the theoretical and methodological identification of the main forms and channels of communication for the formation and growth of their role as one of the tools of horizontal structuring of social relations and the implementation of public initiatives. After all, one need to know

the theory before starting to analyze and improve practice.

In this study, it is proposed to understand ways of defining, evaluating, accumulating, analyzing, preparing, interpreting and communicating information received as the forms of communicative influence of civil society on state policy, which will be used for further planning and evaluation of the communication process of public administration. In our opinion, such an approach differs in the systematic orderliness of each of its components and allows to reveal statics in the activities of entities and objects of governance, which form the organizational and structural basis of state governance and the dynamics of management mechanism (a set of relationships and interactions of subjects and objects of management).

As for the prospects for further research, the concept of "the forms of communicative influence of civil society on state policy", they consist in adjustment of its conceptual apparatus as a basis for improving its system, since incomplete and inaccurate information becomes, as a result, the cause of many problems in the system of reforming public administration.

The issue about the types of forms of communicative influence of civil society on state policy is not marked by consensus of opinion.

Having carried out a comprehensive analysis of scientific research on this issue, we have found that the forms of communicative influence of civil society on state policy can be classified as follows:

1) Depending on the sphere of distribution: internal and external;

2) Depending on the structure of management: horizontal and vertical;

3) Depending on the type of contact: interpersonal, group and mass;

4) Depending on the form of transfer: verbal, visual, performance, mythological, artistic and mass media [1].

In the institutional sense, classification depending on the scope of distribution is of the greatest interest. When the public is communicating with state authorities, using certain communication tools, it is called an external form of communication. The external forms of communicative influence of civil society on state policy help it to convey the necessary information about its thoughts, needs, requests, etc to the state authorities. Of course, such information should be constantly updated and accurate. All non-governmental organizations should maintain benevolence with state organizations and prevent any misinformation of the latter.

At the same time, informatization of public administration contains both positive potential and difficulties and contradictions, neglection of which, as practice shows, may cause negative result. Currently, in particular, the issues of organizational, regulatory and legal support for the implementation and realization of modern marketing tools and management in public administration are insufficiently developed and require scientific comprehension and substantiation.

Functional features of state-civil communication should be focused on final results, on the basis of quantitative measurement of the indicators of its efficiency, the main of which are: limiting the influence of public sector on the communication process; competitive provision of state-civil communication; emphasis on the human-orientat-

ed style of state-civil communication; formal ranging of measured standards and indicators of productivity and success of state-civil communication; particular focus is put on monitoring results of the effectiveness of state-civil communication, etc.

The well-known Ukrainian scientist on public administration Ye. O. Romanenko, laconically notes that: "certain types of PR-communications should be the main forms of external communicative policy of the state. In view of this, it is necessary to clearly distinguish PR-communications as: 1) the means of marketing support (communication aimed at the target audience of public, achieving its support and loyalty); 2) the means of forming certain reputation of both the bodies of state power and public organizations, which is ensured by reaching the trust of interested public groups (business structures, bodies of state power and local self-government)" [2].

However, the following forms of marketing communications as marketing incentives are equally important forms of external communicative public policy with state authorities; sale promotion; personal sales; direct marketing; public relations; propaganda and informal verbal communication, etc.

Speaking about sales promotion as one of the forms of external communicative policy of the public with state authorities, it is meant that stimulating marketing and communicative effect helps the state to plan an effective program of advancement of public services and decisions, by involving its clients-citizens in this process and, thus, positive relations by ensuring their loyalty.

When talking about personal sale, it is meant that public authorities should use a variety of communication tools (teleconferences, public meetings, panel discussions, or presentations, exhibitions) and strategies in the communication process to understand the preferences, the mood of citizens about some state decision, which, in turn, helps to plan well the distribution of public resources in order to obtain maximum benefit for the country [3, p. 204].

Direct marketing is proposed to be understood as the activities of public authorities, which they implement through the use of direct marketing communications tools, in particular, such as exhibitions and fairs, branding, copywriting, merchandising, event marketing in order to provide accurate and precise information to the civil sector. PR as a public strategy for communicating with citizens, promotes the formation of social climate in the state, plays the role of "generator" of communication flows between government agencies, citizens and stakeholders so that public institutions can familiarize with real concerns of citizens and citizens in turn, could trust the institutions and civil servants [4].

As a rule, this is called the internal form of communication. Internal communication is an important feature of the administrative structure of public organization. It is important to emphasize that the effectiveness of influence of propaganda and informal verbal communication on decision-making by public authorities varies considerably depending on the degree of development of problems with which public organizations deal [5, p. 248]. This, in turn, requires the support of good

communication channels of internal communication within the public organization, in order to make more clear formulation of its vision and the emergence of productive dialogue with state authorities.

A central organization or corporate office of a public organization should inform its affiliates well about new policies and changes in activities. Employees of public organizations should be motivated and subjected to business principles and ethical ideas of public organization in order to prevent possible deviations from the intended goals of the work they perform.

The internal form of communicative influence of civil society on state policy ensures the involvement of all its employees in the mechanisms of political decision-making, as well as in relation to the main issues that are being raised for discussion with state authorities and for forming ways of their solution [6, p. 186-187].

Each government body accepts some official channels of communication with representatives of the public. The formal channels work with some restrictions. Continuous support of the official channel means expense of time and resources (material, organizational, resource). Very often such channels are simply legally declared and do not reach the real declared goal, and are defined as formal and routine by public organizations. For example, public civil discussion envisages the organization and conduct of public events according to Art. 13 of Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine "On Ensuring Public Participation in the Formation and Implementation of State Policies":

• Conferences, forums, public hearings, round-table meetings, gatherings, meetings (consultations) with the public;

• Internet conferences, videoconferences.

In addition, meetings of public councils, other subsidiary bodies, formed by executive authorities can be hold within the framework of public civil discussion.

Conclusions. Taking into account the analysis carried out in the article, it is proposed to determine that democratization of public life and public administration is not only a new policy and economic practice, it is, first of all, a new world perception of a person, a new moral consciousness — individual and social. Their decisive feature is to provide citizens with the necessary level of communication support. Further scientific researches, within the framework of the above-mentioned topics, should be oriented towards the development of a system of public self-regulation for the training and retraining of civil servants engaged in the implementation of mechanisms and channels of civil influence on public policy in Ukraine.

REFERENCES -

1. Poster M. The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990. — 387 p.

2. Romanenko E. O. (2014), "Models of communicative policy of the state and instrumental provision of cooperation between public authorities and the public", Demokratychne vry-aduvannya, [Online], vol. 14, available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/

DeVr_2014_14_11 (Accessed 4 Aug 2017).

3. Adeel Meo, Muhammad Daniyal Abbas, Muhammad Nadeem Sajjad, Muhammad Rizwan, Sayed shahbaz hussain bukhari, Muhammad Saad Hameed (2014), The Impact of Promotional Tools on Sales Promotion", Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Vol. 4, № 2, p. 202-216.

4. Iacob D, Cismaru D. M. (2003), Relaii publice. Eficien prin comunicare, Ed-itura Comunicare, Bucureti, Iacob & Cismaru, 2003.

5. Sibigia I. (2012), "Forms and methods of the influence of non-governmental organizations on the adoption of state-government decisions", Visnyk Natsional'noyi akademiyi derzhavno-ho upravlinnya pry Prezydentovi Ukrayiny, vol. 1, p. 242-249.

6. Romanyuk A. (2004), Porivnyal'nyy analiz politychnykh system krayin Zakhidnoyi Yevropy: instytutsiynyy vymir [Comparative analysis of political systems of Western European countries: institutional dimension], Triada plyus, Lviv, Ukraine.

СПИСОК ВИКОРИСТАНИХ ДЖЕРЕЛ -

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