Научная статья на тему 'Снижение степени проявления агрессии среди подростков средствами физической культуры и спорта'

Снижение степени проявления агрессии среди подростков средствами физической культуры и спорта Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
ЗАНЯТИЯ СПОРТОМ / ПОДРОСТКИ / НАСИЛИЕ

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Хусейн Бензидан, Мохаммед Зерф, Джамаль Мокрани, Хабиб Бензикадор, Зерег Фатех

Целью настоящего исследования является раскрытие роли занятий спортом в снижении проявлений агрессии и насилия в подростковой среде. В авторском эксперименте принимали участие две целевых группы, каждая из которых состояла из тридцати игроков (экспериментальная и контрольная группы). Эксперимент проводился под эгидой Муниципальной Ассоциации психологического консультирования города Mостаганем. Тестирование игроков осуществлялось на основе шкалы, разработанной Аманом Джамилем Эл-Дином в 2008 году [1]. Точность расчетов проверялась по формуле альфа Кронбаха с полученным значением в границах 0,80, что является значимым показателем. Результаты независимого Т-тестирования указывают на то, что игроки демонстрируют устойчивое желание продолжать занятия спортом, что воспитывает у них такие важные моральные качества как терпение и воля. Более того, активные занятия спортом помогают развивать психологические механизмы самоконтроля в ситуациях мгновенного проявления гнева. Проведенное экспериментальное исследование позволяет сделать вывод об эффективности и положительном влиянии спортивных занятий на психологическое здоровье подростков. Отмечено снижение проявлений насилия и жестокости в молодежной среде.

Похожие темы научных работ по наукам об образовании , автор научной работы — Хусейн Бензидан, Мохаммед Зерф, Джамаль Мокрани, Хабиб Бензикадор, Зерег Фатех

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Impact of sport activity on adolescents’ reducing violence

This research aims at discovering the role that sports activities play in reducing the adolescents’ violence and aggressive behavior. The researcher used experimental method with two groups; each on is made of thirty players (30 players of experimental sample, 30 players of control sample) belonging in psychological counselling Municipal Association Mostaganem. Tested based on Scale designed by Eman Gamal El-Din 2008 [1]. Whether the validity of the tool was calculated by Cronbach Alpha equation, which recorded a value of 0.80, which is a significant value. Based on the independent T test the results obtained show the fact that the players show an immense desire in practicing sport, which in its turn inculcates in them values such patience, and strong will. Furthermore, they manage to have control over themselves when they are angry for instance. In conclusion, no room is left to deny the positive impact on diminishing the vehement or violent attitudes of teenagers.

Текст научной работы на тему «Снижение степени проявления агрессии среди подростков средствами физической культуры и спорта»

Психологические науки

УДК 796.011:159.9

СНИЖЕНИЕ СТЕПЕНИ ПРОЯВЛЕНИЯ АГРЕССИИ СРЕДИ ПОДРОСТКОВ СРЕДСТВАМИ ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ И СПОРТА

Бензидан Хусейн, Зерф Мохаммед, Мокрани Джамаль, Бензикадор Хабиб,

Институт физической культуры и спорта. Университет Mостаганем, Алжир,

Фатех Зерег, аспирант, Российский государственный Университет физической культуры, спорта, молодежи и

туризма (ГЦОЛИФК), Москва

Аннотация

Целью настоящего исследования является раскрытие роли занятий спортом в снижении проявлений агрессии и насилия в подростковой среде. В авторском эксперименте принимали участие две целевых группы, каждая из которых состояла из тридцати игроков (экспериментальная и контрольная группы). Эксперимент проводился под эгидой Муниципальной Ассоциации психологического консультирования города Mостаганем. Тестирование игроков осуществлялось на основе шкалы, разработанной Аманом Джамилем Эл-Дином в 2008 году [1]. Точность расчетов проверялась по формуле альфа Кронбаха с полученным значением в границах 0,80, что является значимым показателем. Результаты независимого Т-тестирования указывают на то, что игроки демонстрируют устойчивое желание продолжать занятия спортом, что воспитывает у них такие важные моральные качества как терпение и воля. Более того, активные занятия спортом помогают развивать психологические механизмы самоконтроля в ситуациях мгновенного проявления гнева. Проведенное экспериментальное исследование позволяет сделать вывод об эффективности и положительном влиянии спортивных занятий на психологическое здоровье подростков. Отмечено снижение проявлений насилия и жестокости в молодежной среде.

Ключевые слова: занятия спортом, подростки, насилие.

IMPACT OF SPORT ACTIVITY ON ADOLESCENTS' REDUCING VIOLENCE

Benzidane Houcine, Zerf Mohamed, Mokrani Djamel, Bensikadour Habib,

Institute of Physical Education and Sport. University of Mostaganem, Algeria, Fateh Zereg, the post-graduate student, Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism, Moscow

Annotation

This research aims at discovering the role that sports activities play in reducing the adolescents' violence and aggressive behavior. The researcher used experimental method with two groups; each on is made of thirty players (30 players of experimental sample, 30 players of control sample) belonging in psychological counselling Municipal Association Mostaganem. Tested based on Scale designed by Eman Gamal El-Din 2008 [1]. Whether the validity of the tool was calculated by Cronbach Alpha equation, which recorded a value of 0.80, which is a significant value. Based on the independent T test the results obtained show the fact that the players show an immense desire in practicing sport, which in its turn inculcates in them values such patience, and strong will. Furthermore, they manage to have control over themselves when they are angry for instance. In conclusion, no room is left to deny the positive impact on diminishing the vehement or violent attitudes of teenagers.

Keywords: sport activity, adolescents, violence.

INTRODUCTION OF THE RESEARCH

It is not strange that nowadays most developed countries over the world concern themselves with the examination of the violence phenomenon. Such a concern is not but the person inaction of values adopted by the United Nations and expressed through universal treaties and laws. The latter defend man's rights and aim at protecting him from all sorts of violence that they are exposed to [2] Elizabeth G. Ferris, (2011).

Unfortunately, violence is widespread. One can witness violent behaviors in different domains and come to be called differently. To mention some examples, according to Mohamed Al Aissaoui, there is domestic violence; the one exercised at home, political violence, school violence, stadium violence to name only a few [3].

Stadium violence is what concerns us most for this present research. Specially that this phenomenon is gaining momentum and becoming manifest in our society day after day. It is getting more and more violent and finds different forms of being done publicly. According to Ban, violence is the result of accumulated negativity and aggressively from others. In our country, in particular, violence is well noticed among the youth. Therefore, as specialists in sports education, we try through this research to highlight the importance of physical education in encouraging teenagers to act positively with their mates and teachers as well. Common sports activities will undoubtedly enhance group spirit, mutual understanding and respect. According to Yen-Chun Lin [4], the teachers of sport activities is the best sponsor to promote a healthy relationship between a teenager and his society [5] It is hoped that sports with its different domains will participate in providing a solution for this phenomenon.

With the spread of media, channels and movies of action and explicit violence, our society witnessed the proliferation of violent behavior. In addition to that, reporting wars taking place in different Arab countries with vivid images of murders of children and women reinforces the violent behaviors already acquired. Playing video games is another factor that contributes to increasing teenagers' violence. Especially those games where players are invited to fight, beat fire and kill each other. The lack of entertainment is of paramount importance one should never underestimate. Consequently, adolescents express their accumulated feelings and emotion through unhealthy and most often violent ways. With that being said, it is a duty to examine thoroughly this phenomenon and work very hard in order to find an educated way through which adolescents can express themselves without hurting others. Bearing in mind, adolescents'' lives are full of adventures and excitement; as a result, it is necessary to find them alternatives. Education gives now a days-great importance to physical education that helps correct violent behaviors. Developed countries are aware of that and therefore, they focus and sports activities.

THE AIMS OF THE RESEARCH

1 Emphasizing the importance of playing sports and its role in reducing violence among adolescents.

2 Recognizing the important relationship established between the physical education and constructing social positions and status.

3 Recognizing the role that sports education play in building healthy personality for adolescents.

Method

The researcher used as a method an experiment because it suits the nature of the topic.

Sample of the Research:

In our research, we relied on a sample of sixty adolescents TOOLS OF THE RESEARCH

Observation is one tool used in this experiment. It is a method used in order to establish a strategy to work with the sample. Training the helping team that will supervise the practical work.

Measuring the violent behaviors according to the Algerian society.

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The appropriate statement for physical violence: 1,2,3,4, 10,11,13,15,16,20,21,23,24,27,31,33,34.

The appropriate statement for verbal violence: 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22, 25, 26,

28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36.

How to measure: When measuring the following criteria should be respected:

The symbol (x) should be put near the adequate answer. Each answer is valued with 1 point for yes responses and 0 points for no answers. Half a point is for seldom answers. Finally, all the points should be counted and compared to the measuring prototype set for either physical or verbal violence.

More than one answer is not taken into account and incomplete responses are not counted too.

The following results indicate the degree of violence:

Less than five points Reduced level of violence.

From 5.5 to 10 points Medium level of violence.

From 10.5 to 15.5 points High level of violence.

More than 16 points Aggressive and dangerous level of violence.

THE MAIN EXPERIMENT

The researcher prepared sessions of physical training and activities for entertainment in order to reduce the adolescents' violence. Such a preparation relied on thirst and foremost on the researcher's long years of experience. A group of teachers and specialists in the field of sports education and psychology chose with close secreting the activities suggested for the adolescents.

After doing the pre-tests, the experiment took place a week and during three months. Each session lasted for seventy minutes and after that, post-tests were done.

Result Table (01) illustrates the significance of differences between the averages of the results off tests and tribal posteriori the experimental sample___

——^Statistical measurements Violence test —— Pre-test Post-test T calculated Statistical significance

X1 Y1 X2 Y2

physical violence 15.30 0.48 9.90 0.99 15.88 significant

Verbal violence 14.70 0.67 9.80 1.13 17.17 significant

0.05 level of significance, the degree of freedom (n-1) = 29 T spreadsheet 1.25

We note from the table (01), the presence of significant differences between the pre and post measurement in favor of telemetric in the physical violence and verbal violence test with the experimental sample where the estimated calculated T is respectively 15.58 and 17.17. It is the largest of the estimated tabular by 1.25 at the level of 0.05 and the degree of freedom 29.

From the above researchers finds that a programs of physical activity and sports has a positive impact on physical violence and verbal violence with experimental sample, and this is what we found in a testing remote.

Table (02) illustrates the significance of differences between the averages of the results of tests and tribal posterior the control sample____

" ——Statistical measurements Violence test ■—-— Pre-test Post-test T calculated Statistical significance

X1 Y1 X2 Y2

physical violence 15 0.81 14.80 1.47 0.68 Non-significant

Verbal violence 15 0.81 14.90 1.19 0.42 Non-significant

0.05 level of significance, the degree of freedom (n-1) = 29 T spreadsheet 1.25

We note from the table (02), the presence of no significant differences between the pre and post measurement in favor of telemetric in the physical violence and verbal violence test with the control sample where the estimated calculated T is respectively 0.68 and 0.42. It is the largest of the estimated tabular by 1.25 at the level of 0.05 and the degree of freedom 29.

DISCUSSION

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Based on the project Multisite Violence Prevention (2004), as an intervention aimed at reducing violence among young adolescents [6].

We certified that the physique activities participated greatly in reducing the level of both physical and verbal violence of the sample. They helped the adolescents acquire healthy habits and correct bad ones. Sports' education proved to be an effective means to develop their physical strength and capacities [7]. It is also a way through which they managed to express themselves freely with no boundaries. Such relaxations help them forget the social and family problems and get rid of the surplus of energy and this has been confirmed by Bandura (2002) [8].

Jean Piaget (2001) [9] also asserts the fact that physical education and sports activities help the person acquire feelings of brotherhood, accomplishment and joy. They also help him have equilibrium between work and rest.

Based on the results Project Oracle's growing evidence [10], we confirm that doing sports is also a way to reduce anxiety and stress as Richard [11] claims. For him, thanks to playing sports, the adolescents can express their energy in an accepted and healthy way and can reduce inner pressure.

As far as the psychological and social side, sports activities can help accomplish adaptation for the person inside his family, society and country.

We agree the indicator of Dr. Diane H.et al, (2013) [12]; to inculcate good values, we should take advantage of the adolescents' free time by doing useful activities to reduce the psychological and social pressures.

Furthermore, Shagged highlights the fact that participating in sports' activities diminishes crime and helps acquire good values.

Based on the above-mentioned results, one can conclude the fact that the great interest shown by the adolescents for the sports' activities is worth being studied and examined thoroughly. Sports help them have goals and play an important role in establishing good and healthy relationships among people. Besides, it helps greatly in reducing violence by practicing self-control.

We can also state that sports have a great effect in the sense that they teach adolescents how to respect and abide by the rules. Sports activities guide the adolescents to the right path and help them avoid.

REFERENCES

1. Ali Ben Nouh, Ben Abel Rahmain Chahier, Violence among middle school students in light of some psychological variables, Saudi Arabia: Umm Al-Qura University, 2009, p. 71.

2. Elizabeth G. Ferris, The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action, US: Brookings Institution Press, 2011, p. 158.

3. Mokhtar Safwat wafiq, Violence in the Arab world. Beirut, Lebanon Second Edition., publishing for the Middle East, 2008, p. 55.

4. Yen-Chun Lin, An analysis of adolescent participation and satisfaction of recreational sport activities in Hsinchu City, Taiwan, Taiwan: ProQuest, 2008, p. 218.

5. Thomas P. Gullotta, Gerald R. Adams, Carol A. Markstrom, The Adolescent Experience, US: Access Online via Elsevier, 1999, p. 218.

6. Rosie Meek, Sport in Prison: Exploring the Role of Physical Activity in Correctional, US: Routledge, 2013, p. 94.

7. Christine Hancock, The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being, England: C3 Collaborating for Health, 2011, p. 30.

8. Albert Bandura, "Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context," Applied Psychology, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 269-290, 2002.

9. J.-J. Ducret, Jean Piaget et les sciences cognitives, Fr: In Intellectica, 2001, pp. 209-229.

10. Dr Simon McMahon, Dr Jyoti Belur, Sports-basedProgrammes and Reducing Youth Vio-lenceand Crime, UK: Project Oracle synthesis study, 2013, pp. 1-22.

11. Richard cox, Psychology of sport. Bruxelles, fr: de Boeck, 2005.

12. Dr. Diane H. Jones-Palm, Dr. Jurgen Palm, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH BEHAVIOR AMONG YOUTH, US: World Health Organisation, 2013, pp. 1-5.

Contact information: djameleps@yahoo.fr

Статья поступила в редакцию 26.04.2017

УДК 159.9:796.011.3

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВНЕШНИХ И ВНУТРЕННИХ ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПРИЧИН ОТСУТСТВИЯ МОТИВАЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ К ЗАНЯТИЯМ ПО ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЕ В ВУЗЕ

Александр Сергеевич Болдов, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Алексей Витальевич Гусев, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент,

Константин Борисович Илькевич, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Виктор Иванович Шарагин, кандидат военных наук, доцент, Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет (ФГБОУ ВО МГППУ), Москва

Аннотация

В представленной статье описано исследование внешних и внутренних психологических причин отсутствия мотивации студентов к занятиям по физической культуре в ВУЗе на примере Московского государственного психолого-педагогического университета. В результате исследования выявлены возможности для коррекции педагогической деятельности, повышающие уровень мотивации к физкультурно-спортивной деятельности у студенческой молодежи.

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Ключевые слова: физическая культура, студенты-психологи, причины отрицательной мотивации, психологическое тестирование.

STUDY OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS FOR LACK OF MOTIVATION AMONG THE STUDENTS TO PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT AT THE UNIVERSITY

Alexander Sergeevich Boldov, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer,

Alexey Vitalievich Gusev, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, Konstantin Borisovich Ilkevich, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer, Viktor Ivanovich Sharagin, the candidate of military sciences, senior lecturer, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow

Annotation

In the present article the authors describe the study of the external and internal psychological causes for the lack of motivation of students to physical training in higher school on the example of Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The study identified the opportunities for correction of teaching activities that increase the level of motivation to sports activity among the students.

Keywords: physical culture, psychological students, reasons for negative motivation, psychological testing.

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

На современном этапе развития высшей школы в Российской Федерации физическая подготовка является основой программы физического воспитания студентов вузов. Физическое воспитание - неотъемлемая часть учебно-воспитательного процесса и не может рассматриваться как второстепенный его компонент. Период обучения в подростковом и юношеском возрасте совпадает с активным формированием духовных и физических качеств молодого человека, с подготовкой к выполнению социальных функций в условиях социально-экономического развития общества [3]. Проблема формирования двигательной активности учащихся имеет большое гигиеническое значение, так как в последнее время замечается прогрессирующая гиподинамия у молодёжи, что обусловлено большим объёмом учебных занятий не только в аудиториях, но и дома [2, 5, 8]. Сохранение и укрепление здоровья студенческой молодёжи является одной из важнейших задач государства, однако студенты большинства вузов пропускают занятия по физической культуре, обосновывая свои прогулы рядом причин, относящихся к их собственной эмо-