Научная статья на тему 'Перспективы и специфика ресурсного управления предприятиями разных секторов экономики в России'

Перспективы и специфика ресурсного управления предприятиями разных секторов экономики в России Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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РЕСУРСНЫЙ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ / RESOURCE MANAGEMENT / СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ / CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES / БЕРЕЖЛИВОЕ ПРОИЗВОДСТВО (LEAN PRODUCTION) / LEAN PRODUCTION / ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ КРИЗИС / ECONOMIC CRISIS / РОССИЯ / RUSSIA / СБЕРБАНК. / SBERBANK.

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Балашова Елена Сергеевна, Громова Елизавета Алексеевна

Анализируется текущая экономическая ситуация в России. Рассматриваются основные модели ресурсного менеджмента, такие как бережливое производство (Lean Production), теория ограничений (Theory of constraints), ресурсная теория/ ресурсная концепция (Resource-based view). Выявляется зависимость между применением той или иной модели ресурсного менеджмента и сложившимся экономическим положением. Анализируется период прихода на российский рынок иностранных компаний. Приводятся основные причины захвата зарубежными автомобилестроительными заводами российского рынка. Рассматриваются примеры применения современной организационной технологиибережливое производство (Lean Production) на промышленных предприятиях, таких как автомобильный завод «Урал» (Миасс), входящий в «Группу ГАЗ», автомобильный завод ОАО «КАМАЗ», Энгельсское приборостроительное объединение «Сигнал». Отмечается, что данные отечественные примеры внедрения принципов концепции Lean production венчали применение вышеуказанной современной организационной технологии в России. Приводится пример предприятия, начавшего использовать методы данной модели ресурсного менеджмента в последние годы (рознично-сбытовая сеть ОАО «Татнефть»). Отдельно отмечается отечественный пример внедрения принципов бережливого производства в сфере услуг в крупнейшем банке России и Восточной Европы – ОАО «Сбербанк». Рассматривается производственная система Сбербанка, как часть Стратегии развития Сбербанка, подводятся промежуточные итоги и обозначаются очередные цели. Делается попытка сформулировать основные причины сложного освоения и неудачных случаев внедрения концепции бережливого производства (Lean Production) в российских компаниях. Применение современной организационной технологииLean production рассматривается в качестве одной из возможных мер по выходу Российской Федерации из текущего экономического кризиса.

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Prospects and specifics of resource management in enterprises operating in different sectors of the russian economy

The article analyzes the current economic situation in Russia. It considers the principle models of resource management, such as lean production, the theory of constraints, and the resource-based view. It also reveals how using one of the resource management models correlates with the present state of the Russian economy and examines the appearance of foreign automotive companies in the Russian market and its causes. The paper presents examples of adopting the modern organizational technology – lean production in the industrial enterprises, such as the Ural Automotive Plant (Chelyabinsk region), which is part of the GAZ Group, the KamAZ Automotive Plant, and the Signal Engels Instrument Making Association. These enterprisers were the pioneers in implementing lean production principles in Russia. One more example is Tatneft, which has recently started applying the methods of this organizational technology as well. Another remarkable example in the service sector is Sberbank, the largest bank in Russia and Eastern Europe. The article considers the Sberbank Production System as part of Sberbank’s Development Strategy and provides its interim results and new goals. The authors offer an explanation of why Russian companies often face difficulties when implementing lean production. Applying lean production principles is deemed to be one of the possible measures to overcome the current economic crisis in Russia.

Текст научной работы на тему «Перспективы и специфика ресурсного управления предприятиями разных секторов экономики в России»

UDC 338.45.01 = 111 DOI: 10.5862/JE.216.12

E.S. Balashova, E.A. Gromova

PROSPECTS AND SPECIFICS OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OPERATING IN DIFFERENT SECTORS OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

Е.С. Балашова, Е.А. Громова

ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ И СПЕЦИФИКА РЕСУРСНОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯМИ РАЗНЫХ СЕКТОРОВ ЭКОНОМИКИ В РОССИИ

The article analyzes the current economic situation in Russia. It considers the principle models of resource management, such as lean production, the theory of constraints, and the resource-based view. It also reveals how using one of the resource management models correlates with the present state of the Russian economy and examines the appearance of foreign automotive companies in the Russian market and its causes. The paper presents examples of adopting the modern organizational technology — lean production in the industrial enterprises, such as the Ural Automotive Plant (Chelyabinsk region), which is part of the GAZ Group, the KamAZ Automotive Plant, and the Signal Engels Instrument Making Association. These enterprisers were the pioneers in implementing lean production principles in Russia. One more example is Tatneft, which has recently started applying the methods of this organizational technology as well. Another remarkable example in the service sector is Sberbank, the largest bank in Russia and Eastern Europe. The article considers the Sberbank Production System as part of Sberbank's Development Strategy and provides its interim results and new goals. The authors offer an explanation of why Russian companies often face difficulties when implementing lean production. Applying lean production principles is deemed to be one of the possible measures to overcome the current economic crisis in Russia.

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT; CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES; LEAN PRODUCTION; ECONOMIC CRISIS; RUSSIA; SBERBANK.

Анализируется текущая экономическая ситуация в России. Рассматриваются основные модели ресурсного менеджмента, такие как бережливое производство (Lean Production), теория ограничений (Theory of constraints), ресурсная теория/ ресурсная концепция (Resource-based view). Выявляется зависимость между применением той или иной модели ресурсного менеджмента и сложившимся экономическим положением. Анализируется период прихода на российский рынок иностранных компаний. Приводятся основные причины захвата зарубежными автомобилестроительными заводами российского рынка. Рассматриваются примеры применения современной организационной технологии — бережливое производство (Lean Production) на промышленных предприятиях, таких как автомобильный завод «Урал» (Миасс), входящий в «Группу ГАЗ», автомобильный завод ОАО «КАМАЗ», Энгельсское приборостроительное объединение «Сигнал». Отмечается, что данные отечественные примеры внедрения принципов концепции Lean production венчали применение вышеуказанной современной организационной технологии в России. Приводится пример предприятия, начавшего использовать методы данной модели ресурсного менеджмента в последние годы (рознично-сбытовая сеть ОАО «Татнефть»). Отдельно отмечается отечественный пример внедрения принципов бережливого производства в сфере услуг в крупнейшем банке России и Восточной Европы — ОАО «Сбербанк». Рассматривается производственная система Сбербанка, как часть Стратегии развития Сбербанка, подводятся промежуточные итоги и обозначаются очередные цели. Делается попытка сформулировать основные причины сложного освоения и неудачных случаев внедрения концепции бережливого производства (Lean Production) в российских компаниях. Применение современной организационной технологии — Lean production рассматривается в качестве одной из возможных мер по выходу Российской Федерации из текущего экономического кризиса.

РЕСУРСНЫЙ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ; СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ; БЕРЕЖЛИВОЕ ПРОИЗВОДСТВО (LEAN PRODUCTION); ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ КРИЗИС; РОССИЯ; СБЕРБАНК.

Introduction. Since the beginning of 2015, the Russian economy has been declining steadily, unable to cope with the deepening economic

crisis. The current crisis that was triggered last year by the tense geopolitical situation in the world caused the Russian economy, focused on

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Brent oil prices in 2014

the export of oil, to start this year with weak prices per barrel. Oil prices dropped by almost half (Figure) [1]. At the present time, the prices for Russian oil show a downward trend.

As it is, amid the growing economic crisis, developing different sectors of the national economy by using internal resources appears as a rational solution. The representatives of the Central Bank consider the diversification of the economy to be an anti-crisis measure [2]. The diversification of the economy of such a large country is a challenging task of a revolutionary nature.

Origin of resource management. From time to time, different economies, such as the world economy or a national economy, are exposed to diverse fluctuations of various origins. The reasons for this can be multifold. Thus, in the context of an economic crisis, staying ahead of competition is vital for any company's survival. If the enterprise responds to the changes in the economic situation more quickly and effectively than its competitors, it will succeed. Consequently, the effective management of an industrial enterprise, based on a rational use of resources, comes to the fore.

Modern resource management is a field of science represented by different scientific schools that view the problem of efficiency from a variety of angles. However, the basic models share aims which take into account the following principles:

— total cost minimization;

— improving the efficiency of using the available resources;

— business profit maximization;

— maximizing the market value of the company [3].

There are three main up-to-date resource management models of an industrial enterprise, all of which are based on different scientific schools. As a result, each model has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Lean production produces an overall impact on the value stream. It is based on continuous improvement in all the business processes. This framework mostly aims at a constant reduction of production costs. The theory of constraints is another common organizational change method which is based on focusing on the weakest link of the enterprise's chain and its subsequent elimination. For those

enterprises that use this business model, this process is cyclic. The next management system under consideration is the resource-based view. In contrast to the above models, it disregards the value stream and focuses instead on resource groups. So, each particular enterprise has a unique set of certain resources, — its competitive advantages. These are called core competencies. The resource-based view is the newest model of resource management among the above-mentioned models, and for this reason it is the least researched. The choice of the resource management model depends on the following factors: the internal state of the enterprise, market conditions, the strategy of development. Along with using one particular model, there can be employed a successful combination of several complimentary models. Nonetheless, lean production is a more holistic and fundamentally developed conception of management. This organizational technology is the most popular one in Russia because of government intervention at the initial stage of the model's development at the beginning of the 2000s as well as its vigorous promotion among the representatives of research and business communities.

Main part. A lot of foreign companies, especially automobile ones, came to the Russian market in the first decade of the 21st century. In the first half of 2005, the Government adopted a decree called «On Amendments to the Customs Tariff of the Russian Federation with Regard to Automotive Components Imported for Industrial Assembly». Next, the Government issued an order for realization of the decree called «On Changes in the Procedure Governing the Concept of «Industrial Assembly» of Motor Transport Components and Establishing the Use of This Concept for Importation into the Russian Federation of Auto Parts for the Production of Motor Transport Commodity Items 8701-8705 TN of the VED, Their Subassemblies and Aggregates». The main aim of these government bills was to attract foreign capital to develop the Russian automotive industry by gradually increasing local content in manufacturing automotive vehicles and auto parts, while reducing their imports. The mode of «industrial

assembly» benefited those investors who planned to start vehicle production in Russia by importing large quantities of automotive components free of duty or at reduced rates. Localizing the production of automotive components accounted for 30 % of the value of the vehicle when the investors brought in a compete production cycle. Then, they had to cut down on the number of imported parts. The Izhevsk Automobile Plant was the first manufacturer to start producing the KIA Spectra in the new customs mode. Thanks to concessionary terms, such top foreign companies as Volkswagen, GM, Nissan, Toyota, Suzuki, Peugeot-Citroen, Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Renault came to the Russian market within one year after the decree was adopted. The Ford Motor Company, which had already had manufacturing facilities in Vsevolozhsk, adopted the new mode too.

Lean production is thought of as an organizational system for industrial enterprises. This organizational technology is common to the Russian industry whose leading enterprises were the pioneers in implementing the principles of lean production in Russia, as they were the first to face different problem situations. Practicing lean production principles appeared to be the way to handle the crisis. For example, The Ural Automotive Plant (Miass, Chelyabinsk region), part of the GAZ Group, began to use lean production after the crisis of 2003. That crisis was caused by a twofold decrease in sales within two years. Using the modern organizational technology promptly produced a striking effect. The enterprise's performance indicators improved. The resulting cost savings amounted to approximately 300-400 million rubles per year [4]. Nowadays, the Ural plant continues to practice lean production methods, heavily relying on this concept. One more example is the KamAZ plant, another representative of the automotive industry. The company has been practicing lean production since 2005. This system was introduced step-by-step throughout all the departments of the concern. Soon, nine machines found in one of the plant shops were deemed superfluous and further dismantled, which, as a consequence, reduced the total unscheduled downtime nearly threefold [4]. Also, it was discovered that there were some

land plots among the capital assets that required constant financial support but yielded no profit. The problem was rectified by selling or renting the plots to gain some financial benefits. Now, KamAZ conducts a variety of conferences and seminars on lean production principles, organizes Doors Open events, demonstrating their current success in mastering Japanese methods of business organization. Another example of a Russian pioneer enterprise is the Signal Engels Instrument Making Association. It produces three types of products: aircraft and space equipment, general industrial equipment, gas and other kinds of heating equipment. The condition of the equipment was a major concern for the Association, so consultants were employed to implement the principles of lean production. Eventually, the employees of the Association were able to identify equipment malfunctions and develop a maintenance program aimed at keeping machines in operating condition [4]. The solution to the problem was found in understanding that not only staff from the maintenance department but also machine operators have to provide equipment upkeep. The named company has applied the principles of lean production quite widely. Recently, some Russian industrial enterprises have started to use a production system based on the concept of lean production more and more actively. In 2013, Tatneft began to master this modern organizational technology to increase its productivity. The introduction of new principles brought rapid results — the handover process at the petrol station was thoroughly analyzed and then optimized, which led to its reduction from 30 minutes to 4; and there were more to come. All in all, the economic effect of lean production measures amounted to 50 million rubles in the first year [5]. The ambitious aim of this enterprise is to achieve a business model based entirely on the principles of the above-described modern organizational technology by the end of 2016. Employee participation lies at the heart of this process.

Companies implementing the concept of lean production remain at odds on whether Russian enterprises are prepared to adopt this business model. However, they appear to have reached agreement on what makes its implementation so

difficult. They are of the opinion that the human factor is to blame. It is the human factor that exerts a significant impact on the application of the lean production ideology. According to experts, the human factor contributes, firstly, to misunderstanding, which induces rejection of the business model's principles among staff; secondly, to lack of awareness about a relevant organizational structure at all levels of the enterprise hierarchy; and, lastly, to allocating a small number of professional consultants to introducing the production system under consideration.

Sberbank serves as one of the most remarkable examples of a Russian company that implemented a model of resource management known as lean production. It is one of the largest banks in Russia and Eastern Europe. Overhauling its country-wide structure is a complex process. It is noteworthy that Herman Gref, CEO of Sberbank, said that they must prove that elephants can dance. This phrase reflected the complexity of the reform in mind. In 2008, the Supervisory Board of Sberbank unanimously approved Sberbank's Development Strategy until year 2014. The key elements of the Strategy included [7]:

— development of a client-oriented model to service individual and corporate clients of the Bank;

— technological upgrade of the Bank and processes industrialization;

— radical increase of the Bank's operational efficiency, based on up-to-date technologies, management and overall optimization through bank-wide implementation of Sberbank Production System/SPS based on Lean/Toyota Production System;

— development of international operations, primarily in the CIS countries.

The implementation of the Sberbank Production System (SPS) held a special place in the reform program. It was focused on the principles of lean production and oriented towards improving efficiency, raising motivation, increasing customer as well as staff satisfaction [8]. Establishing a work team and inviting an expert that had experience with this business model were the first steps in building the Sberbank Production System. The former system

of the Bank underwent dismantling, its flaws were identified with intent to turn them into advantages. Against this background, the goals were set in the framework of Sberbank's Development Strategy until year 2014. Overall, the results were regarded as positive. The primary growth of productivity was about 25 % and performance along the key business lines of the Bank improved by 30—50 % [9]. Later on, the growth of productivity continued to grow. The implementation of a number of large-scale projects resulted in such high performance indicators of the Bank as:

• The work of the retail network has been transformed: a new role-based work model was developed and introduced, flexible work schedules were established, and a brand new incentive system was created, the one that correlates employees' income with sales results and service quality.

• Work practices involving small businesses have been optimized: a new timing budget allows frontline managers to focus on providing good client service.

• The work of the accounting departments has been standardized and optimized: working standards for each operation were drawn up, a mechanism to manage staff workload and an incentive system correlating with labor efficiency and the quality of operations were adopted.

• The work of the IT department has been optimized: key software was developed and testing processes have been improved, including the introduction of the practice of integration releases.

• Work standards have been devised and implemented, they are also being continuously improved in cash and collection services. The SPS principles form the basis of a new approach to carrying out internal audits.

• A new method called «Do-it-Yourself, Step-by-Step» has been created.

Judging by an impressive list of completed projects, it is safe to assume that the implementation of the Sberbank Production System rested on a well-laid foundation. It is quite obvious that building a fully functioning

and a finely honed system in a large company, such as Sberbank, takes more than 5 years. Accordingly, the Bank approved Sberbank's Development Strategy until year 2018. The main aim of the current Strategy is to eliminate the shortcomings of the previous stage. The widespread implementation of the strategy has instilled confidence in the Sberbank Production System and increased awareness at all levels of the Bank's hierarchy. Sberbank's Development Strategy is a very comprehensive and ambitious reform program. It is to result in enhancing the Bank's competitiveness by organizing its productive processes and services more effectively in line with the concept of continuous improvement.

Conclusions. The primary focus of this article is on the contemporary model of resource management — lean production, and its application in the context of the current economic situation in Russia. Examples of the successful implementation of this management system in production and service are described. It is not deemed possible to make final conclusions as management development in the aforementioned companies is not quite up to par. There are also examples of the unsuccessful implementation of lean production in Russia, which can be accounted for by a huge area of Russia, lack of awareness in the business community, poor communication between management schools.

This model of resource management is not common in Russia because of how Russian business is conducted. However, the current economic crisis can induce widespread introduction of the organizational technology under consideration. This is quite a protracted and intensive process which requires hiring highly qualified specialists. They have to be result-oriented and regard Russia as a competitive and resilient country with a well-developed business culture. Nowadays, Russia is on the threshold of changes that will affect all spheres of life. But these changes are more than likely to influence economic sector, which, as a result, will propel Russia to a new level of development.

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BALASHOVA Elena S. - St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University.

195251. Politechnicheskaya str. 29. St. Petersburg. Russia. E-mail: elenabalashova@mail.ru

БАЛАШОВА Елена Сергеевна — доцент Санкт-Петербургского государственного политехнического университета, кандидат экономических наук.

195251, ул. Политехническая, д. 29, Санкт-Петербург, Россия. E-mail: elenabalashova@mail.ru

GROMOVA Elizaveta A. — St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University.

195251. Politechnicheskaya str. 29. St. Petersburg. Russia. E-mail: lizaveta-90@yandex.ru

ГРОМОВА Елизавета Алексеевна — аспирант Санкт-Петербургского государственного политехнического университета.

195251, ул. Политехническая, д. 29, Санкт-Петербург, Россия. E-mail: lizaveta-90@yandex.ru

© St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 2015

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