Научная статья на тему 'Public-civil communication – important part of preparation and adoption of government-managerial decisions'

Public-civil communication – important part of preparation and adoption of government-managerial decisions Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
state-civil communication / public authority / proper state management / social and civil potential / державно-громадянська комунікація / орган державної влади / належне державне управління / соціально-громадянський потенціал

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Chaplay Iryna Vіtalіivna

The article explores the essence of public-civil communication as one of the important components in properpublic administration. The interrelation between social-civic potential and activity of public authorities is analyzed. The influence of communication on the development of public policy for making democratic decisions has been determined.

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ДЕРЖАВНО-ГРОМАДЯНСЬКА КОМУНІКАЦІЯ – ВАЖЛИВА СКЛАДОВА ПІДГОТОВКИ ТА ПРИЙНЯТТЯ ДЕРЖАВНО-УПРАВЛІНСЬКИХ РІШЕНЬ

У статті досліджено сутність державно-громадянської комунікації як однієї з найвагоміших складових в належному державному управлінні. Проаналізовано взаємозв’язок соціально-громадянського потенціалу і діяльності органів державної влади. Визначено вплив комунікації на розвиток державної політики для прийняття демократичних рішень.

Текст научной работы на тему «Public-civil communication – important part of preparation and adoption of government-managerial decisions»

UDC: 728

Chaplay Iryna Vitaliivna,

PhD in Public Administration, Executive Director of the Presidium of the civic scientific organization, "Ukrainian Assembly of doctors of science in public administration ", PhD student of the Department of Public Administration, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, 03039, Kyiv, Str. Frometivska, 2, tel.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610

Чаплай 1рина Вталйвна,

кандидат наук з державного управлтня, виконавчий директор Президп Всеукрат-cbKoï асамблеï докторгв наук з державного управлтня, докторант кафедри публiч-ного адмШстрування, Мiжрегiональна Академiя управлтня персоналом, 03039, м. Кшв, вул. Фрометiвська, 2, тел.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610 Чаплай Ирина Витальевна,

кандидат наук по государственному управлению, исполнительный директор Президиума Всеукраинской ассамблеи докторов наук по государственному управлению, докторант кафедры публичного администрирования, Межрегиональная Академия управления персоналом, 03039, г. Киев, ул. Фрометовская, 2, тел.: (063) 951 78 55, e-mail: irina_pravo@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0003-4927-0610

PUBLiC-CiViL COMMUNiCATiON - IMPORTANT PART OF PREPARATiON AND ADOPTiON

of government-managerial decisions

Abstract. The article explores the essence of public-civil communication as one of the important components in properpublic administration. The interrelation between social-civic potential and activity of public authorities is analyzed. The influence of communication on the development of public policy for making democratic decisions has been determined.

Keywords: state-civil communication, public authority, proper state management, social and civil potential.

ДЕРЖАВНО-ГРОМАДЯНСЬКА КОМУН1КАЦ1Я -ВАЖЛИВА СКЛАДОВА ПОДГОТОВКИ ТА ПРИЙНЯТТЯ ДЕРЖАВНО-УПРАВЛ1НСЬКИХ Р1ШЕНЬ

Анотащя. У статтi дослiджено сутнiсть державно-громадянсько! комуш-каци як одше! з найвагомiших складових в належному державному управ-лiннi. Проаналiзовано взаемозв'язок сощально-громадянського потенцiалу i дiяльностi органiв державно! влади. Визначено вплив комушкаци на розви-ток державно! полiтики для прийняття демократичних ршень.

Ключовi слова: державно-громадянська комунiкацiя, орган державно! влади, належне державне управлшня, соцiально-громадянський потенщал.

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННО-ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ КОММУНИКАЦИЯ -ВАЖНАЯ ЧАСТЬ ПОДГОТОВКИ И ПРИНЯТИЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННО-УПРАВЛЕНЧЕСКИХ РЕШЕНИЙ

Аннотация. В статье исследована сущность государственно-гражданской коммуникации как одной из важных составляющих в надлежащем государственном управлении. Проанализирована взаимосвязь социально-гражданского потенциала и деятельности органов государственной власти. Определено влияние коммуникации на развитие государственной политики для принятия демократических решений.

Ключевые слова: государственно-гражданская коммуникация, орган государственной власти, надлежащее государственное управление, социально-гражданский потенциал.

Target setting. The role of civic participation in state development is one of the main areas of research in the field of political science, sociology, public administration. Communication is an important component of the preparation and adoption of public-management decisions. Moreover, in this context, it improves the institutional efficiency of public authorities and measures, in a certain extent, the managerial capacity of the government. I think that in communities with a high level of social and civil dialogue, the government is not like "external participant", but a community partner. Secondly, communication efficiency does not always depend

on civic support, but can be improved through institutional reforms.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Issues devoted to the implementation of state-civil communication as one of the main indicators of the development of Ukraine as a democratic, social and legal state were investigated by: David Held, Ditland Scholl [2,3], Patnam, Robert D. [4], A. Kuchabsky, O. Bazhinova [5], E. Ro-manenko [6], Boyck, Carles and Daniel N. Posner [7], G. Simon [9], V. Koza-kov [10], A. Gavrilyuk, A. Starostina, V. Tymoshchuk. Despite a large number of scientific advances, this problem remains insufficiently highlighted.

The purpose of the article is to determine the impact of state-civil communication on the development of state policy, which is indicated through its appropriate communicative dimension.

Presentation of the main research material. The origins of the emergence of social-civil dialogue began from the time of ancient Greece, where Pericles argued that the involvement of citizens in public affairs supports the general good [1]. Over time, many scholars have noted that the political culture of the population, directly, depends on its ability to participate in the management of public affairs, and this, in turn, contributes to the stability and durability of a democratic society. In the 90 years, the people's revolutions and in Central and Eastern Europe renewed interest in the force of social and civic participation [2]. Membership in voluntary associations is considered a central element in creating social capital, knowledge and making citizens more confident in the activities of the authorities of the authorities. The level of trust in the government in Germany and Sweden was studied using such communicative tools as questionnaires on the peculiarities of government activities. The analysis of the received data determines in what extent various group characteristics (such as demographic diversity, social security) are related to the general trust of citizens to the activities of power structures [3].

In his book "Making Democracy Work" (1993), Patnem tracks the participation of regional governments in Italy in involving citizens in the management of public affairs. His main conclusion is that "the larger the civil contexts, the better the government" [4],

which suggests that the formation of dense networks of civil society organizations contributed to the development of democratic institutions. The author states that the states with a high level the interaction between government and society shows a greater degree of interpersonal trust and is more willing to participate in collective communication in favor of the common good.

According to Patnem, the "peculiarities" of social-civilian organizations such as trust, justice, communication at a high level form the "public capital fund". In this context, he describes the role of non-political voluntary participation of citizens in the management of state affairs, which facilitates cooperation, provides creation of trust. In addition, in his statistical analysis of the evolution of civic participation, industrialization and social welfare, for the period from the 1870s to the 1970s, there was a strong correlation between communication provision and economic development: "social and civic potential implies an economy" [4, p. 157].

The relationship between socio-civic potential and good governance is explored in detail by both domestic and foreign scholars in literature.

Patnam in his book writes that citizens expect a better government, they demand a more efficient civil service, and they are ready to act collectively in order to achieve common goals. They not only assume on them the role of alien applicants, but in turn, require from the government to facilitate social infrastructure of public entities, better communication capabilities and the prevalence of democratic values, both for officials and for citizens. The most fundamental principle for civil society

is the ability to cooperate for common interests.

In this regard, analyzing the current state of legal regulation of communication between public authorities and the public its possible to come to the conclusion that today the state of communication is not fully in line with the interests and wishes of citizens [5, p. 199]. In view of this, the task of building a modern socially oriented state is appeared, the success of which is provided by such important factors as knowledge of the desires and needs of citizens, a quick and flexible response to their demands.

This is ensured by studying the possibilities and effective use of various methods, forms and methods of promoting state-owned goods and services, forming demand of existing and potential consumers on the basis of public marketing, which actualizes the problem under investigation. According to the words of Professor Y. A. Romanen-ko, communication itself today provides the implementation of new normative-value and ideological aspects of state policy, the adoption of universal approaches to public participation in the processes of assessing the activities of state authorities and providing relevant public-management services [6, p. 6].

In their works, Carl Boyck and Daniel Postner [5] write that in order to establish a high level of cooperation between citizens and the government it is necessary to apply, first of all, an institutional approach. The authors put forward a hypothesis about five scenarios that contribute to socio-civic dialogue.

The first scenario assumes that the effectiveness of state development is based on the ability of citizens to educate in government officials the respon-

sible for their management [7, p. 9-10]. In this context, such communicative means as forums, meetings, hearings of citizens for discussion of the problems of society and formulation of common interests and requirements become especially relevant. The level of authority of public authorities depends on the general approval of the public.

The second scenario states that increasing of the welfare of the state directly depends from the level of citizens' confidence in the state authorities. This should provoke a change in the philosophy of thinking of officials and create more interest in them in order to adopt more community-oriented decisions, and not in favor of their own interests.

The third scenario states that the proper organization of the communicative process reduces government spending on state policy, since it allows, at the initial stage, to diagnose the lack of satisfaction of citizens by those or other laws. Less need to be invested in law enforcement mechanisms, the government has more resources to modernize its administration and provide a wider range of public services.

The development of the fourth scenario is aimed on the achieving of a social compromise for the welfare of the community. As a result, political institutions are more effective and flexible to overcome social fractures and establish adaptive human-orientation practices.

The fifth scenario provides a more detailed picture of the micro connection of social and civil dialogue. The dialogue should be competitive or consensual-contractual, including powermanagement tools. Such a dialogue does not involve confrontation, since such a form of relations is based only

on information exchange, that is, communication, which involves the transfer from one actor of state-management practice of certain meanings by means of language, images, gestures, facial expressions and other symbolic forms which provide implementation of intercommunication interaction.

In general, each of the above-mentioned scenarios is an important attribute of the country's state development in general. The absence or incompleteness of a real-life social and civil dialogue, which would be accompanied by the use of meaningful and truthful, and, most importantly, the creative communication ties, does not make it possible to determine the rationality and effectiveness of the organization of public administration and to provide practical recommendations for its improvement in general.

In this case, it is especially important to take into account the needs, interests and objectives of the object of state administration. As Joan Caddy correctly notes, "subjective-object feedbacks characterizes the expediency and rationality of its own, internal organization and activity of the subject of public administration in general, its subsystems, links and individual components. They provide an opportunity to see, understand, and evaluate how each lower level responds on the decisions and actions of the higher, how and how it takes them into account in their activities, its real relevance to the higher level, etc." [5, p. 197].

In the opinion of Margit Tavits, the main stages in the development of the social and civilian potential of state development should take place by adopting a two-dimensional measure of re-

sponsibility for both parties: the state and citizens. Citizens should actively work in cooperation with government agencies in order to obtain the appropriate level of trust. The government, in turn, should promote to the mobilization of citizens, which should serve as the basis for political initiatives.

The political activity of the government, in response to social requirements, is measured by the amount of resources allocated on a proper communication and organizational and resource support for such, most demanded spheres as: medicine, housing and communal services, education, etc.

In general, the influence of communication on the development of state policy is manifested through its appropriate communicative dimension, under which proposed to understand the basic principles and criteria of information influence of public administration entities on the public, in the process of implementing authority and relevant power and management relations. This indicates that communicative essence is an indispensable attribute in the process of formation and implementation of state policy, since it traditionally involves the establishment of reciprocal interaction between public authorities and the public.

Interestingly, in this regard, is the approach of Eric E. Peterson, a professor of communications and journalism of the University of Minsk, in his report "Introduction to Communication and Public Policy" in 2008, he writes that the dissemination of information about the activities of public institutions for the public has important role for the development of a democratic society. Public-civic communication involves

citizens in discussions about public services that can push legislators to resolve issues, he adds in a report that he wrote for the 2008 International Communications Colloquium.

Truly democratic decisions can be made at the state level only when information about them may be available for the discussion in the necessary volume for citizens, writes political scientist M. Dale Beckman in 1975 in the article "The problem of effective communication with public policy: Bill C-256 and Winnipeg Businessmen "for the" Canadian Journal of Political Science" [8].

Conclusions. In this regard, it can be argued that each state authority needs some information to make democratic decisions. Provision of communication tools determines the peculiarities of communication within the public administration. According to Herbert A. Simon, who is known for his theory of administrative behavior, "without communication there can be no organization" [9].

In his concept about communication in public administration, the matter is that the organization of public administration is a two-way process: it is understood as the transfer of information from a certain decision-making center and the transfer of the decisions themselves received from this center to other parts of the organization.

This is a process that occurs upwards, downwards and transversely in all government bodies for the implementation of a single state communicative policy, through the creation of a system of influence on public opinion, that is an important element in the formation and support of effective feedback from citizens in order to monitor

the situation and evaluate the results of their work [10, p. 34].

The state authority should provide the necessary communication channels, which take place in all directions of its activity. Further research should include the development of new mechanisms for improving existing communications channels, which are formal and informal, and the creation of new mechanisms for state-civil communication.

references -

1. Held David. 2006. Models of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2. Stolle Dietlind. 1998. "Bowling Together, Bowling Alone: The Development of Generalized Trust in Voluntary Associations" Political Psychology, 19(3): 497-525, doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00115

3. Dietlind Stolle Bowling Together, Bowling Alone: The Development of Generalized Trust in Voluntary Associations // Political Psychology, Vol. 19, № 3, 1998, available at: http://online-library.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ 0162-895X.00115/epdf?r3_referer= wol&tracking_action = preview_ click&show_checkout=1&purchase_ referrer = onlinelibrary. wiley.com&purchase_site_ license=LICENSE_DENIED

4. Putnam Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

5. Kuchabsky A. G., Bazhinova O. A. (2012) "Mechanisms of communication between the authorities and the public 'in the conditions of globalization", Publichne upravlinnya: teoriya ta praktyka, vol. 4 (12), p. 196-201.

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9. Simon H. A. Administrative Behavior. — A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administration Organization. Second Edition, The Free Press, New York, Collier-Macmillan Limited, London; 1965, p. 154.

10. Kozakov V., Rashkovskaya O. (2015), "Civic communication as a factor in reforming public administration: an archetypal approach", Publichne uprav-linnya: teoriya ta praktyka, [Online], vol. 1, available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/

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список використаних джерел -

1. Held David. 2006. Models of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2. Stolle Dietlind. 1998. "Bowling Together, Bowling Alone: The Development of Generalized Trust in Voluntary Associations" Political Psychology, 19(3): 497-525, doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00115

3. Dietlind Stolle Bowling Together, Bowling Alone: The Development of Generalized Trust in Voluntary Associations // Political Psychology, Vol. 19, № 3, 1998, available at: http://online-

library. wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ 0162-895X.00115/epdf?r3_referer= wol&tracking_action = preview_ click&show_checkout=1&purchase_ referrer = onlinelibrary. wiley.com&purchase_site_ license=LICENSE_DENIED

4. Putnam Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

5. Кучабський А. Г., Бажинова О. А. Мехашзми комушкацп влади та громадськосп в умовах глобалiза-цп / А. Г. Кучабський, О. А. Бажинова // Публiчне упр.: теорiя та практика. — 2012. — № 4 (12). — С. 196-201.

6. Комуткативна полггика держави: теоретико-методолопчний аналiз : монографiя / 6. О. Романенко. — К. : НАДУ, 2014. — 400 с.

7. Boix Carles and Daniel N. Posner. 1996. "Making Social Capital Work: A Review of Robert Putnam's Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy." Working Paper № 96-04. Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. URL (cited on 5 October 2012): http://www.wcfia.harvard.edu/sites/ default/files/96-04.pdf

8. http://www.jstor.org/stable/i362095 ?refreqid=excelsior%3Aefcbecab3327 e591a094c66b6e4b3502

9. Simon H. A. Administrative Behavior. — A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administration Organization. Second Edition, The Free Press, New York, Collier-Macmillan Limited, London; 1965, p. 154.

10. Громадянська комунiкацiя як чинник реформування державного управлтня: архетипний шдхщ / В. Козаков, О. Рашковська // Публiчне управлтня: теорiя та практика. — 2015. — Вип. 1 (спец. вип.). — С. 33-39. — Режим доступу: http://nbuv.gov.ua/ UJRN/Pubupr_2015_1%28spets._9

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