Научная статья на тему 'Analysis of housing typology in the city of Irkutsk (Russia)'

Analysis of housing typology in the city of Irkutsk (Russia) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
RESIDENTIAL AREAS / ТИПОЛОГИЯ ЖИЛЬЯ / HOUSING TYPOLOGY / LOW-RISE DEVELOPMENT / TERRITORY DEVELOPMENT / TERRITORY CONTENT / TERRITORY COMFORT / ЖИЛАЯ СРЕДА / ЗАСТРОЙКА / ОСВОЕННОСТЬ / СОДЕРЖАТЕЛЬНОСТЬ / КОМФОРТНОСТЬ

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Druzhinina I.E.

AIM. This paper analyses the specifics of residential areas in the city of Irkutsk (Russia). This work was carried out within the framework of the project "The concept of Irkutsk spatial development" in 2016, commissioned by the Irkutsk city administration. The key objectives were to identify the characteristic forms of the city's residential areas and to define its housing conditions with the purpose of ensuring the sustainable development of this area. METHODS. The key characteristics of the city’s residential areas are determined using retrospective and empirical methods. The typology of the city's housing in terms of the number of storeys and main building types is presented in the form of a table. Every facility fragment in the residential areas has its own scale and characteristics. The quality of the residential environment was determined empirically according to the three main characteristics: the level of the environment development, its content and comfort. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In Irkutsk, eighteen basic types of housing from four categories by kinds of buildings and the number of storeys are defined. The results obtained were presented in the form of an explanatory memorandum to the project "The concept of Irkutsk spatial development", as well as in the form of presentation, which was delivered at a special meeting of the city administration in May, 2016. CONCLUSION. This study, which is devoted to the development of residential areas in Irkutsk, has identified their key characteristics and types. The obtained results can be used for managing residential areas and increasing their density, taking into account historically established approaches. Moreover, shortcomings in the current development of the residential areas in terms of their comfort can be eliminated not spontaneously, as it frequently happens today, but through the consistent improvement of living conditions.

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АНАЛИЗ ТИПОЛОГИИ ЖИЛЬЯ ИРКУТСКА

ЦЕЛЬ. Исследован характер жилых территорий в Иркутске. Работа выполнена в рамках проекта «Концепция пространственного развития города Иркутска» в 2016 г. по заказу администрации г. Иркутска. Главной целью стало выявление особенностей сложившихся жилых территорий, определение типологии застроек для обеспечения возможности их устойчивого развития. МЕТОДЫ. Ретроспективным и эмпирическим методами определены ключевые характеристики типов жилой застройки. Качество жилой среды определялось эмпирическим методом по трем основным характеристикам: освоенности среды, ее содержательности и комфортности. РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ. Типология жилья, представленная по этажности и основным видам застройки, сведена в таблицу. Определены восемнадцать основных типов жилья из четырех категорий по видам застройки и этажности в Иркутске. Исследование было представлено в пояснительной записке к проекту «Концепция пространственного развития Иркутска», в докладе и презентационном материале по защите концепции в администрации города в мае 2016 года. ВЫВОДЫ. Выявлены характеристики жилых территорий и определены их основные типы. Проведенные исследования помогут упорядочить развитие селитебных территорий, повысить их плотность, учитывая исторически сложившиеся принципы застройки, устранить недостатки жилых зон по их содержательности и комфортности не спонтанно, как это происходит сегодня, а последовательно улучшая условия проживания.

Текст научной работы на тему «Analysis of housing typology in the city of Irkutsk (Russia)»

Оригинальная статья / Original article УДК 711.41

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21285/2227-2917-2018-2-159-175

ANALYSIS OF HOUSING TYPOLOGY IN THE CITY OF IRKUTSK (RUSSIA) © I.E. Druzhininaa

Irkutsk National Research Technical University,

83, Lermontov St., Irkutsk, 664074, Russian Federation

ABSTRACT. AIM. This paper analyses the specifics of residential areas in the city of Irkutsk (Russia). This work was carried out within the framework of the project "The concept of Irkutsk spatial development" in 2016, commissioned by the Irkutsk city administration. The key objectives were to identify the characteristic forms of the city's residential areas and to define its housing conditions with the purpose of ensuring the sustainable development of this area. METHODS. The key characteristics of the city's residential areas are determined using retrospective and empirical methods. The typology of the city's housing in terms of the number of storeys and main building types is presented in the form of a table. Every facility fragment in the residential areas has its own scale and characteristics. The quality of the residential environment was determined empirically according to the three main characteristics: the level of the environment development, its content and comfort. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In Irkutsk, eighteen basic types of housing from four categories by kinds of buildings and the number of storeys are defined. The results obtained were presented in the form of an explanatory memorandum to the project "The concept of Irkutsk spatial development", as well as in the form of presentation, which was delivered at a special meeting of the city administration in May, 2016. CONCLUSION. This study, which is devoted to the development of residential areas in Irkutsk, has identified their key characteristics and types. The obtained results can be used for managing residential areas and increasing their density, taking into account historically established approaches. Moreover, shortcomings in the current development of the residential areas in terms of their comfort can be eliminated not spontaneously, as it frequently happens today, but through the consistent improvement of living conditions.

Keywords: residential areas, housing typology, low-rise development, territory development, territory content, territory comfort

Information about the article. Received February 22, 2018; accepted for publication March 20, 2018; available online June 26, 2018.

For citation. Druzhinina I.E. Analysis of housing typology in the city of Irkutsk (Russia). Izvestiya vuzov. Investitsii. Stroitel'stvo. Nedvizhimost' = Proceedings of Universities. Investment. Construction. Real estate. 2018, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 159-175. (In Russian). DOI: 10.21285/2227-2917-2018-2-159-175.

АНАЛИЗ ТИПОЛОГИИ ЖИЛЬЯ ИРКУТСКА И.Е. Дружинина

Иркутский национальный исследовательский технический университет, 664074, Российская Федерация, г. Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 83.

РЕЗЮМЕ. ЦЕЛЬ. Исследован характер жилых территорий в Иркутске. Работа выполнена в рамках проекта «Концепция пространственного развития города Иркутска» в 2016 г. по заказу администрации г. Иркутска. Главной целью стало выявление особенностей сложившихся жилых территорий, определение типологии застроек для обеспечения возможности их устойчивого развития. МЕТОДЫ. Ретроспективным и эмпирическим методами определены ключевые характеристики типов жилой застройки. Качество жилой среды определялось эмпирическим методом по трем основным характеристикам: освоенности среды, ее содержательности и комфортности. РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ. Типология жилья, представленная по этажности и основным видам застройки, сведена в таблицу. Определены восемнадцать основных типов жилья из четырех категорий по видам застройки и

Дружинина Инна Евгеньевна, доцент кафедры архитектурного проектирования, e-mail: irk.allegro.id@gmail.com

Inna E. Druzhinina, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Design, e-mail: irk.allegro.id@gmail.com

этажности в Иркутске. Исследование было представлено в пояснительной записке к проекту «Концепция пространственного развития Иркутска», в докладе и презентационном материале по защите концепции в администрации города в мае 2016 года. ВЫВОДЫ. Выявлены характеристики жилых территорий и определены их основные типы. Проведенные исследования помогут упорядочить развитие селитебных территорий, повысить их плотность, учитывая исторически сложившиеся принципы застройки, устранить недостатки жилых зон по их содержательности и комфортности не спонтанно, как это происходит сегодня, а последовательно улучшая условия проживания. Ключевые слова: жилая среда, типология жилья, застройка, освоенность, содержательность, комфортность.

Информация о статье. Дата поступления 22 февраля 2018 г.; дата принятия к печати 20 марта 2018 г.; дата онлайн-размещения 26 июня 2018 г.

Формат цитирования. Дружинина И.Е. Анализ типологии жилья Иркутска // Известия вузов. Инвестиции. Строительство. Недвижимость. 2018. Т. 8, № 2. С. 159-175. DOI: 10.21285/2227-2917-20182-159-175

Introduction

This article represents results of Irkutsk residential territories study within the framework of the project "The concept of spatial development of the city of Irkutsk" in 2016 and the work was commissioned by the city of Irkutsk. Urban environment, its residential areas is undergoing significant changes in the process of urban spaces. Today the question arises urgently, as the municipality pays a lot of attention to the development and renewal of built-up areas. The legislative issues and investment mechanisms could be solved, but the absence of methodics, identifying the main functional, compositional and other architectural problems, does not allow to form harmonic comfort residential environment. Residential territories research can help to form main principles and identify methods affording certain transformation of city environment with considering excising structures and revealed conflicts. All these can increase residential environment quality. Research materials can be used in case of comprehensive or systematic urban planning problem solution.

Methods

Retro perspective and empirical methods determine the basic characteristics of residential development types.

Brief analysis of existing residential development in Irkutsk as it was in 2015

The territory of Irkutsk in the boundaries of the settlement in accordance with the current master plan is 27 735.6 hectares. The zone of residential development has been forming over more than three centuries (from 1661 to the present) and is a combination of building types of different historical periods. Wooden housing estate within quarterly was conducted in Irkutsk predominantly until the late nineteenth century. This was dictated by the agricultural way of life of the majority of the population. Stone buildings formed fragments of urban blocks in the late XIX - early XX centuries. Revenue houses appeared to be the part of quarterly development. The city blocks development method was preserved. In the Soviet period, the urban environment is mainly composed of large urban elements. The community demonstrates the ideology and policy of the state - "Everything is common": public space of yards and streets, houses and apartments belongs to the government. The development of residential areas preserves the principles of "common life" today, but private property has increasingly shown "the signs" in recent years: low-rise cottages, townhouses, courtyards of apartment buildings with restricted access (automatic gate, centralized

video surveillance and other security systems). Municipality faces lots of problems connected with maintenance of engineering, transport and other facility and settlements around the city, that appears and develops spontaneously. Solution of the problems impact a significant load to the city budget [1]. The study of residential areas in Irkutsk development strategy is necessary for forming conceptual resolutions on determination of the city boundaries, principles of residential districts rational transformation and other urgent strategy problems.

The total land area of residential areas of Irkutsk residential locality (Fig. 1) is 5234 hectares including:

High-rise buildings (9 and higher floors) - 420 hectares;

Mid-rise buildings - 1569 hectares;

Low-rise buildings - 3245 hectares;

among them:

Low-rise buildings with individual houses - 2795 hectares;

Multifamily apartment blocks -450 hectares.

Fig. 1. Types of residential housing in Irkutsk

The Scheme of all types of buildings shows the current situation without an integrated approach of solving urban planning issues in recent times. General principles of residential buildings location are not defined and do not react to changes in the number of stores of buildings. The number of stores, growing without updating of the parameters of residential areas and necessary infrastructure, arises urban "conflicts". The chaotic compaction of the building becomes traditional on "free" areas without architecture and history monuments and at new

construction sites. The imbalance of space-planning decisions of the territories negatively affects the quality of life of citizens in general. When transport and communal problems are attended, there is no professional approach to aesthetic perception of the city space, its composition, silhouette and landscape.

Brief characteristics of the residential districts of Irkutsk depending on the height and development type

To estimate the quality of the living environment of Irkutsk several

criteria were determined: the development level of the territory, its content and comfort [2]. That method was used for investigation of residential environment in cities of Irkutsk region [3].

The territory land development

includes the existing roads and pathways, greening (mature trees and shrubs), well-maintained grounds (for kids, adults and sports), the elements of improvement (branches, trash bins, lanterns, vases, etc.), social control (the possibility for citizens to review the territory).

The content of the territory is characterized by the presence of social service facility, availability of service facilities, public transport, and convenient parking spaces for private vehicles.

The comfort of the territory is caused by the lack of urban conflicts. For example, the insufficient number of guest parking spaces provokes citizens to leave their cars on unauthorized places (lawns, children's playgrounds etc.). The comfort of the territory depends on the level of development and content of residential areas. Based

on the study of residential areas, in terms of land development, its content of the territory and comfort, we have identified several basic types of living environments by number of stores and development types. Each type has its own characteristics in structure, in the scale of residential buildings (from low-rise to 16-store and above), in identifying the sources of social control, differentiating the territory of the socio-spatial complexes, in development type, content and comfort of living environment. There is another quantitative method to assess the comfort (vitality) of city environment depending on its morphotype [4].

Results. A low-rise building with individual houses with courtyards is the most common type of development, that was used widely from the beginning of Irkutsk region development (from XVII centaury). This is usually called individual residential development. These areas of individual residential development are shown on the scheme (fig. 2) and share 53% of the total area of residential development.

green found

Fig. 2. Low-rise individual houses zone

Low-rise individual houses zone is represented by two main types according to the Number of floors and type of development:

1. row city blocks development;

2. curved development.

Row city blocks development

The city blocks are formed by individual houses with garden home-

steads around the perimeter. Facades of houses and fences around homesteads create streets.

The area of personal plots ranges from 0,04 hectares to 0,16 hectares.

The area of city blocks varies from 0,8 hectares to 1,8 hectares. The size of the plot depends on the location in the residential development.

Fig. 3. The development of urban neighborhoods is an individual home with personal homesteads. Photos from Google service

The development level and the content of the territory are low.

The comfort of the courtyard territory is high, but public spaces comfort is low because behind the fence of the site each resident has an opportunity to improve the space in accordance with the creative ideas and opportunities.

Curvilinear development Development is formed by individual houses with personal homesteads along the perimeter. Curved geometry is

dictated by the features of the landscape (fig. 4). Usually this development involves an incomplete use of the territory. For example, the territory of ravines, swamps, creeks etc. are not built up. Facades of houses and fencing of plots creates streets and driveways.

The area of personal plots ranges from 0,02 hectares to 0,18 hectares.

The area of city blocks between driveways varies from 1 hectare to 14 hectares.

Fig. 4. Curvilinear development of the individual residential houses with garden homesteads.

Photos from Google service

The development level and the content of the territory are low. The comfort of the courtyard territory is high, but public spaces comfort is low, as well as in the first type.

Low-rise residential

development in apartment blocks

9% of the territory of residential areas is allocated for low-rise apartment blocks development (fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Low-rise apartment blocks development

Low-rise apartment blocks development is represented by four main options by the number of stores and the development type:

1. the row group development;

2. the city blocs of type 1;

3. the row development;

4. the city blocs of type 2

The row group development

The row group development has 2 or 3-stores apartment buildings. The streets are formed by the facades of houses and small common courtyards.

The area of common courtyards ranges from 0,07 hectares to 0,8 hectares.

Fig. 6. Low-rise and row group apartment block development. Photos from Google service

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164

The development level is high. The content of the territory is on average level. The comfort of the territory is on average level.

The city blocks of type 1 The city blocs of type 1, made by 2- or 3-stores apartment blocks, is

predetermined by the grid of existing streets. 8-apartment and 12-apartment houses are presented in wood and stone.

The scale of yard spaces varies from 0,19 hectares to 0,7 hectares.

Fig. 7. Low-rise city blocks development of apartment blocks - type 1. Photos from Google service

The development level is high. The content of the territory is on average level and low (in different regions).

The comfort of the territory is low.

The row development

The row development apartment wooden blocks are monotonous and not expressive. The scale of yard spaces varies from 0,04 hectares to 0,3 hectares.

Fig. 8. Low-rise row apartment blocks development. Photos from Google service

The development level is high. The content of the territory is low. The comfort of the territory is low. The city blocks of type 2 The city blocks of type 2 consists of different wooden or stone houses

from pre-revolutionary period. The development type has high historical value. The scale of yard space varies from 0,02 to 0,1 hectares.

Fig. 9. Low-rise city blocks development of apartment blocks - type 2. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development is high. The content of the territory is on average level. The comfort of the territory is average or low (depends on the quality of building).

Mid-rise residential

development

Mid-rise residential development with 4 to 8 stores buildings shares 30%

of city residential areas. This type is widespread, represents standardized projects of bricks or panel buildings of the Soviet period. Some development types have individual project buildings. Some separate buildings have unique planes and spatial solution and are able to have an architecture masterpiece status.

green found

Fig. 10. Mid-rise residential development

Mid-rise residential development is represented in the following types:

1. The row development of type 1

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2. The row development of type 2

3. The row group development

4. The group development of type 1

5. The group development of type 2

6. The group development of type 3

7. The group development of type 4 The row development of type 1 For type 1 a typical layout is 4-

stores buildings facing the street. The row

development of type 1 with 4-stores buildings has no architectural expressiveness and lack of planning layouts varieties.

Most of them has high level of wear and tear. That type of development with its traditional building layout facing along the street or being angled to the street forms cross-cutting yards. The scale of yard space varies from 0,13 to 0,2 hectares.

Fig. 11. Mid-rise row residential apartment development - type 1. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is average.

The row development of type 2 For type 2 a typical layout is buildings situated with angle to the street. The row development of type 2 with 4-stores buildings has no

the

architectural expressiveness and lack of planning layouts varieties.

Most of them has high level of wear and tear.

That type of development with its traditional building layout facing along the street or being angled to the street forms cross-cutting yards. The scale of yard space varies from 0,12 to 0,3 hectares.

Fig. 12. Mid-rise row residential apartment development - type 2. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is average.

The row group development The row group development includes the main characteristics from

the row and group development. The houses are mainly 5-stores standardized brick or panel buildings.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,1 to 0,2 hectares.

Fig. 13. Mid-rise row group residential apartment development. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is high. The group development of type 1 The group development of type 1 consists of standardized and individual buildings.

Brick and panel buildings are mainly 4-,5-,6-stores and were built in the end of the Soviet period.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,1 to 0,2 hectares.

Fig. 14. Mid-rise group residential apartment development - type 1. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is high.

The group development of type 2

The group development of type 2 consists of individual projects buildings mainly of 5-6-stores.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,01 to 0,3 hectares.

Fig. 15. Mid-rise group residential apartment development - type 2. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is high. The group development of type 3 The group development of type 3 consists of standardized and individual

buildings. Brick and panel buildings are mainly 5-stores and were built at the end of the Soviet period. Rarely spread - 6-stores buildings made after the Soviet period. The scale of yard space varies from 0,4 to 1 hectares.

Fig. 16. Mid-rise group residential apartment development - type 3. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high.

The comfort of the territory is high.

The group development of type 4

The group development of type 4 is performed on sites with active landscape and is typical for peripheral and newly developed territories.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,09 to 0,3 hectares.

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is low.

The comfort of the territory is low.

High-rise residential

development (above 9 floors)

High-rise residential development shares 8% of city residential areas. At the end of the 1970-ies in Irkutsk 135th batch of standardized buildings was wide-spread as a result of new urban planning policy of USSR. After the 90-ies individual wireframe apartments with mainly brick fill appears. Average rise is 9 stores. With cancellation of rigid restriction in architecture and building high-rise houses in seismic regions, at the beginning of the XXI century 9 to 16 and more stores of individual wireframe buildings are mainly constructed in Irkutsk.

Fig. 17. Mid-rise group residential apartment development - type 4. Photos from Google service

Fig. 18. High-rise residential development

High-rise residential development is represented in the following types:

1. The row group development

2. The group development of type 1

3. The group development of type 2

4. The group development of type 3

5. The group development of type 4 The row group development The row group development with

standardized panel 9-stores buildings

was mainly constructed during the Soviet period.

Buildings of that type are laid assembled along the street and form a 'screen' for mid-rise buildings inside the residential blocks.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,3 to 0,5 hectares.

Fig. 19. High-rise row residential apartment development. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high. The comfort of the territory is average.

The group development of type 1 The group development of type 1 with standardized panel 9-stores multi-

sectional buildings was mainly constructed during the Soviet period. The group of buildings on the territory of district and city blocks forms yard space from 0,17 to 0,98 hectares and is situated orthogonal to the streets.

Fig. 20. High-rise group residential apartment development - type 1. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development and the content of the territory is high. The comfort of the territory is average.

The group development of type 2 The group development of type 2 is post-soviet development type. There are

mainly multi-sectional multifunctional 16 and more-stores buildings with social functions on the first floors. The buildings form semi-closed yards inside.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,6 to 1,1 hectares.

Fig. 21. High-rise group residential apartment development - type 2. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development is

low.

The content of the territory is average.

The comfort of the territory is average.

The group development of type 3

The group development of type 3 (higher than 14 stores) is modern, post-

soviet development type. There are mainly one-sectional multifunctional 14 and more-stores buildings with social functions on the first floors. Nearby territories around the buildings are the yard space.

The scale of yard space varies from 0,6 to 1,1 hectares.

Fig. 22. High-rise group residential apartment development - type 3. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development is

low.

The content of the territory is average.

The comfort of the territory is average.

The group development of type 4

The group development of type 4 (higher than 14 stores) is modern, postsoviet development type. Residential buildings and house groups form semi-opened yard spaces.

The scale of yard space varies from 1 to 1,2 hectares.

Fig. 23. High-rise group residential apartment development - type 4. Photos from Google service

The level of land-development is average.

The content of the territory is average.

The comfort of the territory is average.

The development typology by the number of stores and main development types are formed into the table and scheme in fig. 24.

Fig. 24. Summary table of housing typology in Irkutsk

Conclusion

As a result of analysis of 4 development types, there are main types of development layouts. Low-rise residential individual housing shares 53% of residential territories in Irkutsk. There are 2 development types of low-rise residential individual housing: city blocks development and curvilinear development. It might be acknowledged that these types have a lot in common, even the same city block sizes. The difference is in the shape of streets formed by blocks. The development level and the content is low. The comfort of yard areas is high but the comfort of social spaces is low. The level of comfort can be estimated by the presence of asphalt covering, lightning supports, sometimes public transport stops and rarely found playgrounds.

Low-rise development in Irkutsk has 4 main development types: the row-group development, the row development and two city blocks development types. The last two differ a lot by their development typology: the

first type represents standardized wooden or brick 8-12 flats apartments (wear and tear buildings), the second represents historical 1-2 floors wooden buildings - the typical Siberian household. The scale of yards in historical development is 10 times less than in standardized wooden residential apartments. In spite of the "privacy" of historical households and cross-cutting yards between type 1 buildings, the development level in both cases is rather high. The development level and the comfort level depending on the building and yards condition is higher in historical development rather than in standardized city blocks of type 1.

Mid-rise residential development with 4 - 8 stores buildings shares 30% of city residential areas. The development type with standardized brick or panel buildings is the second in popularity. There are 7 development types of mid-rise residential development: the row development of type 1 and 2, the row group development and the group development of type 1-4. Some of them

(some examples of group development of type 1 and 3, and mainly type 2) represents individual projects. Some separate buildings have unique plans and spatial solutions and are able to have an architectural masterpiece status. Row development of type 1 and 2 differ from each other by the number of stores: the first has 4-stored building, the second - 5-stored building. The level of development and content of these development types is rather high: there are well-made road and pathways, amateur trees in greening structure, good yard accomplishment and well-controlled level of social provision. Besides there are comfortable public transport stops. Nevertheless, the comfort level is average because there are not enough social and domestic services and the layout forms cross-cutting yards, excluding privacy and making the noise level higher than normal.

The row-group development of mid-rise residential buildings has the same characteristics as row development of type 1 and 2, excluding yard spaces that has higher comfort level. The development and content level is high. Conflicts of environment is absent or can be rather minor, as the level of accomplishment is high. Moreover, big yard space allows to avoid parking on the grass.

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The highest quality level of residential development in the level of development, the content level and the comfort level was found in mid-rise (4-6 stores) development types 1, 2, 3 mainly in brick standardized or individual projects houses. It was achieved with building arrangement and forming scaled-up comfortable yard spaces.

The group development of type 4 appeared and continues its growth on the sites with active landscape and is typical of peripheral and newly developed territories. In some period of time the level of mastering can increase. The same can happen with the content level in case of social and cultural

objects appearing. Respectively, the comfort level would increase, but, unfortunately, potential of this development type is low.

High-rise residential development has 5 types: row-group development and group development 1-4 types. The row-group development was formed with 9-stores panel residential buildings of the Soviet period (manly 135th batch). Unlike the row development of mid-rise buildings, where buildings were paled facing streets, the row group high-rise development is assembled along the street. The row group yard spaces have great sized, but the row development in combination with the group development buildings forms completed composition and more comfortable yards than in the row development. The development and content levels are high because there are well-made roads and pathways, great yard greening, good playgrounds and spaces for adults, social and maintenance facility. But the environment quality and comfort can be identified only as average.

The group development of type 1 was formed with standardized 9-stores buildings from 135th batch during the Soviet period. That type has a lot in common with row group development, but the yard spaces are closed or semi-closed. Difficult composition forms bad environment difficult to navigate inside of it. Entrances are organized under archways and in condition of inactive landscape can disorient people. That is why, in spite of high development and content levels, the comfort level is average.

The group development of type 2 differs as it is formed with 16-stores buildings of latest years (beginning of 2010). Usually it is multifunctional apartments with office and trade facilities and has semi-closed yards. As the development level is low and the content level is high, the comfort of that environment is average. Moreover, yard content and yard greening sometimes is poor, there are not enough parking

places or they break health standards. The absence of garbage chute requires the garbage places arrangement in yards. All these leads to environment conflicts.

Unlike high-rise development of the 1st and the 2nd types, the 3rd differs as it represents 16-stores one-section residential buildings consisting of several buildings. That development type does not have private yards; the yard is formal. Open yards do not give an opportunity for kids and pensioners to stay in safety. That is why if the development level could arise, the problem of comfort yard would hardly be solved.

The group development of type 4 has the same characteristics as the group development of type 2, it differs only in 14-stores buildings from the beginning of the 2000th, forming the development. Besides, yard spaces have great sizes. The development, content and comfort levels are average.

When the row group development and the group development of type 1 (mainly Soviet period) shares minor part in Oktiabrskii and Sverdlovskii Districts,

the building of high-rise residential apartments is beginning to spread everywhere within the last 10 years. That does not always have a positive effect on the city prospect. The number of stores is growing rapidly in Oktiabrskii and Sverdlovskii Districts, rarely in Pravoberezhnii and Leninskii. Sometimes it appears close to the low-rise building territories, leading to visual conflicts with surrounding development, sometimes it is historical development.

Arising stores number and adding social facilities on the first floors greatly improves the content and comfort level for citizens, but the neglect or low attention to the other environment components leads to comfort level decline.

In modern urban planning policy insignificant attention is paid to professional work with the city prospect, determination of emphasis places, placement of silhouette high-rise dominants. The image of a harmonious historical capital city is being destroyed. All of these lead to descent of individuality, attractiveness of the city, including investment.

REFERENCES

1. Kozmin A. Three concepts of spatial development of Irkutsk. Project Baikal, 2016, no. 47-48, p. 31. (In Russian).

2. Krasheninnikov A.V. Residential quarters: Proc. allowance for the architect. and builds. specialist. universities / Under the general. ed. N.N. Milovidova, B.Ya. Orlovsky, A.N. Belkin. Moscow, Higher School Publ., 1988, 87p.: ill. (In Russian).

3. Druzhinina I.E. Social spatial area of new towns of irkutsk region at the example of

Shelekhov. Proceedings of Universities. Investment. Construction. Real estate, 2015, vol. 13, no. 2, pp.148-159. (In Russian).

4. Bolshakov A.G. Built-up pattern evaluation as a reflection of urban community interests and values and their balance as a principle of historical city center renovation. Proceedings of Irkutsk State Technical University, 2012, no. 9, pp. 89-97. (In Russian).

Критерии авторства

Дружинина И.Е. провела исследования, подготовила статью к публикации и несет ответственность за плагиат.

Конфликт интересов

Автор заявляет об отсутствии конфликта интересов.

Contribution

Druzhinina I.E. has conducted the studies, prepared the article for publication and bears the responsibility for plagiarism.

Conflict of interests

The author declares no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

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