COMPARATIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF UZBEK AND ENGLISH APHORISMS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
English and Uzbek aphorisms / paremiology / rhetorical interrogative sentences / proverbs / exhortations / literature.

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Oydin Ilkhomjon Kizi Samadova

The aim of the article is to compare analysis of aphorisms in English and Uzbek. Types and their meanings are analysed carefully and given examples which shows specific features of aphorisms in two the contacting languages.

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Oydin Ilkhomjon kizi Samadova

Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute of Tashkent region


The aim of the article is to compare analysis of aphorisms in English and Uzbek. Types and their meanings are analysed carefully and given examples which shows specific features of aphorisms in two the contacting languages.

Keywords: English and Uzbek aphorisms, paremiology, rhetorical interrogative sentences, proverbs, exhortations, literature.


As we know, it is also important to describe and classify aphorisms in English and Uzbek. The term "aphorism" is derived from Greek " ( aphorismos - " pithy phrase containing a general truth "). Aphorisms are statements that present a moral or philosophical idea. An aphorism is a pithy statement or observation that conveys a general truth about the world.

It is often based on philosophical, moral and literary principles. To qualify as an aphorism, it is necessary for a statement to contain a truth revealed in a terse manner. Aphoristic statements are quoted in writings as well as in our daily speech. The fact that they contain a truth gives them a universal acceptance. On the contrary to proverbs the origin of wise words belong to an exact person (writer, poet, publicist, philosopher, scientist, statesman and etc) and retain its individuality.


There is not given any opinion as a rule about aphorisms in literary or annotated dictionaries. The original lexical meaning of the aphorism is supreme wisdom, intelligence. The second meaning is a hidden meaning, a hidden reason, which is difficult to understand. The genre of aphorisms exists in all peoples of the world, and there are different opinions about it in the science of paremiology.

According to Luke de Klappe Vovenarg, "If a wise word needs an explanation, then it has not reached the root of the word."

Aphorisms have the characteristics of aphorism (adaptation to the expression of wise thought) and sentimentality (exhortation). One of the peculiarities of aphorisms is that in most of them there is a lot of ambiguity, sharp irony, subtlety. Directly these

aspects help to understand the exemplary thought in the aphorism. Regarding the artistic nature of aphorisms, it should be noted that the symbols in them are common and apply to everyone. The brevity, expressiveness, clarity and conciseness of the thought also ensure the artistry of the aphorism. Aphorism in the broadest sense is a genre that serves to reveal the qualities of man, his activities and the essence of life. Therefore, it is not enough for any creator to have a sharp mind, to master the secrets of the art of speech to create an aphorism. In order to create an aphorism, the creator must have the above two qualities, as well as his own life experience, his own independent view and conclusion about everything and the event. That is why almost all artists who wrote in the genre of aphorisms turned to this genre only in the last period of their lives.

In the course of the study, it became clear that the aphorisms in the Uzbek language are often found in rhetorical interrogative sentences. For example: Xalqini sevgan qaysi farzand vatanini ozod ko'rishni xohlamaydi?! (Erkin A'zam) Xamma bir millat bo'lsa, nimasi yomon? (Erkin A'zam)

Gunohlar kirini pushaymonlik va tavba yoshi yuva olishini kim bilmaydi? (Tohir Malik)

Odam o'z hayotining yaxshi bo'lishini istasa, yaxshi turmush kechirgisi kelsa, buning nimasi yomon? (O' lmas Umarbekov)


Aphorisms often come with a pinch of humor, which makes them more appealing to the masses. Proverbs, maxims, adages and clichés are different forms of aphoristic statements that gain prevalence from generation to generation and frequently appear in our daily speech. Writers often create general issues in their texts in order to convey a moral or philosophical idea they hold to be universally true. The aphorisms are similar to the proverbs. They are both short, memorable wise sayings, but the aphorism belongs to the same person if the proverb belongs to the people or the nation. Some aphorisms become ingrained in the form and become proverbs when they go into public use. Here are some proverbs:

- There is no place like home. - Better late than never.

- All's well that ends well. - An apple a day keeps the doctor away. And also, examples of aphorisms:

Teaching is the highest form of understanding. (Aristotle)

If you have knowledge, let others light their candles with it. (Winston Churchill)

Servant and commentator of human nature. (Francis Bacon)

Need is better than stupidity. (Thomas Gobbs)

Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it's time to pause and reflect. (Mark Twain)

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves or we know where we can find information upon it. (Samuel Johnson)

Nature is friendly, but you can't eat it. (Vasily Vasilevich Rozanov)

The roots of the words of wisdom go back to a very ancient past. Words of wisdom can be found in the oral tradition of the Uzbek people, for example, in fairy tales.

Hech qachon boshqalarni kamsitmaslik kerak. Boshqalarni kuchsiz deb zoravonlik qilmaslik kerak.

Har bir kimsaning ham qolidan biror ish kelishini hisobga olish kerak. Haqiqiy do' stlarni ham ham ko paytirish kerak, chunki og' ir kunlarda madadkor boladi.

In the epic of Alpomish, too words of wisdom are wisely absorbed. Shahar vayron bo lsa, sulton tebranar, Boshdan davlat qaytsa, tuqqan emranar. Xudoyim saqlagay bandani omon, G arib qulga egam bo lg ay mehribon. Ushbu damning damlarini dam dema, Boshing eson, davlatingni kam dema.

These words of wisdom, even if they were uttered thousands of years ago do not lose their value, they resonate as they are said now.


The Aphorisms in English and Uzbek are almost identical. Aphorisms are similar in meaning and structure in both languages. There are also categories of aphorisms. According to the meaning of aphorism is divided into many types. They are about health, knowledge, wisdom, etiquette, life, love, happiness and etc. Famous English writers and playwrights, often used aphorisms in their works, and coined many of them - some of which are listed below:

Yesterday is but today's memory, and tomorrow is today's dream. (Khalil Gibran)

The simplest questions are the hardest to answer. (Northrop Frye) Life's Tragedy is that we get old too soon and wise too late. (Benjamin Franklin)

English and Uzbek aphorisms are widely found in literature. Many aphorisms used in literature break through their literary use and become relevant in their own sense, apart from the original work in which they appeared.

Shakespeare used of aphorisms in his plays. The use of abundant aphorisms testifies to his keen insight and judgment. Below are some examples: Having nothing, nothing can he lose. (Henry VI)

Life is a tale told by an idiot-full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. (Macbeth) Lord, what fools these mortals be! (A Midsummer Night's Dream)

Words of wisdom can be found in independent scientific genres, as well as in scientific, philosophical, historical, and artistic works. Sometimes a work may consist of Words of Wisdom from beginning to the end (Farobi). Some of Alisher Navoi's works are rich in words of wisdom ("Nazm ul-javohir", "Arbain", "Mahbub ul-qulub" and others). In the literature the peoples of the East, including Uzbek literature, most of the words of wisdom are in the form of exhortations and rebukes. Bilmaganni so'rab o'rgangan olim, Orlanib so'ramagan-o'ziga zolim (Alisher Navoiy) Oz-oz organib dono bolur,

Qatra-qatra yig' lib daryo bo' lur. (Alisher Navoiy) In Uzbek: Xaqiqatni ochinglar, to'g'ri yoldan yuringlar. (Abu Ali ibn Sino) Words of wisdom close to the living language and proverbs of the people are also common. In Uzbek: "Oqsiz soldat — qilichsiz qin" (Oybek) "Tishi chiqqan bolaga chaynab bergan osh bo'lmas" (A.Qahhor)

Uzbek writers such as Hamza, A.Qodiriy, G.Gulam, Oybek, H.Olimjon, A.Qahhor, Shaykhzoda made modern contributions to the development of the Uzbek literary language by creating modern examples of wisdom words in their works. Many are used in every day conversation due to their catchy and witchy word choice. Aphorisms are present in common phrases as well as in known literature.


The study of the above aphorisms allows young people to receive advice, guidance or counsel, life conclusions. In general, every word of wisdom is an expression of the wisdom of the people, a generalization of many years of life experience. The appearance of words of wisdom in the language is determined by the history of the people who created them. Many aphorisms were created in ancient times and still live with the people who are their creators. Aphorisms are popular, passed down from generation to generation and live for centuries.

As each nation has its own way of thinking, it also affects their wisdom. Even though the themes in the aphorisms are similar, the images in them are unique.

The Uzbek people are justifiably proud of their contribution to the world's spiritual treasury. Wisdom is a priceless gift from wise ancestors to future generations.

Aphorism is indispensable for the future generation. Whoever reads and understands, these aphorisms, will be perfect in all respects.


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