Научная статья на тему 'Morphological features of pedolytical soils in Central Ferghana'

Morphological features of pedolytical soils in Central Ferghana Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о Земле и смежные экологические науки»

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Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о Земле и смежным экологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Turdaliev Avazbek Turdalievich, Yuldashev Gulyam

The paper presents the morphological characteristics of irrigated meadow saz soils of Central Ferghana. Arzyk-shokh horizons with negative water-physical and other properties, which are the result hydro accumulative processes in the desert zone are characterized.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Morphological features of pedolytical soils in Central Ferghana»

Section 1. Biology

Turdaliev Avazbek Turdalievich, the Ferghana state University, teacher, department of soil science E-mail: avazbek1002@mail.ru Yuldashev Gulyam, the Ferghana state university, professor, department of soil science E-mail: Gulyam49@mail.ru

Morphological features of pedolytical soils in Central Ferghana

Abstract: The paper presents the morphological characteristics of irrigated meadow saz soils of Central Ferghana. Arzyk-shokh horizons with negative water-physical and other properties, which are the result hydro accumulative processes in the desert zone are characterized.

Keywords: horizon, arzyk, shokh, meadow, accumulation, pseudomycelia, carbonate, illuvial.

On the basis of morphological features of soils reasonable idea can be taken on their chemical elemental and material composition, soil processes, soil regimes, and finally on the soil formation in the region.

The morphology of the soil is the result of long-term soil-forming process, the transition of maternal rocks to the new natural body — soil [1, 92-109; 2, 29-31].

Morphology of irrigated meadow saz soils of Central Ferghana as soils of other regions have slowly changing soil properties. However, to this condition generally affect agricultural technology, land reclamation and other land improvement, agricultural chemical techniques.

The morphology of the soil in the field condition make basis of soil research. In addition, soil research study begins with morphological features in the field condition.

The genetic soil horizons are characterized by a change in its properties in the vertical and some sense in the horizontal attitudes, connected with the influence of soil-forming factors on the parent rock.

Normally, transitions between the horizons are relatively gradual [3, 101-109]. However, it should be remembered that in the nature this regularity is not always maintained. In this case, in the Central Ferghana sharp transitions between individual horizons are occur, which result of firstly, primary non uniformity and secondly, results of the new soil-forming processes.

In his time to the genetic-geographical patterns of distribution and morphological characteristics of the soils of the Ferghana Valley drew attention Pankov M. A. [4, 23-33], who pointed out carbonate horizons in these soils.

Besedin P. N. [5, 9-21] exploring the genetic horizons of soils of the Ferghana Valley pointed out that the genetic horizons of hy-dromorphic soils in Central Ferghana accumulate sodium sulfate salt and calcium, in addition, he also pointed out that it is difficult to agree with arzyk carbonate, gypsum soils.

Kamilov O. C., Isakov V. Yu. [6, 101-107], Isakov V., Mirza-yev U. [7, 221-227] call most upper horizon in these soils as horizon of arzyk soils. It is clear from the above that the direct research works dedicated to soils with arzyk-shokh horizons is not so much, and the soil profile in the conditions of Central Ferghana is very complex, irrigation also contributes its role to this question.

At the same time the soil profile in desert and irrigated agriculture condition is growing down except clay deposits in low and the formation of washed soils.

Here morphological characteristics of irrigated meadow saz soils of the desert zone in Central Ferghana are given.

6-A soil sample. Kushtepa District of Ferghana region of Uzbekistan, located in the desert zone. Takalyk village, farmer's land. From the main village road 50 meters to the north, 55 m. from the horizontal open repaired drainage, flat field, after sowing cotton seeds.

The depth of groundwater, which tastes bitter and salty at 14.04.2009 reached 200 cm.

At 0-18 cm. Arable horizon, light gray, top is dry, to bottom there is increase in humidity, slightly dense, medium and heavy loam, lumpy, have loosely connected clumps, there are single roots and the roots of the past, extras are not observed, there are a gypsum and carbonate spots, smears on the bottom ofhorizon. Transition is sharp by density.

As t 18-32 cm. Subsurface horizon, light gray, light- and medium loamy, dense, loosely connected small lumpy structure, there are single roots, extras are not observed, carbonate-gypsum spots and gouges are larger than the previous horizon. Transition is sharp by density.

B1 32-55 cm. The transitional horizon, whitish-gray to yellow-brown color, very thick, shovel blade bounces when hitting, when hitting with a crowbar gives a special audio response, cemented horizon at breaking forms pieces with sharp polygonal, low humid, no extras, many new formations, on the surface of the horizon accumulation of water-soluble salts is observed.

This horizon is a striking example of the complex (mechanical, physical, chemical, and others.) geochemical barrier, whose role in the formation of soil and its fertility is not fully clarified. Transition to the next horizon is sharp by density.

B2 55-80 cm. The transitional horizon, light gray, there are some yellow-brown spots, wet, slightly dense, light and medium loamy, roots and the roots are not observed, a lot of new gypsum and carbonate formations, as well as water-soluble salts, have a significant iron and manganese compounds. Transition is gradual by color.

C1 80-140 cm. Parent rocks, light-gray color with brown and blue-gray spots, a lot of bluish spots, wet, slightly tight, cuts with a knife, medium loamy, no roots, there are some bright black spots, a lot of gypsum and carbonates, when hitting with a shovel crunches. Transition is gradual by color.

C2 140-200 cm. Parent rocks, ash-gray, a lot of dark brown and blue-gray spots, wet, medium loamy, alluvial-proluvial deposits, further groundwater under pressure.

From these materials, as well as from a description of other soil sample in the field shows that in Central Ferghana in the territory of irrigated meadow saz saline soils zone arzyk-shokh soils with poor air and water-permeable properties horizons at a depth of 32-55 cm., 18-33 cm., 93-111 cm. from the surface are spread.

Form of membership of bugs hemiptera, which belong to the family miridae and their some biological properties.

These horizons are very dense and cemented, sometimes they are called pedolits, depth of these horizons in Central Ferghana from south to north is reduced, i. e., the horizons rise up to the soil surface.

The characteristic morphological features of these soils other than those include a high content of gypsum, calcium and magnesium carbonates and their sulfate salts, as well as a variety of soil texture.

Furthermore, there are cherry stain colors, which are formed in combination with oxides of iron and manganese, cover layers, pseu-domycelium and other new formations are occur in these soils.

These types of new formations in the studied soils are presented as readily soluble salts, gypsum, and calcium carbonate. In the cavities readily soluble salt, gypsum, carbonates of calcium and magnesium, in some cases, the compounds of sesquioxides and manganese, phosphorus acidic iron are found. At most they appear as readily soluble salts, carbonates and gypsum.

In the so-called arzyk-shokh horizons new formations show the influence of saline groundwater, which lie not deep from the surface of the soil.

In these horizons new formations accumulate at large scale, where the primary soil material and soil-forming rock are almost indistinguishable. Also a special grouting horizon forms.

In the studied horizons new formations are not clean in miner-alogical terms. Instead of carbonate and sulfate salts of calcium and magnesium sesquioxides and others substances are often observed. In these horizons manganese, phosphorus, silicon compounds and others are found.

The studied soils have humus-carbonate, or humus — arzyk-shokh profile, that presented with the union of the humus horizon with arzyk-shokh horizons at the bottom.

Compounds of iron, silicon, and salts of organic and mineral acids, carbonic and sulfuric acid salts of calcium, iron, magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, depending on the soil-geochemical conditions fall to deposits and form new formations.

Thus dense, cemented hydro accumulative horizons called arzyk-shokh (pedolytical) are formed in different depths of soil profile.

Ultimately, field studies of morphological features of soil must be completed with diagnosis of the individual horizons and determination of the type, sub type of the soil, what we have done. As a result, research in Central Ferghana determined that the investigated soils are a subtype of irrigated meadow-saz soils with arzyk-shokh (pedolytical) horizons, and are light loamy, average saline.


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2. Aparin B. F., Kasatkina G. A. and others. Features of soil morphology with eluvial horizon. Proceedings of the international scientific conference "The resource potential of the soil - the basis of food and environmental safety of Russia". - SPb., 2011. - 289 p. - P. 29-31.

3. Aysen A. Problem solving in soil mechanics. - Netherlands, 2009. - 189 p. - P. 101-109.

4. Pankov M. A. The soils ofthe Ferghana region. - Tashkent, 1957. - 53 p. - P. 23-33.

5. Besedin P. N. Features of soil salinity in Central Ferghana. Materials of research works, Distribution and movement of salts in irrigated soils and methods of regulation of salt processes. - Moscow, 1981. - 21 p. - P. 9-21.

6. Kamilov D. C., Isakov V. Y. Genesis and properties of carbonated - gypsum soils in Central Ferghana. - Tashkent, 1992. -127 p. - P. 101-107.

7. Isakov V. Yu., Mirzayev U. Influence of anthropogenic factors on the formation and properties of arzyk soils in Central Ferghana. -Tashkent, 2009. - 227 p. - P. 221-227.

Kholmatov Bakhtiyor Rustamovich, Khalillaev Sherzod Alimbaevich, Musaev Dilshod Mukhammadjanovich, Institution of gene pool of the flora and animals world of Academy of science of the Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail: sherzod85-85@mail.ru

Form of membership of bugs hemiptera, which belong to the family miridae and their some biological properties in condition of Tashkent region

Abstract: In this article there were shown the form of the bugs Hemiptera, which belong to the family Miridae in condition of Tashkent region and their distribution in clover, cotton and wilding, the level of damage of the generative cotton organs (cotton bud, flower, cotton box) by the bugs.

Keywords: phytophage, type of membership, bug, clover, cotton, cotton box, flower, cotton bud, damage, deformation.

Introduction and they are pests of cotton, sugar beet, been foder floras, fibers

The acceleration of the production in rural economy gave of plants, pitch, tobacco, grain, fruit and vegetables, medicinal and

change of the level of negative influence of some known faunistic ornamental plants [1; 3; 7].

components to agrocnosis and the emergence of new types. This in The bug Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze is the main pest of clo-

turn brings the expansion of the live area of blind bugs Adelphocoris ver, it is established that the damage of clover, esparset, sebarga,

lineolatus and Lygus pratensis and other types of bugs in cotton, the nuts, peanuts and other been plants is about 27-63 %, in some

their damage area. Many terms of the family Miridae are phytophafes case, it could be 90 %. It was determined this type of the bug in

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