Научная статья на тему 'Television - the window into the wide world'

Television - the window into the wide world Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
TELEVISION / ПАРАДИГМА ГЛОКАЛЬНОГО-ГЛОБАЛЬНОГО / THE "GLOCAL-GLOBAL" PARADIGM / ФАКТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ КОНТЕНТ / FACTUAL CONTENT / ЦЕННОСТНОЕ СОДЕРЖАНИЕ / VALUE CUT / ПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ИНФОРМАЦИИ АУДИТОРИЕЙ / AUDIENCE CONSUMPTION INFORMATION

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Fedetova L.N.

This article discusses aspects of the development of information and communication environment in the “global-glocal” paradigm. The main features are a combination of factual and value communication in content as the characteristics of the information channel, television in particular, as well as the audience motive in the consumption information of such channel.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Television - the window into the wide world»

TELEVISION - THE WINDOW INTO THE WIDE WORLD

L.N. Fedotova

Department of Theory and History of journalism Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (PFUF) Mikluho-Maklaya str., 10/2, Moscow, Russia, 117198

This article discusses aspects of the development of information and communication environment in the "global-glocal" paradigm. The main features are a combination of factual and value communication in content as the characteristics of the information channel, television in particular, as well as the audience motive in the consumption information of such channel.

Key words: television, the "glocal-global" paradigm, factual content, value cut, audience consumption information.

Sociology of mass communication has accumulated to date a lot of empirical information about this problem — in what degree television can be the window into the wide world for the modern man.

We must start with the concepts of "globalisation" which involves some complex phenomena: economic (market becomes increasingly international, it literally is crossing national borders, individual industrial organizations began to go to the international market, plus the activities of transnational corporations, international financial conglomerates); political (1) (the emergence of inter-State alliances; social (activities of international non-governmental organizations, education, tourism, touring theatres, etc. (2)).

Separately say about information-communication processes in this series. National information channels significantly increases the amount of material from foreign news agencies, advertising messages of international network of advertising agencies, video footage of foreign agencies on television; foreign films on television and in cinema.

By the way, the place of content produced in another state in the information space of the country first started talking as a problem back in the 60's 20th century, when smaller countries have begun to feel the impact of communication systems of its larger neighbors (as such, feel Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Ireland, Canada. In 1970, the Canadian Radio-Television Commission has made a number of proposals aimed at limiting the amount of foreign material on radio and television, which at the time was very significant. One of these proposals was to limit the amount of foreign material to 40%, with a quota of material from one country could be only 30%. This practice was adopted in 1971, but only for television, because the Canadian radio was still very weak, and the introduction of this limitation was partial) [1]. From the very beginning of this issue was a political tint, shade the loss of national identity soared in air. Attitude to it has been mixed.

After creating a transnational telecommunications systems in Europe there were several TV channels, the reception of which was possible in almost all countries of the

region. Via satellite — which over Europe are currently around 20 — reception is possible in these countries TV channels from England, France, Norway, and of the channels belonging to the group of countries. Satellite-cable programs are called the driving force of European television integration. There is the view that such situation contributes to the awareness of people, continuous exchange of views and ideas, tolerance, promotes understanding between people. The plans to create a "unified Europe" was originally featured on the "television without frontiers" — consistent communication policy of the countries of Europe. Its main aspects — quotas for national, European and non — European programs, allowable quotas for advertising, foreign investment, standards programs for children, etc. — are reflected in the two documents adopted in 1989: a directive of the European Economic Community (obligatory for execution by all 12 members) and the Convention of the Council of Europe (recommendation).

Much earlier practice was spreading outside of their own country's major national newspapers. Much earlier practice had spread outside of their own country's major national newspapers. Today they are: "The New York Times" and "Tthe Wall Street Journal", the German "Sueddeutsche Zeitung", "Frankfurter Allgemeine" and others.

Today, with the advent of electronic versions of the newspapers on the Internet, this practice is no longer the exception and gained a new scope.

So, globalization promote the process of articulation of the various components of the mankind during its evolution as opposed to a process of differentiation, the process of growing interdependence of humanity of mankind. And this process is realized with the help the informational channels as well.

But as these processes were developing the specialists became to discuss about the concept of "globalization" more fiercely.

It turned out that it does not exhaust a complex picture of events.

Thus, M.M. Perakkiono, President of the "Media Press" and Director of the Agency "News Italy Press", says about a new cut of information during this period: "globalization — dialectical process, relating to the notion of the "locality", the new value of the notion of "place" in many — directed, many- spaced, polycentric system of social life. He talks about "glocalization", which is sort of a natural evolution of globalization. There is a need to new glokal information. Glokal information is the fourth type of information in the modern system of communication that you want to add to the three previously known: local information, national and international information» [4. C. 42].

From the above discussion it is clear that the paradigm of the "glocal — global" is partly new dismemberment of information channels: newspapers, radio stations, TV channels, new typology of them known to us as an established theory ofjournalism.

Clearly, if the "global" we will have to leave for all information flows of content beyond what was produced inside the state boundaries, for "glokal" — all that just was produced inside the national information system.

This includes the more familiar to us the design of national and local sources (and later, regional, provincial, city, district).

How are the consumption audience these information sheets?

Audience attraction to local sources of information — it is already a fact confirmed empirically: in a situation of economic crisis in our country, the consumer made his choose for a newspaper more close to his interest — a local newspaper. This is a path that has gone virtually the entire world. National newspapers left in all the countries no more than 300. The remaining 1,000 are daily city newspapers [5].

The situation is the same with local radio and TV stations. Consumption of these channels are also very high in comparison with overall national channels (though here their content is beginning to play a big role).

We must note that the tendency for newspapers — consumer's choice rather local newspaper than federal — applies to Russian radio and television.

Regions successfully are developing the local telecommunications infrastructure. It was promoted by conversion programs, which have made it possible to create a local cable television.

When free access to a worldwide market of entertainment TV programs was provided, regions became to make up by these products and became a strong competitor to the central channels. The appeal of the latter is in the information broadcast and expensive staging entertainment programs, but the competition already exists and is growing significantly in recent years.

To add more arguments to the choice of consumers of local press, let's say that one of the universal laws of mass communication — this is that local (regional) press provides factual information to man about events, as close as possible to the area of his life.

However, a person needs to periodically replaying his ties with more broader communities... We know it in respect of the old history, but today's information, today's situation gives us reasons for such finding. Mass communication system connects the audience to a more "global" information channels.

For Russia — and the polls say so clearly — preference is for the First television channel. The channel on its broadcasting concept designed for the mass tastes, broad range of gear, different thematic content, different degrees of depth of analysis for the originally targeted at different age groups, etc.

What is important to note the Channel stable in its main headings, boxes, formats, types of programs for decades and this makes the union with him a necessary, even where the ritual for the audience, which also influences on his relationship with the audience: they become more strong...

The emergence of other channels went towards the audience wishes to meet the needs of more selective: associated with topical or functional characterization of their rum (educational program), or with the emergence of demand for information in connection with that business and the innovative business structures (commercial channel), or with a regional character of information needed some part of society in its stable form of area. In general, this trend coincides with the global trends in the structure of organizations inside information sources.

It is important to note, the audience greatly appreciates the Russian television as a window to the larger world of [6. C. 177] (see table 1). Levada Center of Public Opinion gives us their polling data.

Table 1

Answers to the question "With what of the following views about the current Russian television would you rather agree?" % among respondents

The views of the interviewed 2000 2007 2010

Television as a total complete and objective 16 15 17

From television you can extract a lot of useful and objective information about events in the world 51 46 51

Television gives wretched and distorted picture about events in the world 14 15 16

Television gives a false picture of events in the world, it is used to manipulate the minds of people 12 13 12

Difficult to answer 7 11 4

Next, we must point out that to the extent that the individual has a certain frequency to an information channel, it becomes a party to the communication process, and not a single communications act. And then he fully becomes a consumer of policy information channel, if you will, his ideology. Because the factual series, which we mentioned, acquires all characteristics of the process: following the Communicator, the audience begins to realize (or do not realize, but to have this case) a number of priorities, the predominance in this line of certain individuals, parties, events, countries, which greatly increases the probability of meeting a concrete user with these nominalities...

The Communicator can use all palette of lexical resources to describe the facts plus to formulate utilitarian, pragmatic promise to audience... That is, in the language of marketing, use the system of ways to advance specific ideas, values, or ideological complex. This situation becomes a breeding ground for mental-emotional shifts in audience: this way you can produce informed pessimists and uninformed optimists. But not only. This situation gives rise attitudes of audiences to "persons" of factual series, their awareness of how important/not important they are in his picture of the world, not just in the picture of the world of the Communicator. It is clear that this can lead to very significant differences in these pictures. And even more than that — you can build this into law of mass communication: the farther from the situation described ordinary experience of consumers is, the greater the probability that the world will be the same. But there is another important variable is the extent to which the palettes themselves information channels has characteristics of pluralism...

Clarify this conclusion (or rather makes it multi-layer) two circumstances case studies tell us about — mass audience limit their consumption of two-three TV channels; when you select these channels and other information sources there is working mechanism of cognitive dissonance; only a small part of the audience connects to its consumption of large quantities of information sources (including Internet services, and other alternatives, including monochrome description of realty), it is usually highly educated, politically active part of the audience.

If we go back to the vertical outlet of the content — from global to glokal — we should connect the politology perspective. To start the conversation we will mention one fairly private, but very expressive example within our themes.

Since the inception of the national TV channels in the United States — these were channels, connect people to the society in the widest, national, global borders — in the minds of Americans of metamorphosis occurred to which President of the American Center of World Problems D. Fisher referred in conversation with Russian journalist M. Taratuta just twenty years ago. Explaining the phenomenon of success nationwide television networks in America, which always had the mentality of a strong attachment to habitats across the State, he explained it this way: the mere fact of attention to information about the country as a whole, as well as to other countries, with which the country acted as a whole, they made the whole America, not a single country divided into pieces, into States [7]. Maybe it is badly written, but they knows better.

If you convert this into the language of mass communication theory, it will be clear that we are dealing with something other more than pure information. And it is understandable by the audience.

So, Levada Center gives us their polling data: [8. C. 177] (see table 2).

Table 2

Answers the question "What should do TV: inform, educate, bring up or entertain the viewer?"

(% among respondents)

The views of the interviewed 2000 2007 2010

Inform 57 48 51

Educate 19 23 28

Bring up 14 14 12

Entertain 7 10 7

Difficult to answer 3 5 2

That is, to review the mass communication as a process, its place in the daily consumption of information by audience we can designate the value content.

This is the way to build content about the more remote from everyday experience of man — statewide within the national boundaries and global within the boundaries of the world.

Here we must update the functional review of the mass communication during the large time periods. Thus, it is appropriate to recall these functions for an era in which human civilization entered a new phase, a new time.

It started with the fact that society had to choose alternative social practice. It is clear that this is the current situation for Russia.

And it is the information channels who must to represent social, political, cultural alternatives, debate them, tested by the public, including the expert discussions, to adapt the population to such practice. With regard to the international practice, the mass communication should objectively and as fully as possible play them, including expert opinion.

We point out that one of the characteristics of the innovation, modernisation of society, which had proclaimed repeatedly by the country's leadership, is that such a society as a whole recognizes the value and importance of innovation, and by the individual demonstrates willingness to adapt to them; when society and personality splits the value and importance of socio-cultural diversity in designs and implements a willingness to integrate into common social and cultural space.

At present, a set of requirements to the company unworthy the characterization of modernisation, and the priority of universal human moral standards to a common set of values shared by the public.

There is particular demand with the mass communication.

It is known that in every society, in principle there are different ways to broadcast social values. It appears that we should divide them on the speed of distribution into two groups: recording, so to speak, on long time waves — literature, art, school, education system as a whole, etc.; and broadcasting on short time waves — cinema, mass communication, advertising.

Thus, mass communications (including advertising) by definition must provide population samples of new practices and values.

More difficulties with the relationship in paradigm "center-region". Let's specify that this relationship can be as centripetal and centrifugal.

This is crucial information for issues of the agenda.

And again — mass communication in this situation is not only non-extreme activities for the working out of solutions.

Essentially, discreetly, the agenda for journalistic work consists of economic concerns (the problem of subsidies, the scheme of collection, accumulation and distribution of taxes, a single-industry town, the monopoly of State corporations, ecology in the case of proceedings under federal ownership, etc.); political (presidential and gubernatorial elections, the registration of parties, including the national and confessional basis, etc.), social issues (the presence of national schools, cultural institutions, the coexistence of languages, the aspect ratio of the number of churches of different denominations per unit area, etc.).

General working principle for mass communication remains the same: studying public opinion, organization of debate, examination, impact on the power.

Apparently, it is worth remembering here such a feature assignment as SMK as the fourth power.

It should be noted that initially, mass communication appeared in a rapidly changing world and immediately joined the adaptation mechanism of the individual consciousness in social coordinates.

This is a special theme and it is inevitable when it comes to non-organisathional, anomalous processes, existing in the society.

Features of the mass communication in modernizing social systems are such that they along with other social institutions (the democratic institutions of Government, politics, art, and so on), not different from them in that matter functional traits, represent their audiences an alternative socio-economic development: continuum of points of view depends on the specific forms of political organization of society.

Naturally, the magnitude of the impact, speed, providing opportunities for various viewpoints mass communication stands out among all other social institutions. With regard to the provision of the rostrum to different points of view, mass communication would ensure by this their representativeness, unused in the election of the legislature power and in the forming the executive power.

It is in fact of participating of mass communication in the development of the strategy and tactics of social development and in fact that social forces, not in the actual

composition of the legislature and the Executive, they serve as a means of updating views, is the explanation of why the mass communication mass communication is called the fourth power [9. C. 81].

But the press is involved in developing the strategy and tactics of social development indirect way: speaking with a kind of control, critics of the current policy of the Executive and legislative structures, where the State is the object of journalistic investigation.

The latter is most often celebrated as a sign of allegiance of the mass communication to the power structures.

In fact we are setting here is some parallel with the classical definition of power, which is owned by M. Weber: "Power is the ability of one of the participants of the social attitudes implement its will, despite the resistance [10. C. 20].

The famous press investigator E. Prokhorov writes about this: "The possibility of a successful "walking in authority" for media lies in the very nature of journalism. It, as a doctor, keeps its finger on the pulse of life diagnoses, defines the strategy and tactics of "treatment"... needed to restore and safeguard public health. Media from the perspective of the social forces assess the State of affairs in different sectors of social life, offer advice and make demands on those who have the power to make binding decisions" [11. C. 11]. Mr. Prokhorov notes in this regard, such a feature and journalistic activity, as her relationship with public opinion. Here's something in this area of concentration and the power realization journalism has no equal. After all, the very nature of journalism is to post each media in the epicenter of public opinion. Journalism accumulates public opinion, concentrates and compresses it, serves as a podium, informs and forms his, acts in its name. The power of journalism is in the power of generated and standing behind her public opinion» [11. C. 12].

The above discourse is characteristic, which G. Gerbner wrote about in its time, seeing mass communication with institutional approach. The publication of any set of opinions in the press is the basis of self-government in large groups of people which are too large and dispersed to interact directly. It is informing and the formation of community with the combined perspectives; collective thinking and action, which penetrates through the boundaries of time, space and status [12. C. 23].

It is clear that these arguments are valid, if it is a civil society that provides a structural right framework for independent media. But the laws have yet to determine exactly how the media operate. As the authors of the study conditions for free and independent media say — "to free independent media work, this society should appreciate the role they play: first the initial commitment of civil society, then legislating the main place of the right" [12. C. 13—14].

Returning to the main sources for Russians about the wide world, we must say, that television is the primary source of information for most Russians, regardless of their place of residence, social status or level of education, and this picture has changed little over the past years, by the Levada-center (3). Editions of television news are looked by almost everything, including the ones who know about what is happening in the country and the world from other sources. However, the Muscovites, the inhabitants of large cities, the more educated and affluent respondents have "information kits" which are more diverse than the Russians in general.

Where do you most often learn about the news

in the country and in the world? (%)

Note: 1 — television, 2 — friends, natives, neighbours, 3 — Internet-publications, 4 — newspapers, 5 — radio, 6 — social nets (such question wasn't asked in 2009 year),

7 — journals

We can refine the results by examining how different "sets" of information sources at Russians. The analysis showed that half the population (50%) gets the news largely from one source, one in five (20%) of the two, 17% — from three, and 12% are using more than three sources simultaneously.

Get news from multiple sources (in%, Russia, March 2014)

Note: blue — one source; green — two sources; orange — three sources; red — 4—7 sources.

So, television — the window into the wide world for the big part of Russians. How big this window is and on which direction it is «cut through» (4) — that is the question.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

(1) From the point of view of modern human rights increases the choice of the solution to this problem is embedded in the struggle for the rights of the individual, whose value has increased significantly towards the end of the 20th century. Discussions on the subject are held at all levels.

(2) Into history is the practice of translations of ancient authors, scientists throughout the European continent-Latin language was then fastening them as cement; the stray cast, mobile theatres; the movement of the army - since medieval Europe was a zone of persistent military conflicts; pilgrims and church officials from one monastery to another, were powerful communication network. Add here the exploitation of trade routes.

(3) http://www.levada.ru/17-06-2014/rossiiskii-media-landshaft-televidenie-pressa-internet

(4) I mean the quotation from Pushkin's "The Cooper Horseman": 'Here cut'—so Nature gives command—

'Your window through on Europe; stand

Firm-footed by the sea, unchanging!' (translation by V.Lednizkiy, Bercly, 1955)

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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[1] Johansen P. The CRTC and Canadian Content Regulation // Journal of Broadcasting. 1973. № 4.

[2] Пераккионо М.М. «Италикс-ревю» — мультимедиа, технология, демократия // ТелеЦЕНТР, журнал о современном телевидении, радио и цифровом кино. — 2004. — № 5.

[3] Сычев С. Почему рекламодатели уходят из газет // Известия. 2007. 4 июля.

[4] Общественное мнение. Ежегодник Аналитического центра Юрия Левады. 2010.

[5] Телепередача «Америка с М. Таратутой» / РТР. 1993. 10 янв.

[6] Общественное мнение. Ежегодник Аналитического центра Юрия Левады. 2010.

[7] Эко У. О прессе / Пять эссе на темы этики. — СПб.: Symposium, 2003.

[8] McQuail D. Communication. L.; N.Y., 1975.

[9] Прохоров Е.П. Журналистика — власть. Но какая? // Законодательство и практика средств массовой информации. Ежемесячный бюллетень Центра права и средств массовой информации. 1995. Вып. 3 (7).

[11] Gerbner G. Mass Media and Human Communication Theory // Human Communication Theory / Ed. by Dance F. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967.

[12] Прайс М., Круг П. Благоприятная среда для свободных и независимых средств массовой информации. Центр социально-правовых исследований Вульфсон-колледжа Оксфордского университета, 2000.

LITERATURA

[ 1 ] Johansen P. The CRTC and Canadian Content Regulation // Journal of Broadcasting. 1973. № 4.

[2] Perakkiono M.M. «Italiks-revju» — mul'timedia, tehnologija, demokratija // TeleCENTR, zhur-nal o sovremennom televidenii, radio i cifrovom kino. 2004. № 5.

[3] Sychev S. Pochemu reklamodateli uhodjat iz gazet // Izvestija. 2007. 4 ijulja.

[4] Obshhestvennoe mnenie. Ezhegodnik Analiticheskogo centra Jurija Levady. 2010.

[5] Teleperedacha «Amerika s M. Taratutoj» / RTR. 1993. 10 janv.

[6] Obshhestvennoe mnenie. Ezhegodnik Analiticheskogo centra Jurija Levady. 2010.

[7] Jeko U. O presse / Pjat' jesse na temy jetiki. SPb: Symposium. 2003.

[8] McQuail D. Communication. L.; N.Y., 1975.

[9] Prohorov E.P. Zhurnalistika — vlast'. No kakaja? // Zakonodatel'stvo i praktika sredstv massovoj informacii. Ezhemesjachnyj bjulleten' Centra prava i sredstv massovoj informacii. 1995. Vy-pusk 3 (7).

[10] Gerbner G. Mass Media and Human Communication Theory // Human Communication Theory / Ed. by Dance F. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967.

[11] Prajs M., Krug P. Blagoprijatnaja sreda dlja svobodnyh i nezavisimyh sredstv massovoj in-formacii. Centr social'no-pravovyh issledovanij Vul'fson-kolledzha Oksfordskogo universiteta, 2000.

ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ - ОКНО В БОЛЬШОЙ МИР

Л.Н. Федотова

Кафедра теории и истории журналистики Российский университет дружбы народов (РУДН) ул. Миклухо-Маклая, 6, Москва, Россия, 117198

Статья обсуждает состояние информационно-коммуникационного окружения современного человека в парадигме «глокальное — глобальное». Акцент при этом делается на соотношении фактологического и ценностного в содержании информационных каналов, в частности телевидения, что является мотивацией обращения аудитории к таким каналам.

Ключевые слова: парадигма глокального-глобального, фактологический контент, ценностное содержание, потребление информации аудиторией.

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