Научная статья на тему 'Informational and communication component of providing the competitiveness of agrarian enterprises'

Informational and communication component of providing the competitiveness of agrarian enterprises Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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Ключевые слова
COMPETITIVENESS / INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION POLICY / AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS / MARKETING / ADVERTISING

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Данько Ю.И., Галинская А.В.

The article investigates information and communication factors providing the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The authors proposed a logical sequence of acquisition of agri-food products to potential consumers. It was developed and based on an example of a particular company, approved the methodical approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of advertising campaigns. In addition, it was fulfilled the author's approach to build rate effectiveness in presenting information by the farms. It was established that the improvement of marketing communications complex should be a comparison of economic efficiency indicators of psychological effectiveness, and identify of the most effective communication media appeal.

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ИНФОРМАЦИОННО-КОММУНИКАЦИОННАЯ СОСТАВЛЯЮЩАЯ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ КОНКУРЕНТОСПОСОБНОСТИ АГРАРНЫХ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ

Статья посвящена исследованию информационно-коммуникативных факторов обеспечения конкурентоспособности сельскохозяйственных предприятий. Авторами предложена логическая последовательность приобретения агропродовольственной продукции потенциальным потребителем. Разработан и на примере конкретного предприятия апробирован методический подход к определению экономической эффективности рекламной кампании. Кроме того, в работе приведен авторский подход к построению рейтинга эффективности подачи информации сельскохозяйственными предприятиями. Установлено, что совершенствование комплекса маркетинговых коммуникаций должно происходить через сравнение показателей экономической эффективности с показателями психологической эффективности и выявления наиболее эффективных носителей коммуникативного обращения.

Текст научной работы на тему «Informational and communication component of providing the competitiveness of agrarian enterprises»

Наукова дискуая

Scientific discussion

UDC 631.1:339.137.2

INFORMATIONAL AND COMMUNICATION COMPONENT OF PROVIDING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRARIAN ENTERPRISES

Yu.I. Danko, PhD in Economics, Associate Professor

A.V. Galinskaya

Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine

Данько Ю.1., Галинська А.В. 1нформацшно-комуткацшна складова забезпечення конкурентоспроможност1 аграрних п1дприемств.

Стаття присвячена дослщженню шформацшно-комушкативних чинниюв забезпечення конкурентоспроможносп сшьськогосподарських шдприемств. Авторами запропонована лопчна послiдовнiсть придбання агропродовольчо1 продукцiï потенцiйним споживачем. Розроблено та на прикладi конкретного пiдприeмства апробовано методичний тдхщ до визначення економiчноï ефективностi рекламно1 кампанiï. Крiм того, в робой наведений авторський пщхщ щодо побудови рейтингу ефективностi подачi iнформацiï сiльськогосподарськими пiдприeмствами. Встановлено, що вдосконалення комплексу маркетингових комунiкацiй мае вщбуватися через порiвняння показникiв економiчноï ефективностi з показниками психологiчноï ефективноси, i виявлення найбiльш ефективних носив комушкативного звернення.

Ключов1 слова: конкурентоспроможшсть, шформацшно-комунiкацiйна полiтика, аграрне тдприемство, маркетинг, реклама

Данько Ю.И., Галинская А.В. Информационно-коммуникационная составляющая обеспечения конкурентоспособности аграрных предприятий.

Статья посвящена исследованию информационно-коммуникативных факторов обеспечения конкурентоспособности сельскохозяйственных предприятий. Авторами предложена логическая последовательность приобретения

агропродовольственной продукции потенциальным потребителем. Разработан и на примере конкретного предприятия апробирован методический подход к определению экономической эффективности рекламной кампании. Кроме того, в работе приведен авторский подход к построению рейтинга эффективности подачи информации сельскохозяйственными предприятиями. Установлено, что совершенствование комплекса маркетинговых коммуникаций должно происходить через сравнение показателей экономической эффективности с показателями психологической эффективности и выявления наиболее эффективных носителей коммуникативного обращения.

Ключевые слова: конкурентоспособность, информационно-коммуникационная политика, аграрное предприятие, маркетинг, реклама

Danko Yu.I., Galinskaya A.V. Informational and communication component ofproviding the competitiveness of agrarian enterprises.

The article investigates information and communication factors providing the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The authors proposed a logical sequence of acquisition of agri-food products to potential consumers. It was developed and based on an example of a particular company, approved the methodical approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of advertising campaigns. In addition, it was fulfilled the author's approach to build rate effectiveness in presenting information by the farms. It was established that the improvement of marketing communications complex should be a comparison of economic efficiency indicators of psychological effectiveness, and identify of the most effective communication media appeal.

Keywords: competitiveness, information and communication policy, agricultural business, marketing, advertising

The rapid development of the agricultural sector of Ukraine over the past decade has led to agricultural enterprises searching for tools and means to ensure competitiveness. The liberalization of markets of agri-food products has led to increased competition between both local residents of economy, and with companies in other countries. As a result, many companies have completely changed the strategy of their behavior, so that could take their own place in the market.

An important tool for adapting farms to the dynamics of the market environment is marketing. Companies that are focused its activities on sustainable development to develop the marketing mix of the enterprise, based on permanent study of consumer demand and transformation of the environment. A key place in the marketing complex plays a communications component, which provides information response to consumer needs. It is the use of active tools of marketing communication such as advertising, public relations, direct marketing, sales promotion, social media, etc., makes it possible not only to inform consumers about the availability of goods, but also to influence consumer attitude to the product that we propose.

But the basic element of the informational and communicational influence on the customer is advertising.

In developing advertising strategy there is a group of key decisions, setting goals and identifying the target audience, competitive advantages, items, and creating an image individual differences trademark. Targeting advertising directly from the answer to the question: who should get the result, influencing the target audience? Of course advertising seeks to create, change or reinforce relationships that make consumers try a new product, buy it again or go to another brand of consumer goods. Advertising brand aimed at creating an image or identity of the goods and its position [10].

Analysis of recent researches and publication

The theoretical and practical aspects of informational and communication activity is paid much attention in modern economic literature. Survey questions impact of marketing communications on consumers' behavioral reactions are highlighted in the

works of Peresadko G.O. Prokopenko O, Trojan M., Pirogova Y. and others.

Significant contribution to the development of marketing communications theory was made by foreign scientists Jakki Mohr and John R. Nevin They propose a contingency theory in which communication strategy moderates the impact of channel conditions (structure, climate, and power) on channel outcomes (coordination, satisfaction, commitment, and performance). When a communication strategy matches the channel conditions, channel outcomes will be enhanced in comparison with the outcomes when a communication strategy mismatches channel conditions.

The aim of the article is to study information and communication factors providing the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises on the basis of which will be developed logical sequence acquisition of agri-food products to potential consumers. In addition, the work includes the development of methodic approach to determine the cost-effectiveness of advertising campaigns Given the above - the main task of developing communication policy should be to achieve the desired impact on consumer behavior. The main part

The modern concept of integrated marketing communications involves carefully balanced and coordinated work of all communication channels to form a clear, coherent and convincing picture of the product and its manufacturer [1]. As a result of this work a certain consumer behavioral attitude is formed that should be investigated through the analysis of attachment to the brand. Analysis of commitment to the brand involves determining the level of commitment (percentage of customers who purchased the brand in the previous period, continue to acquire it and level of involvement (percentage of buyers who bought in the previous period a competing brand, switched to it).

A data level can determine the probability of switching customers from one brand to another on the basis of the survey or using consumer panels.

Based on the probability of certain switching we analyze the dynamics of market shares, describing the dynamics of competition and market development forecast under the assumption that the probability of detection of switching remain unchanged within a reasonable range planning.

On the basis of preferences analysis can calculate the market share of a brand in the shortest term and longest term by the formulas, proposed by Borodkina N.O. [2]:

St+1=C*St+F*(1-St), (!)

Sd= F/(1-C+F), (2)

where St + 1 - market share in the shortest period,

St - market share of current year;

Sd - market share in the long term;

C - level of preference

F - level of involvement.

At different stages of readiness consumers to purchase he uses different sources of information. When establishing communications it is important to know at what stage of the decision to buy the consumer is and what information it uses mostly [5].

Theoretically, the buyer follows five logical steps with each purchase:

1. Awarenessofneeds. The consumer wants to bridge the gap between real and desired state. In some cases the gap is there, but so small that it does not cross the threshold of absolute perception, then the process of making a purchase decision cannot start. Studying consumer behavior at this stage, we need to raise his problem and needs to understand what factors caused it and determine how the buyer comes to a particular decision.

2. Finding information. With the accumulation of information increases the consumer awareness of the availability of goods and their properties. The company must create a marketing complex, which would allow the consumers to have full information about its products. It is necessary to define the source of information for consumers and the importance of this. It is necessary to find out buyers under what circumstances they first have heard about the particular brand, information received and how important different sources of information are for them.

3. Evaluation of alternatives. The study of this stage of the decision provides knowledge about alternative evaluation, possibility to determine how consumers process information and make a final choice. The resulting knowledge can develop the effective marketing activities impact on consumers, who have not made the final decision.

4. The decision to purchase. The impact on consumer behavior at this stage involves marketer's knowledge and the use of three main factors: the buyer's intention to make purchase, a choice of source of purchase and its characteristics.

5. The reaction to purchase. Marketers and Advertisers must remember that the degree of exaggeration in advertising appeal must be reasonable. Otherwise, a strong exaggeration can cause undue expectations, and significant contrast with the actual quality and characteristics of the goods will lead to sharply negative reaction of consumers and even possible legal consequences.

Advertising and public relations play a major role on the stage of awareness of and information search.

At the stage of evaluating of alternatives, the role of personal selling is underpinned by advertising. At the stage of decision-making the main role pays for sales promotion and personal selling [4].

In order to determine the level and achieve of the desired impact on consumer behavior of the communication policy "Agrarne", we identified and analyzed the elements of the structure of enterprise. It was made by comprehensive objective review of the advertising firm, enterprise strategic decisions when creating advertisements.

HayKOBa gHcxyri«

Scientific discussion

The company has limited cost. The limited costs include the costs of production of price - sheets, brochures, pamphlets, posters, leaflets, posters, catalogs, advertisements in print, television and radio programs, advertisement production, followed by the placement of billboards, etc. in order to inform the consumer of the goods (work, services) sold (providing) business. It uses advertising media that cannot be applied in business, or something different, but to use them as carriers (source) advertising information [6].

It was revealed that the target audience in the company is in a state of consumer readiness: ignorance regarding product location and places its implementation. To move to the next steps to maximize the desired reaction - purchase, it was decided on the maximum intensity of stimulus. And as soon as this product (tanks of large volumes) was not previously represented in Sumy and Sumy region, then it is on stage to market. Therefore, advertising must be stringent and communication efforts should be maximized.

The purpose of the campaign - is not just information about the presence of plastic tanks, but the formation of the advantages of their use. Therefore, you should describe in detail all areas where they can be used. Identify customer problems solved thanks to the marketed product. Make emphasis on product quality and its certification. Describe characteristics of plastic tanks, efficiency, durability, weight, size, shape, environmental technology features production and operation of tanks.

The next stage of the strategies analysis in advertising the company was to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to stimulate the marketing complex.

The concept of effectiveness contains two constituent elements: the economic and psychological performance.

Economic efficiency - is economic results obtained from the use of advertising funds or campaign. It is defined as the ratio between revenue (advertising revenue from additional turnover) and advertising costs [1]. The effectiveness of marketing communications complex "Agrarne" to promote the market of plastic containers is estimated on the basis of indicators measuring the cognitive reaction of consumers (for each communications carrier separately): a set of views; total ratings; coverage; frequency; cost efficiency.

The set of reviews. Review - an indicator that displays the number of times one person can affect communicative marketing appeal in the media. The set of views is a measure of the audience for a media marketing communication or request for combination carriers and is determined by the formula:

SP = I N • K i = 1

where SP - set of reviews;

(3)

n - the number of times it was used by marketing communication messages;

N - audience value for each used marketing communication message (s);

K - the number of marketing communication messages.

Total ratings transforms the original number as a percentage.

GRP =

n

Z N • K i = 1

N3

• 100%,

(4)

where GRP - overall rating;

N3 - total number of audiences affected by the source.

Coverage is defined according to studies that predict audience that do not overlap. A significant portion of advertising evaluated in this way, although some funds, this estimate is only a statistical possibility. This means that the coverage is determined not based on real data, and calculated according to the laws of probability. It is uses audience research of this means of advertising or projection statistical models.

Coverage is defined as a percentage by formula:

m

O =

Nc • K + Z Nc i =1

(5)

N3

where N*ci - the percentage of the target audience that have seen a particular advertisement at least once within a specified period of time;

m - number of reusable media marketing communication messages within a specified period of time.

This figure is possible to determine the percentage of non-doubled target audiences, which can be displayed by communications application.

Frequency - the number of contacts with advertising. If coverage evaluation is based on a single display, frequency of occurrence estimates the number of expected hits of real audience.

The average frequency. For its definition requires two parameters: the overall rating (GRR) of graphics outputs and evaluation of coverage: GRP

CH =-

O

(6)

where CH - average frequency;

O - evaluation of coverage, %.

The cost per thousand views (CTV) -used to determine the effectiveness of marketing communications. To calculate CTV selected two metrics: cost per unit of marketing communication application (page or 30 seconds) and evaluation of the target audience. The cost of treatment unit is divided into a set of views of the target audience, it determined the amount of money needed to run a marketing communication address in 1000 representatives of the target audience [2].

For the further conclusion the obtained figures a represented in the table:

Table 1. Performance of the indicators of complex marketing communications

Tool of communication message Set review, SP Total rating GRP Coverage, I The average frequency, CH The cost per thousand views (CTV)

Regional newspaper 742500 804,19 0,77 10,44 0,37

Ukrainian specialized magazine 873000 946,17 1,37 6,91 0,21

Local newspaper 50800 55,06 0,36 1,53 13,78

Local TV 58000 58 0,57 1,02 0

Local radio 2400000 2601,15 0,56 46,45 0,00065

Radio outlets 1200000 1300,57 0,28 46,45 0,00014

Exhibition center 3300000 3300 1,07 30,84 0,012

Source: Own elaboration

All indicators of aggregate reviews are sufficient for its target audience, and the number of families in Sumy - 92,267, except the local newspaper - where a set of reviews 50800 -is insufficient for the area. The best performance is to review the totality of the exhibition center 3300000 and Local radio - 2400000.

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Indicators of total ratings are all high, and even super-high. The highest total rating as to the exhibition center.

Rates are low, for exhibition center and for the Ukrainian specialized magazine.

Rates of the average frequency of 10.44; 6.91; 1.53; 6.19; Low 1.02 and 46.23; 46.45; 40.01; 30.84 -high. Indicator - cost per thousand views only 13.78 high for the Local newspaper, and all other are acceptable.

With economic indicators turnover for 2014 year to advertise and turnover for 2015, the year after two months of (March-April 2015) promotional events Campaign plastic tanks (Table 2) and figure the cost of an advertising campaign, The economic effectiveness of the advertising 172.8%.

Table 2. Calculation of additional turnover

Turnover of plastic tanks, uan Additional turnover, uan

2014 2015

November 39 000 66 000 27 000

December 42 000 74 000 32000

Total 81 000 140 000 59 000

Source: Own elaboration

Thus, the overall conclusion of the imbalance of marketing communications complex that need improvement, comparing indicators of economic efficiency with indicators of psychological performance, and discovers that the same media communication addresses were the most effective to use them again when you need it are making measurement cognitive reactions by consumers:

— Analysis of the popularity of the brand. The simplest level of cognitive response - awareness of the existence of brand or its popularity. Rating the ability of the consumer to identify the brand at a level sufficient for its identification and selection. Information about the popularity is obtained in a survey of potential buyers about known trademarks under the exploring class;

— Analysis of the ability to recall advertising. Indicators of advertising recall ability is usually used as an interim measure of advertising effectiveness and to measure the degree of acceptance of the goods;

— Analysis of perceived similarity. Multivariate analysis of perceived similarity is used to understand how the brand positioned in the minds of potential buyers regarding competing brands [4].

So we have to note that strategic decisions on complex of communication events in the company "Agrarne" as a whole can be considered as effective tools except for some communication message, namely advertising such as local newspaper, Regional newspaper, Local radio, Radio outlets, Exhibition center. We believe that the advertising service should develop efficiency rating of presenting information.

Efficiency rating:

1. Participation in the exhibition (arranging of the own stand). Participating in the exhibition provides an opportunity to demonstrate your product stand to attract representatives from all four levels. The working group on the organization of exhibition stands must develop a plan of presentation on the stand. Unit to develop the corporate identity of the product design processing is performed on the stand. It is organized by the other elements of marketing communications such as personal selling (proposed product can be sold with a discount, free installation can offer the enterprise customer). Also on the stand it can be conducted the lottery, free distribution of advertising leaflets (sales promotion) with handles brand name, cards with rates, contact numbers and a list of services provided.

2. Conferences and seminars. Conferences and seminars are the main way to attract attention to their product the fourth level consumers (business leaders,

HayKOBa gacxycia

Scientific discussion

their deputies for directions). Proper explanation of benefits, the convenience of the product leads to drafting contracts for the supply of plastic containers and agricultural equipment to the enterprises of different ownership. Conferences and seminars can also be carried out on the stands.

3. Advertising on television. TV advertising is most effective, although in this case it is necessary to provide distrust of the last three levels to this product because the product is highly specialized and complex. The video should be as informative and launched a few days before the exhibition in "prime time". Also a group which deals with the press should negotiate with large broadcasters, making reports in news releases to supply the information about the goods sold.

4. Advertising in the newspapers and magazines. Advertising in the newspaper (journal) is one of the most convenient, because you cannot just give promotional ad format generally, but also to give an interview of the company manager or hidden advertising article about the company.

5. Advertising in computer networks (Internet) This kind of advertising is entirely new and very effective when it is low cost compared to other forms of advertising. All providers ("providers" of Internet) make it possible to organize a "page" (Web site) in the WWW (World Wide Web) - global hypertext information system. Hypertext - text with layouts links to other places of the text. While reading this text, you can see highlighted words, when you click the cursor, which you can obtain additional information.

6. Printed advertising products (cards). Cards must contain useful information on rates for the product, contact phone number and a list of services provided. Cards should be put on the stand (many companies sent for exhibition the staff members to gather information from the stands). Also, the cards can be put on the shelves of specialized firms or distributed at the main entrance of the exhibition and near the stands.

7. Radio advertising: advertising on radio has sufficiently short duration so that the message can be given only in the days of the exhibition and a few days before it started. As well as television advertising spot should be informative. It is necessary

to pay attention to the ratings of radio business to improve efficiency.

Due to its ability to influence the lifestyle advertising attracted high attention of the public. Continuously reinforced regulation is intended to ensure a responsible approach to advertising [3]. Therefore, RPC "Agro resource" should pay more attention to advertising, to work actively to increase its rating, image, popularity, invest more in advertising to improve the economic performance of the activity. For this purpose use the above suggestions.

Conclusions

When developing a communication strategy should be considered in addition to the characteristics of the product, such as the characteristics of consumer motivation, knowledge, degree of irritation, mood, and individual characteristics and prejudice. In the event that the consumer is motivated of usefulness of the product, it is necessary to strengthen the information of advertising if the product is designed for comfort or satisfaction of intellectual needs, the advertising should be emotive; advertising motivational complex products should emphasize both informational and emotional aspects of advertising messages. Provided that if a potential buyer does not have the knowledge, the more successful they will be advertising, which operates more affordable terms. Irritation can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on human mental activity during the processing of information; with a moderate degree of irritation relation to the product depends on convincing arguments, but with a high degree - from the power of advertising; in situations characterized by severe irritation - competition, watching movies, street performances where the audience themselves are directly involved - people are more likely to accept advertising. Influencing consumer can stimulate the right mood: the use of emotional messages and advertising in context (telecast), which promotes a favorable mood. People are drawn to knowledge, exposed arguments, and those for whom it is not very important, more responsive to indirect hints for more important status of the person advertising the product; people prone to introspection, ready to change their behavior, with underdeveloped introspection - not exposed, because the more governed by internal sensations.

Abstract

The article investigates information and communication factors providing the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The authors proposed a logical sequence of acquisition of agri-food products to potential consumers. It was developed and based on an example of a particular company, approved the methodical approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of advertising campaigns. In addition, it was fulfilled the author's approach to build rate effectiveness in presenting information by the farms. It was established that the improvement of marketing communications complex should be a comparison of economic efficiency indicators of psychological effectiveness, and identify of the most effective communication media appeal.

JEL Classification: M 39.

ЕКОНОМ1КА: реалП часу

№3(25), 2016

ECONOMICS: time realities

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Надано до редакцшно! колегп 16.04.2016

Данько Юрш 1ванович / Yuriy I. Danko

y. danko@sau. sumy. ua

Галинська Ангелша Вiкторiвна / Anhelina V. Galinskaya

Посилання на статтю / Reference a Journal Article:

Informational and communication component of providing the competitiveness of agrarian enterprises [Електронний ресурс] / Yu. I. Danko, A. V. Galinskaya // Економша: реали часу. Науковий журнал. - 2016. - № 3 (25). - С. 168173. - Режим доступу до журн.: http://economics.opu.ua/files/archive/2016/n3.html

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