Научная статья на тему 'Specifics of chess terminology'

Specifics of chess terminology Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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ШАХМАТНАЯ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ / CHESS TERMINOLOGY / ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ СИСТЕМА / TERMINOLOGICAL SYSTEM / ДЕТЕРМИНОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ / DETERMINOLOGIZATION / АНТОНИМИЯ / ANTONYMY / ПОЛИСЕМИЯ / POLYSEMY / ОМОНИМИЯ / HOMONYMY / СИНОНИМИЯ / SYNONYMY

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Karayev Assylkhan Agbayevich

This article discusses the specifics of chess terminological system. Huge popularity of sport, describing with fascinating development of sport and inclination to the sport progression not only of the participants of competitions but also of a lot of funs shows active use of sport, in particular, chess terms in their directly nominative meanings. Great number of chess terms gives an inexhaustible possibility for their usage in different communicative situations and it is really valuable for the reporters as a rich source of new ways of attracting readers.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Specifics of chess terminology»

ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Specifics of chess terminology Karayev A. A. Специфика шахматной терминологии Karayev A. A.

Караев Асылхан Агбаевич /Karayev Assylkhan Agbayevich - магистрант, кафедра иностранной филологии и переводческого дела, Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, г. Алматы, Республика Казахстан

Abstract: this article discusses the specifics of chess terminological system. Huge popularity of sport, describing with fascinating development of sport and inclination to the sport progression not only of the participants of competitions but also of a lot of funs shows active use of sport, in particular, chess terms in their directly nominative meanings. Great number of chess terms gives an inexhaustible possibility for their usage in different communicative situations and it is really valuable for the reporters as a rich source of new ways of attracting readers.

Аннотация: в данной статье рассматриваются и раскрываются особенности шахматной терминологической системы. Огромная популярность спорта, его бурное развитие и вовлечение в спортивное движение большого числа не только участников соревнований, но и болельщиков проявились в активном использовании спортивных, шахматных в частности, терминов в прямом номинативном значении и в виде метафорически переосмысленных единиц. Многообразие шахматных терминов дает неисчерпаемые возможности для употребления их в различных ситуациях общения и особенно ценно для журналистов как богатый источник новых средств воздействия на читателей.

Keywords: chess terminology, terminological system, determinologization, antonymy, polysemy, homonymy, synonymy.

Ключевые слова: шахматная терминология, терминологическая система, детерминологизация, антонимия, полисемия, омонимия, синонимия.

Terminology is a set of terms, designating the notion of a specific area of knowledge or activity, and a set of terms of a natural language. However, terminological practice is so, that a meta-language of the philology is the most problematic language of science. Terminology studies are actual and advanced direction in modern linguistic science. Scientists refer to the study of the essence of the term, its properties; highlight the problems of meta-language of terminology studies, formation of terminological systems, terminologization and determinologization processes, terminography issues. Such researches as A. A. Reformatsky, G. O. Vinokur, V. P. Danilenko, O. S. Akhmanova, T. L. Kandelaki, L. A. Kapanadze, V. A. Tatarinov, S. V. Grinev, B. N. Golovin, R. Yu. Kobrin, A. V. Superanskaya, N. V. Podolskaya, N. V. Vasiliyeva, V. M. Leichik, L. Yu. Buyanova, G. P. Nemec, T. Kh. Kade, S. D. Shelov and others are among notable scientists of terminology studies [1, p. 3].

Terminological system (terminological system) is a complicated dynamically stable system, elements of which are selected according to the certain rules of lexical units of a natural language. Its structure is isomorphic to the structure of the logical connections between notions of a specific area of knowledge or activity, and the function is to serve as a sign (language) model of that field of knowledge or activity [1, p. 11].

Based on these definitions, we can talk about sports terminology, which is now not only an integral part of the culture, but also is the sphere of professional activity, about the existence of sports terminological system, the core of which consists of common to all (or many) sports terms, designating competition, participants, the elements of the organization, constituent to the various terminological systems of the lowest level practically without changes of the notion contents. The basic elements are also the names of sports, organizing their own terminological systems as a source term.

Our research is devoted to the study of chess terminology; in this regard we consider specifics of formation and terminologization of chess culture in this article.

Chess is an ancient intellectual game, which has centuries-long history. Now it is one of the most popular table games [3, p. 5].

In the second half of XX - beginning of XXI centuries a considerable number of scientific papers devoted to various aspects of the game phenomenon appeared. A lot of related disciplines (philosophy, logic, culture, linguistics, psychology, literature, etc.) deal with games research.

Linguistics, for example, studies the semantic characteristics of the notion of the game, cultural studies investigates place of the game in the culture context, psychology - semiotics of culture, sign and meaning functions, cognitive processes and etc. And it goes without saying that in this situation, the study of the phenomenon of the game becomes an interdisciplinary issue [4, p. 2].

From the perspective of language I would like to highlight and reveal the features of the formation of chess terminology. There is the need to find the meaning of meta-language of chess terms that is an object of the current research in order to develop an integrated understanding.

Features of chess game allow us to consider it as a cultural phenomenon, game form, a valuable material for philosophical and cultural studies, the sign material for a semantic analysis and, finally, as an object for the philological study of culture of semiotics, sign categories, value and meaning.

The huge popularity of sport, its rapid development and the involvement of not only participant of competitions but also of a lot of funs shows active use of sport, in particular, chess terms in their directly nominative meaning and as metaphorically reinterpreted units.

It should be noted that any term in addition to the nominative function perform communicative function peculiar to the language in all its occurrences. We can distinguish two main functioning areas of chess terms -specialized texts of a scientific or journalistic nature and journalistic texts, having no direct relation to chess and sport in general, as well as literary texts [2, p. 1].

Chess vocabulary as part of sports terminology includes both the terms and non-terminological units, which are obsolete terms and colloquial terms, humorous terms, most of the verbal terms, classified as derivatives of nominative terms in functioning areas, professional words and nomenclative units. Non-terminological units are not analyzed in this article [1, p. 11].

Originally, single-word terms are divided into national Russian and foreign language terms.

Chess terms are formed in the following ways: borrowings from other languages ("fianchetto", "blitz"), common words terminologization ("luft", time), transterminologization (inversion), phrases lexicalization ("materia superiority"), as we as by derivation in chess terminological system via affixation ("problematist", "fianchetto") and addition [1, p. 14].

It should be noted that in publicistic speech chess term is used as in general meaning and in figurative meaning as well. In determinologization process a term loses its exact conceptual importance, systematicity, monosemy. So, there is a simplification of term's concept, the former term is adapted to the understanding in common language. Such words with terminological meaning do not require the definition but interpretation, like other common vocabulary words. This changes the lexical valence of the word.

Determinologization of sports terms and their entry into common-literary language springs due to both extra-linguistic and linguistic factors.

Due to the fact that chess, on one hand, have military actions as a prototype, and on the other hand, reflect a "skirmish of wits", clash of political forces and the various socio-political maneuvers there are regular associations with the game of chess. Comparison with chess pieces is a common technique in publicistic texts: "Our government, as a pawn, does not go back" ["Mosk. Komsomolets", 21.01.05]. "Everyone worries about the possibility of intensification of the struggle for the redistribution of power in Azerbaijan and the inevitable onset of a period of turmoil. Therefore, the actual figures of the chess game will make moves only after the disappearance of the present king. A queen has to constantly maneuver, not to fly off the board beforehand" ["Koms. Pravda", 9.08.03]. In this phrase "chess game" refers to the process of the struggle for the power in the country. "Figures'-respectively -its main figures: President Heydar Aliyev ("king") and his son, Ilham Aliyev, the front-runner for the post ("queen"), as well as candidates from the opposition. They all perform certain actions - "moves". The "queen" has to constant y "maneuver" to "not to f y off the board" that is not to cut out from the fight. There is an obvious metaphorical transfer [2, p. 182].

The use of staggered terms and combination which are associated with the initial terminological meaning on y forma y deserves specia attention. Thus, the "trump card" (in chess it means such a position in which one of the parties has a chance to win) is a title of the article on the procedure for the payment of monetary and material prizes in lotteries ["Arguments and Facts", 2003, edition 40]. There is a transformation of a combination of "trump-card", which would not cause ambiguous interpretations; however, it also would not have a specific evocative shade, which is very important for publicistic texts [2, p. 183].

Thus, it can be affirmed that chess terms despecializing are widely used today in media due to its brevity and expressiveness. There are over two hundred of such cases. The use of the majority of chess terms is accompanied by the expansion of the meaning, its transformation, as well as the metaphorical transfer, that is, the traditional ways of determinologization of special vocabulary. Unlike other sport terminological systems chess terminology in publicism is used to refer to more knowledge-based notions. As long as chess is a game that develops not the physical but mental abilities, an appeal to its lexicon suggests quite educated readership, available to understand language game based on these associations.

A variety of chess terms gives endless possibilities for their use in different situations of communication and is especially valuable for journalists as a rich source of new means of influence on readers, vivid images and successful comparisons [2, p. 183].

Due to linguists researches it was revealed that there are antonymy terms in chess terminology observed that are associated with the object specific of study, where the confrontation is a basic element, as well as polysemy, homonymy and synonymy, which does not contradict the essence of the term, as evidenced by the continuous development of chess thought and reflects the state of the science at the moment [1, p. 7]. After a thorough analysis, we concluded that chess terminology requires particular attention.

In chess, the term "opening" - the beginning of a chess game, that is targeted at mobilization. Term "opening" as an "initia stage of a chess game" is represented in the genera language dictionaries as one of the lexical-semantic variants of polysemantic word: 1. The first performance of the actor on stage // The first public performance in any field. 2. Beginning of chess and checks games [MAC, vol. 1, p. 377]. In the expressions ike "atomic opening" (tit e of the artic e on the officia representation of Sergey Kiriyenko in the new post of the head of the Federal Atomic Energy Agency) ["Ros. Gazeta", 19.11.05], and "Volga opening" (the arrival of Mikhail Kasyanov to Samara - the first exit before public after his declaration of intent to participate in the fight for the presidency in elections 2008") ["Ros. Gazeta", 3.11.05] two meanings are used. Two variants mean the first public appearance in a new way, but in its form of expression, these expressions will inevitably evoke associations with the names of chess game beginning [2, p. 2].

Polysemy of the term "composition" is determined by such regular relationships between lexical-semantic variants that occur, for example, in a linguistic term "grammar" denoting science and its object. Tern "composition" - special area of chess creativity, process of which is contained in creating of artificial setup with a specific task for one of the parties", "composition" - artificial setup with a certain task for one of the parties" [6, p. 165]. Comparison of given definitions, on one hand, confirms the presence of their common genera seme of a specia character, "artificia setup with the task for one party", whi e on the other hand shows the discrepancy between the volume of relevant concepts [1, p. 92].

We can also refer the term "play1" to the homonyms (1. General name of the competition in sport games, matches. 2. A variation of the game - blind game) and play2 (peculiarity of being up in a sport games), game1 (the process of struggle against the first move before revealing the final result, the set of all the moves taken on board in their sequence) h game2 (the common name of a number of openings). Homonymy in such cases is supported by a mismatch of synonyms or lack thereof of one of homonyms, the difference in the compatibility of which is fixed by the presence of a variety of compound terms. So, game1 is acting as a main component in the terms elements such as majority game, friendly game, while game2 -as a nomen component means Ruy Lopez game, and etc. Multiple terminologization of a common word leads to such homonymy [ 1, p. 95].

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There are doublet terms and option terms are met in chess terminology. Synonymy is turned up in a coexistence of doublet terms, i.e. those which terminological meaning coincides completely: author, composer, problem compiler and etude originator form synonymic row. All of them are hyperonym at the same time for the terms problemist (composer of chess problems) and etudist (composer of chess etudes).

As for antonyms, it is not peculiar to terminology and is considered to be a drawback as the same as the previously discussed semantic relationships. But sport is a confrontation between the parties, and it is reflected in the system of concepts and their relationship with each other.

Sport terminology in general and chess, in particular, has many such examples. Compare, for example, "win - ose", "form - anti-form", "tempo oss - tempo gain" and etc. Antonymy is created by the means of a certain affixes with the negation meaning or prefixes with the opposite meaning, and semantically, when the opposite meaning is put in a lexical item in a common language system level that is naturally put off to the terminology [1, p. 102].

As L.A.Avakova has noted in her scientific work, the main method of terms formation is terminologization that is the process of entering of common-literary words to the vocabulary subject area by cutting off of "narrow-minded" meanings from the words, as well as various kinds of connotations, attachments of the clear definition and place in appropriate terminological system to the word. At the same time the original meaning of the word usually becomes narrower and is concretized, and its semantic core acquires additiona , specia , content ("board", "protection", and "victim"). A particu ar y important group is made up of mi itary vocabu ary words ("attack", "maneuver", "f ank", "tactics"), which is associated with the history of chess game as a kind of art of war "textbook" [1, p. 104].

References

1. Avakova L. A. Strukturno-semanticheskiy i funktsional'nyj analiz terminosistemy "Shahmaty":

Dis.kand.filol.nauk. M., 2006. 200 p.

2. Avakova L. A. Transformatsiya znacheniy shahmatnyh terminov na gazetnoy polose // Vestnik Adygeyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2006. № 2. P. 182 - 183.

3. Nikolayev Y. A. Shahmatnaya igra kak filosofsko-kurturnyj fenomen: Dis.kand.filol.nauk. M., 2001. 153 p.

4. Yurkovskiy I. M. Terminy, obschie dlya sportivnyh igr, v russkom yazyke: Dis.kand.filol.nauk. L., 1978. 264 p.

Основные проблемы перевода медицинских терминов Осатаева А. Н.

Осатаева Айгерим Нургалымовна / Osataeva Aygerim Nyrgalymovna - студент, Институт международного общения и языковой коммуникации, Томский политехнический университет, г. Томск

Аннотация: с бурным развитием технологии в медицине обеспечение адекватного перевода медицинских терминов становится важной составной частью переводческой практики. В статье рассмотрены основные проблемы перевода медицинских терминов. Ключевые слова: медицина, термин, перевод, medicine, term, translation.

Как правило, медицинский перевод принято считать одной из разновидностей научного перевода. Однако, в реалиях мира это - скорее перевод практических документов, при котором у переводчика и редактора нет права на ошибку, так как малейшая оплошность может стать причиной непоправимых последствий. Отдельно следует сказать о переводе текстов из историй болезни пациентов или связанных с интерпретацией результатов анализов. Такие документы отличаются использованием специальной терминологии, разнообразных медицинских символов и сокращений.

Говоря о конкретных трудностях, с которыми сталкивается переводчик при работе с медицинскими терминами, приведем примеры, перечисленные Е. М. Солнцевым:

• «синонимия терминов, что терминоведы считают крайне нежелательным явлением, ставящим под вопрос саму терминологичность данных единиц. Ученый отмечает, что стандартизация медицинских терминов нередко встречает сопротивление медицинского сообщества, а предложенные термины не всегда бывают удачными с лингвистической точки зрения. Новая международная анатомическая терминология («Terminología Anatómica») внедряется медленно, поэтому ожидать устранения нежелательной синонимии в ближайшее время не приходится» [4, с. 132].

• расхождения в классификации и номенклатуре различных органов и систем организма; расхождения в методике исследований и способах представления их результатов.

• Существенные расхождения наблюдаются в употреблении эпонимов по какому-либо имени собственному - например, хромосома Бальбиани - Balbiani chromosome .

• особые затруднения обычно вызывают сокращения, часто окказиональные, не зафиксированные в словарях. И хотя существуют словари медицинских аббревиатур, далеко не всегда они могут прийти на помощь, так как нередко сокращение оказывается авторским, рожденным «здесь и сейчас», только в пределах переводимого текста.

Перечисленные выше трудности медицинского перевода справедливы для любых языков.

Важно помнить также о лексико-семантических особенностях медицинской терминологии, которой нехарактерны экспрессия, эмоции, а лишь нейтральность [4, с. 29]. Тем более, что медицинская литература на английском языке активно участвует в образовании новой терминологии медицины, так как на английском языке публикуется более 60 % медицинской информации [2, с. 1].

Одной из отличительных черт медицинского перевода является высокий уровень терминологичности, употребление аббревиатур и сокращений.

Аббревиатуры и сокращения обнаруживают целый ряд грамматических особенностей. Так как английский язык обладает следующими особенностями как компрессия, упрощение грамматических структур и экономия языковых средств. Можно говорить о возможностях создания новых аббревиатур, также об их стремительной адаптации в системе английского языка, также это предъявляет некоторые сложности, которые связанны с противоречиями системы данного языка. Поэтому возникает проблема перевода аббревиатур. Для перевода аббревиатур важна точность и однозначность их перевода. Однако, в медицине возникают такие случаи, при которых причиняется вред пациенту из-за неверной интерпретации медицинской аббревиатуры [3, с. 13]. Лингвисты отмечают, что английскому языку свойственно сокращение любого термина. В то время как в данная тенденция проявляется не столь четко. Термин в русском языке при переводе его на английский язык