Научная статья на тему 'VARIATIONS IN URALIC WORDS:THE CASE OF THE URALIC *TVR- STEM WITH A MEANING ‘TREMBLING’'

VARIATIONS IN URALIC WORDS:THE CASE OF THE URALIC *TVR- STEM WITH A MEANING ‘TREMBLING’ Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
URALIC LANGUAGES / ONOMATOPOEIC WORDS / ETYMOLOGY / SOUND CORRESPONDENCES / COGNATE SETS / SEMANTIC SHIF

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Kim Jeongdo

This paper presents words which describe, or are semantically connected with ‘trembling’ in Uralic languages and contain an initial consonant t, a middle consonant r, and variable vocalism. These words are to be regarded as onomatopoeics that imitate sounds or motion. This paper aims to reconstruct Proto-Uralic forms based on these words. The argument of this paper is that onomatopoeic words can undergo regular sound changes. This paper also aims to present convincing arguments for a semantic shift based on similar developments elsewhere. The first Uralic cognate set that includes words with the meaning ‘trembling’ is: Finnic täristä ‘tremble’ ~ Northern Saami dárrat ‘be frantic, mad’ ~ Erzya Mordvin t́eŕńems ~ Mokša Mordvin t́äŕńəms ‘tremble’ ~ Selkup tar(rə)- ‘tremble’. The semantic correspondence between the meanings ‘trembling’ and ‘mad’ can be seen in the Finnish derivatives tärähtää ‘shake; be mad’, and täre (> täreellään, täreillään, täreessänsä, täreissänsä ‘be excited, be on guard’). The words in the cognate set can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *tärä-. The second Uralic cognate set is: Mari törγaš ‘gallop, jump’ ~ Selkup ti̮rkə- ‘tremble’. The semantic shift ‘tremble’ > ‘jump’ can be seen in Indo-European words like the Old English scacan ‘shake, shiver; run, leave, flee’. The words in the cognate set can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem **ti̮rka-. Additionally, two hypothetical cognate sets can be presented. Both of them include the Northern Saami verb doarggistit ‘tremble’ which can be compared either to Tavda Mansi tark- ‘tremble’ and Vasjugan Khanty tărǝɣor ‘tremble’ or Sugurt Khanty tårǝɣ- ‘tremble’. If the Northern Saami verb is compared to the Tavda Mansi and Vasjugan Khanty words, they can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *tarki-. If it is compared to the Sugurt Khanty word, they can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *torka-. In conclusion, a secondary ablaut does not always cause irregularity of a diachronic vowel change.

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Текст научной работы на тему «VARIATIONS IN URALIC WORDS:THE CASE OF THE URALIC *TVR- STEM WITH A MEANING ‘TREMBLING’»

Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. 2020. Vol. 16.3. P. 146-158 DOI 10.30842/alp2306573716306

Variations in Uralic words: The case of the Uralic *tVr-stem with a meaning 'trembling'

Jeongdo Kim

University of Helsinki (Finland); jeongdo.kim@helsinki.fi

Abstract. This paper presents words which describe, or are semantically connected with 'trembling' in Uralic languages and contain an initial consonant t, a middle consonant r, and variable vocalism. These words are to be regarded as onomatopoeics that imitate sounds or motion. This paper aims to reconstruct Proto-Uralic forms based on these words. The argument of this paper is that onomatopoeic words can undergo regular sound changes. This paper also aims to present convincing arguments for a semantic shift based on similar developments elsewhere.

The first Uralic cognate set that includes words with the meaning 'trembling' is: Finnic tarista 'tremble' ~ Northern Saami darrat 'be frantic, mad' ~ Erzya Mordvin terhems ~ Moksa Mordvin tarhsms 'tremble' ~ Selkup taHra)- 'tremble'. The semantic correspondence between the meanings 'trembling' and 'mad' can be seen in the Finnish derivatives tarahtaa 'shake; be mad', and tare (> tareellaan, tareillaan, tareessansa, tareissansa 'be excited, be on guard'). The words in the cognate set can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *tara-.

The second Uralic cognate set is: Mari toryas 'gallop, jump' ~ Selkup tirks- 'tremble'. The semantic shift 'tremble' > 'jump' can be seen in Indo-European words like the Old English scacan 'shake, shiver; run, leave, flee'. The words in the cognate set can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem **$rka-.

Additionally, two hypothetical cognate sets can be presented. Both of them include the Northern Saami verb doarggistit 'tremble' which can be compared either to Ta-vda Mansi tark- 'tremble' and Vasjugan Khanty tarsyor 'tremble' or Sugurt Khanty tardy- 'tremble'. If the Northern Saami verb is compared to the Tavda Mansi and Vasjugan Khanty words, they can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *tarki-. If it is compared to the Sugurt Khanty word, they can be reconstructed to the Proto-Uralic stem *torka-.

In conclusion, a secondary ablaut does not always cause irregularity of a diachronic vowel change.

Keywords: Uralic languages, onomatopoeic words, etymology, sound correspondences, cognate sets, semantic shift.

Вариантивность уральских слов на примере корня 'дрожать'

Ким Чондо

Хельсинкский университет (Финляндия); jeongdo.kim@helsinki.fi

Аннотация. В этой статье рассматриваются слова уральских языков, которые передают семантику 'дрожать' или смежные значения; первым согласным корня в них является Ь, вторым — г, вокализм корня вариантивен. Эти слова следует рассматривать как ономатопеи (слова, имитирующие звуки или движение). Цель данной работы — предложить реконструкцию уральских праформ этих слов. Будет показано, что развитие ономатопоэтических слов также характеризуется регулярными звуковыми изменениями. Кроме этого, в статье с опорой на типологические параллели рассматриваются семантические переходы, характерные для слов данной группы.

Первая группа родственных слов со значением 'дрожь' — это финское ШпзШ 'дрожать' ~ северносаамское darrat 'быть неистовым, сумасшедшим' ~ эрзя мордовское Ьегпешз ~ мокша мордовское Шгпэшз 'дрожать' ~ селькупское Ьаг(гэ)- 'дрожать'. Связь значений 'дрожать' и 'быть безумным' подтверждают финские производные от этой основы ШгаЫаа 'трясти; быть безумным' и Ьаге (> ШгееПаап, ЬагеШаст, Ьагееззата, Ьагегззата 'быть возбужденным, настороженным'). Уральская праформа для слов этой группы может быть восстановлена в виде *Ьага-.

Вторая группа родственных слов с этим значением представлена марийским Ьогуая 'прыжок, скачок' ~ селькупский Цгкэ- 'дрожать'. Семантический переход 'дрожь' > ' прыжок' подтверждается материалом индоевропейских языков, ср. древнеанглийское зеаеап 'трясти, дрожать; бежать, убегать'. Для слов этой группы можно предложить уральскую праформу **Цгка-.

Кроме того, обсуждаются еще две гипотетически выделимых группы родственных слов из этого же семантического поля. Обе они включают северносаамский глагол doarggistit 'трепетать', который можно сравнить либо с тавдинским мансийским тарк- 'трепетать' и васюганским хантыйским тарэуор 'дрожать', либо с сургутским хантыйским тарэу- 'дрожать'. Сравнение северносаамского слова с тавдинским мансийским и васюганским хантыйским позволяет реконструировать уральскую праформу в виде *ЬагЫ-, сравнение с сургутским хантыйским — в виде *Ьогка-.

В статье также обсуждается проблема вторичного аблаута, который не всегда приводит к нерегулярным фонетическим изменениям вокализма.

Ключевые слова: уральские языки, ономатопеи, этимология, звуковые соответствия, семантические переходы.

1. Introduction

In this paper, I present words describing or semantically connected with trembling in Uralic languages and reconstruct Proto-Uralic forms based on these words. All the Uralic words I present here contain stems that include an initial consonant t and a middle consonant r with variable vocalism. Phonetic similarity of words with a meaning 'trembling' is observed cross-linguistically, for example in Eng tremble, Kor ttelta 'to tremble' [Martin et al. 1967: 448], and Bas dardara 'trembling' [Aulestia 1989: 138]. Words with a meaning 'trembling' can be regarded as onomatopoeic — that is, they imitate sounds or motion.

It has previously been argued that onomatopoeic words do not undergo regular sound changes, cf. [Anttila 1989: 86; Campbell 1998: 320]. Contrary to this traditional view, this paper aims to argue that onomatopoeic words can be reconstructed with the use of Neo-grammarian methodology that emphasizes the regularity of sound change. I examine sound correspondences in these words in light of recently updated theories of historical phonology of the Uralic languages.

Moreover, in earlier Uralic etymological studies, the words with a meaning 'trembling' have been etymologically compared with semantically different words, however no convincing arguments for the semantic shift were presented. In this paper, I examine semantic correspondences in previously proposed cognate sets that include words with the meaning 'trembling', searching for semantic parallels.

2. The words 2.1. Finnic

Finnic verbs meaning 'to tremble' are formed from the stem *tar- and the verb suffix *-istA, which is the most typical suffix for onomatopoeic verbs in Finnic [Jarva 2003: 84]: Fi tarista, Ka tarissa, Ing tarissa, Vo tarissa, Est tariseda, Liv de 'rz a [SKES V 1480-1481; SSA III 356]. Despite a wide distribution of this stem in Finnic, further cognates across Uralic have not previously been presented. However, regular cognates can be found in Saami, Mordvin and Selkup and reconstructed as a Proto-Uralic root *tara-, as argued below (cf. Sections 2.2, 2.3, 2.7, 3).

Aikio [2016: 41] regards the Finnish verb tarjeta 'to stand the cold, to feel warm enough' as inherited from the Proto-Uralic stem *tarki-'to tremble', but the semantic shift 'to tremble' > 'to stand the cold' does not have any known parallels. Thus, it is rather dubious whether the original meaning of the Finnish verb was 'to tremble' 1. Moreover, Karelian and Votic cognates of the verb tarjeta do not only mean 'to stand the cold' but also 'to dare', for example Ka tareta, tarreta 'to stand the cold; to dare; to have the heart to do something' [KKS VI 49-50], and Vo tarkema 'to dare' [Tsvet-kov 1995: 333], hence which is the original meaning is not entirely clear.

Instead, the verb tarjeta represents the typical deadjectival verb stem *-ene- [ISK § 337], which implies that the adjective tarkea 'willing, quick, busy; important' [Lonnrot 1930: 668] could be the root of such a verb (cf. pimea 'dark' >pimene- 'to darken', kalpea 'pale' > kalpene- 'to pale').

2.2. Saami

Verbs with a meaning 'to tremble' that go back to a uniform Proto-Saami reconstruction are attested in all Saami languages except for Ter Sami: *torkeste- > SaaS doargiestidh, SaaU daargestit, SaaP taarkiestit, SaaL tar'kestit, SaaN doargestit, Saal toargistid, SaaSk tuarggnjos, SaaK toarkeo [Lehtiranta 2001: 138-139]. A Proto-Saami reconstruction includes a diminutive verb suffix -ste- which reflects a common Finn-ic-Saami protoform *-stA- [Sammallahti 1998: 92]. Aikio [2016: 41] has connected the aforementioned Proto-Saami reconstruction to the Pro-to-Uralic stem *tarki-. This is based on a new sound correspondence he proposed: PU *a-i > PWU *a-i > Pre-PFi *a-e ~ PSaa *oa-e ~ PMd *u. However, Proto-Saami *oa-e could also reflect a Proto-Uralic vowel combination *o-a-, for example PU *kota- > PSaa *koate > SaaN goahti, *ora 'awl' > PSaa *oare > SaaN oar'ri [Aikio 2013: 12].

1 The meaning 'to tremble' seems to give rise to meaning connected with 'fever'. For instance, Lithuanian drugys 'fever, malaria, butterfly, moth' and Latvian drudzis 'fever' are cognates of Russian droz' 'shivering, tremor'. Their Balto-Slavic reconstruction *drugios has been compared with the verbs *drbgati and *drbzati 'to tremble, to shiver' [Derksen 2008: 123, 2015: 141-142]. Furthermore, in Selkup, there is a deverbal causative tirkolcampi- 'to cause fever' with the root tirks- 'to tremble' [SlkWb 186]; cf. Section 2.7. However, the semantic correspondence between 'to stand the cold' and 'fever' is not flawless. According to my peer reviewer, 'standing the cold and getting fever are in fact opposite meanings'. I thank my peer reviewer for the comment.

Northern Saami dàrrat 'to be frantic, mad' and its cognates SaaP taarrat and SaaL tarrat inherited from Proto-Saami *tare- [Aikio 2009: 200] 2 can also be based on a meaning 'to tremble'. The similar semantic shift can be seen in Finnish derivatives tarahtaa 'to shake; to be mad' and tare (> tareellaan, tareillaan, tareessansa, tareissansa 'excited, on guard' [SKES V 1481]). This kind of semantic shift appears to have been assumed in the etymological database of the Saami languages Algu, where the Saami words mentioned above are compared with Swedish and Norwegian darra 'to tremble, to shiver'. However, these Scandinavian words do not have a regular reconstruction [Hellquist 1966: 87], which brings their archaic origins and their spread into Proto-Saami into question.

Instead, Northern Saami dàrrat and its Saami cognates fit as regular cognates of Finnish tarista. This is based on the semantic correspondence discussed above and also on sound correspondences, for example PU *ajma- > Fin aima ~ SaaN àibma [Lehtiranta 2001: 12]. As the latter cognate set implies, an initial vowel Proto-Saami *a- has changed into *a in an *a-stem. The Proto-Uralic vowel combination *a-a has changed into *a-i (> a-e) in Finnic. However, according to Aikio [2016: 41], 'vowels belonging to derivative suffixes could block the backing of *a to *a', as in Fi salyttaa 'put a burden on' (^ PU *sala-) and tahde 'leftover' (^ PU *takta 'bone'). Since a vowel *i belongs to the verb suffix *-istA, it is phonetically regular to reconstruct the stem of Finnish tarista as *tara- and connect it with the cognate set dàrrat in Northern Saami.

2.3. Mordvin

In Mordvin, there are numerous verbs with a meaning 'to tremble' that are formed from stems containing consonants t and r, e.g. MdE tarnoms, ternems 'to tremble', MdM tarsms 'to swing', tarnams, tarnams 'to tremble'. The verb suffix -nVms- is frequentative and typical for onomatopoeic words in Mordvin [Bartens 1999: 161]. MdE ternems and MdM tarnams are to be treated as regular cognates of Finnish tarista and Northern Saami dàrrat. The Proto-Uralic first syllable *a is reflected in Erzya e and Moksa

2 Aikio [2009: 200-201] has suggested that the verb taroa, taruo 'to talk intensively', attested in some of the Eastern Savo dialects in Finnish and mainly the northern dialects of Karelian, is borrowed from either *tare- or *tar-o- 'to be dying, to be breathing one's last' of Proto-Saami.

a, for example PU *kati- 'hand' > Fin kasi ~ MdE ked, MdM kad; *tasti-'star' > Fi tahti ~ MdE teste, MdM tasta [Bartens 1999: 55]; *pala 'half' > Finpuoli ~ MdEpeie, MdMpaia [Aikio 2016: 63].

In Versinin's etymological dictionary of Mordvin [2009: 431] the afore-mentioned Mordvin verbs with the stem *tar- are compared with MdE tardems 'to ache, to be ill' and tarkstams 'to shiver (cold); to freeze'. The semantic correspondence between these sets of words seems to be satisfactory, because trembling is a natural symptom of aching or freezing. On the other hand, the phonetic correspondence between the two is not entirely regular, because the latter contains palatalized r. Moreover, among the words used in Versinin's comparison there are some that show a substantial semantic difference from tardems, e.g. MdM tari 'racy', MdE MdM tare 'fiery, brisk'.

In Versinin's etymological dictionary, MdE tardems has been further compared with Komi turalni, turdini 'to freeze', Mari turtas 'to contract, 'to shrink' and Finnish turtua 'to go numb'. The semantic correspondences between these verbs seem to be acceptable. However, regular sound correspondences are only found in the word pairs MdE tardems ~ Ko turdini and Fi turtua ~ Ma turtas, cf. [UEW 792]. Finnish turtua is obviously derived from turta 'numb', but Mari lacks such a noun, which would be the derivational basis for the verb turtas. On the other hand, turta has also been assumed to be a borrowing from Proto-Germanic *sturda (> ON stord 'grass; young tree'). The latter has the same root as the adjective *sterdia- (> ON stirdr 'stiff, heavy' [SSA III 337; Koivulehto 1979: 151-152].

Aikio [2013: 9] connects MdE turgams 'to swell' to Fi tarjeta and SaaN doargestit on the basis of a sound correspondence he proposes (see Section 2.2). There are, however, no examples that show a semantic shift from 'to tremble' to 'to swell' 3. Apparently for this reason, Aikio [2016: 41] has withdrawn MdE turgams from cognate sets based on Proto-Uralic *tarki-. On the other hand, it is most likely that MdE turgams is etymologically related to MdE turva MdM tSrva 'lip', as Versinin has also suggested [2009: 449].

3 Instead of a meaning 'to tremble', a meaning 'to blow' can give rise to a meaning 'to swell', for example Eng puff > puff up, Ka puhaltoa 'to blow; 'to make swell'. Mordvin languages have some examples that show a semantic shift from 'to tremble' to 'jelly', e.g. MdE terge, MdM targa 'jelly' ~ MdE terhems MdM tarhsms [Versinin 2009: 435].

There are also other verbs with a meaning 'to swell' formed from stems consisting of initial consonants t and stem consonant r: MdE targozems MdM targazams, MdE torozems MdM torazams. The first two words have been regarded as derivatives from MdE MdM targams 'to drag' [MWb IV 2277], whereas the latter two have been compared with Fi turpea [SSA III 366]. Nevertheless, convincing etymologies for these words have not yet been proposed.

2.4. Mari

Mari seems to lack words meaning 'to tremble' that are formed from the stem containing an initial consonant t and stem consonant r. Instead, Mari toryas 'to jump, to skip', which has the initial syllable vowel o in almost all Mari varieties (TschWb 813; Aikio 2014: 132) is probably an inherited word. Aikio (2014) argues that in Mari, a Proto-Uralic initial syllable vowel *i before liquid consonants has been changed to o, which is reflected in, e.g., PU *mirja 'berry' > PMari mura > MaE MaW mor 'strawberry' (UEW: 264-265), PU *hiri > PMari *nura > MaE noro, MaW nora 'flexible, pliable' (Aikio 2014: 234). The semantic shift 'to tremble' > 'to jump' can be seen in Indo-European words like PG *skakan- 'to shake; 'to leave' > OE scacan 'to shake, shiver; to run, leave, flee' (> Eng shake) ~ OFri. skeka 'to run away from home' ~ OS skakan 'to leave' ~ MDu schaken 'to leave, escape, run away with someone' [Kroonen 2013: 438].

2.5. Permic

In Komi, there are words formed from the stem *tar- semantically connected with motion: taredni 'to shiver, to shake', tarzini 'to shiver', tarevtni 'to roll' [Wichmann, Uotila 1942: 271]. In the Malmyz-dialect of Udmurt, a phonologically and semantically similar word taretini 'to buzz' [WW 256] was also attested. The stem *tar- can be regarded as an id-eophone, for example in Ko tara kilni 'to rattle', tur-tar usni 'to stumble from stairs', turk-tark kerni 'to rattle' [Wichmann, Uotila 1942: 271]. In Komi, a reduplication where two vowels *u and *a alternate is common, as in gur-gar usny 'to stumble on stony or bumpy ground', hum-ham kerny 'to eat quickly with a loud noise' (Bartens 2000: 326-327). Another Komi ideophone tur- has also been regarded as a derivative stem for words

semantically connected with snowing, including tureb 'blizzard', turbilalni 'to roll', turdni 'to snow' and turzini 'to snow heavily' (Wichmann and Uo-tila 1942: 285-286). However, it is also possible that the ideophone tur-is merely a variant of tar- and therefore etymologically unrelated to the afore-mentioned words.

In [KESKJ 278] tarzini 'to shiver' is compared with MdE tarnoms and MdM taroms, but sound correspondences between them are irregular. If the Komi verb tarzini is an inherited word, it could reflect Proto-Permic *a, which could eventually be inherited from Proto-Uralic *a, for example in PU *nake- > PPerm na- > Ud naani 'to watch' [Sammallahti 1988: 531]; PU *ajja- 'old man' > PPerm aji > Ko aj, Ud aji 'father; male' [Sammallahti 1988: 552]. On the other hand, Proto-Uralic *a is also reflected in Proto-Permic *a: PU *talwa- > PPerm *tal- > Ko tel, Ud tol 'winter'; PU *sappa > PPerm sap- > Ko sep, Ud sep 'bile' [Aikio 2016: 64; Sammallahti 1988: 548, 550] 4. Therefore, it is uncertain whether the Komi verb actually goes back to a Proto-Uralic form *tara-. Komi turzini ([KESKJ 287], cf. turzisini as headword of the article) has been compared with Mari torlas 'to move away; to become lose' and turgas 'to swirl, to raise'. However, the former has been regarded as borrowed from a common Turkic form tara-'to disperse, to spread, to open up' [Bereczki 2013: 279-280], and the latter manifests a phonologically irregular correspondence.

Aikio [2013: 9; 2016: 53] connects Komi turalni 'to freeze' to a cognate set based on Proto-Uralic *tarki- 'to tremble', which seems to be both pho-nologically and semantically acceptable. However, the etymological connection between turalni and other Komi words formed from the stem *tur-should be explained before arguing that it goes back to PU *tarki-. Moreover, Komi turalni and turdini manifest a regular phonetic match with MdE tardems which cannot go back to PU *tarki-.

A Komi frequentative verb tiravni 'to shiver (with cold)' has been compared to Erzya terhems in [KESKJ 279], but sound correspondences between the two are irregular. If Komi tiravni is an inherited word, it would rather reflect the Proto-Uralic vowel combination *i-i, as in PU *nimi > PPerm *him > Ko Ud him [Bartens 2000: 60].

4 According to [Zhivlov 2014: 123], there are four Proto-Udmurt reflexes of the Pro-to-Permic *a. Their distribution depends on the following conditions: *e before palatalized consonants and s; *o before non-palatalized sibilants and affricates (except s) and before l after a dental stop; *a before l (except after a dental stop), *e ~ *o before non-palatalized nasals, non-palatalized stops and r.

2.6. Ob-Ugric

Aikio [2013: 9; 2016: 41] reconstructs a Proto-Mansi form *taray- which is reflected in, e.g., Tavda dialect tark- and Sosva dialect t5ry- 'to tremble', cf. also [WWb 931]. This Proto-Mansi reconstruction goes back to PU *tarki- based on the sound change of the Proto-Uralic vowel combination *a-i, as in PU *ani 'female in-law'> PMs *anay > MsT ani 'paternal uncle's wife', MsSo 5niy 'stepmother, older brother's wife' , cf. [Aikio 2016: 51].

On the other hand, Aikio reconstructs two Proto-Khanty forms connected with PU *tarki- that show irregular sound correspondences: PKh *tiray-(> KhVVj taray-, KhO tari-) ~ *taray- (> KhVVJ taray-, KhSur târay-, Kh-Irt toraj-, KhNi t5rij-, KhKaz t5ri- [Aikio 2016: 53]). According to Aikio [2016: 35], Proto-Khanty *a or *i reflects the Proto-Uralic vowel combination *a-i, whereas PKh *a comes from PU *o-a, as in PU *kodwa > PKh *kal > KhVVj kal-; PU *kojra > PKh *kar > KhVVj kar.

In Mansi and Khanty, it appears that the afore-mentioned stems PMs * tar ay- and PKh * tir ay- have further developed by addition of the stem consonant -n-: MsKU tàrn-, MsKM torn-, MsSo t5rn- 'to vibrate; to ring' [WWb 940] ~ KhIrt VVj tarna- 'to swing, to shake' [Owb 1024].

2.7. Samoyed

Selkup is the only one of the Samoyed languages where verbs with the meaning 'to tremble' are formed from stems containing an initial consonant t and middle consonant r. The first is tirka- 'to tremble' [SlkWb 186] whose initial syllable vowel i reflects Proto-Uralic *i, for example PU *mitka 'passage' > PSam *mitä > SlkTaz miti 'way, track'; PU *siksa 'Siberian pine' > PSam *titcjq > SlkTaz titiq [Aikio 2016: 60]. Thus, Selkup tirka- shows a regular sound correspondence with Mari tör-gas 'to jump, to skip', which goes back to a Proto-Uralic form *tirka-(cf. Sections 2.4 and 3).

Another such verb is tar(ra)- 'to tremble' [SlkWb 183], which could reflect a Proto-Uralic vowel combination *ä-ä, as in PU *känsä- 'to freeze' > PSam *kanse- > Slk kasa 'to cool down' [Aikio 2002: 21]. This Selkup verb seems to belong to the same cognate set as Fi täristä, SaaN dàrrat and MdE ternems, MdM tärnams.

3. Summary and discussion

In conclusion, I present two new relatively clear Uralic cognate sets that have not been mentioned in any previous Uralic etymological studies:

PU *tirka- > Ma toryas 'to gallop, to jump' ~ Slk tirks- 'to tremble'

PU *tara- > SaaN darrat 'to be frantic, mad' ~ Fi tarista 'to tremble'— MdE terhems, MdM tarhsms 'to tremble' ~ SlkTy tar(rs) - 'to tremble'

Additionally, two hypothetical cognate sets are presented. The plausibility of one over the other depends on a cognate set to which a Northern Saami verb doarggistit is compared:

?PU *tarki- > SaaN doarggistit 'to tremble' ~ MsT tark-, MsSo to'ry- ~ KhVVj tarsy, KhO tari- 'to tremble'

?PU *torka- > SaaN doarggistit 'to tremble' ~ KhSur tarsy-, KhIrt torsj-, KhNi torij-, KhKaz tori- 'to tremble'

Mordvin words derived from the stem *tar- may reflect a Proto-Uralic initial syllable vowel *i. However, due to the lack of a stem consonant *k and its semantic diversity, these words are not treated as belonging to a cognate set based on Proto-Uralic *tirka-. Permic words formed from the stem * tar-may go back to PU *tara-, as mentioned in Section 2.4, but due to the uncertainty of Permic vocalism, they cannot be straightforwardly compared with cognate sets based on PU *tara-. Finnish tarjeta, Mordvin turgams and Komi turalni considered by Aikio [2013: 9] as going back to PU *tarki- are discarded from the cognate set due to an overly large semantic distance and other possibilities of their reconstructions, despite their regular sound correspondences to this set.

The Proto-Uralic forms presented above contain the same initial and middle consonants; only their vowels differ. Therefore, they may show a secondary ablaut, which is typical for onomatopoeic words [Bloom-field 1909: 245-288]. Proto-Uralic forms analyzed in this paper indicate that a secondary ablaut does not always cause irregularity of a diachronic vowel change.

Nevertheless, the database used in this paper is too restricted to make conclusions about the phonetic regularity of the whole Uralic onomatopoeic vocabulary. Therefore, broader studies are needed here.

Abbreviations

Bas — Basque; Eng — English; Est — Estonian; Fi — Finnish; Ing — Ingrian; Ka — Karelian; Ko — Komi; Kor — Korean; KhV — Vakh Khanty; KhSur — Surgut Khnaty; KhIrt — Irtysh Khanty; KhKaz — Kazym Khanty; KhNi — Nizyam Khanty; Liv — Livonian; Ma — Mari; MaE — East Mari; MaW — West Mari; MdE — Er-zya Mordvin; MdM — Moksha Mordvin; MsT — Tavda Mansi; MsKM — Mid Konda Mansi; MsKU — Upper Konda Mansi; MsSo — Sosva Mansi; MDu — Middle Dutch; OE — Old English; OFri — Old Frisian; ON — Old Norse; OS — Old Saxon; PG — Proto-Germanic; PKh — Proto-Khanty; PMari — Proto-Mari; PMd — Proto-Mordvin; PMs — Proto-Mansi; PPerm — Proto-Permic; Pre-PFi — Pre-Proto-Finnic; PSaa — Proto-Saami; PSam — Proto-Samoyed; PU Proto-Uralic; PWU — Proto-West-Uralic; SaaI — Inari Saami; SaaK — Kildin Saami; SaaL — Lule Saami; SaaN — North Saa-mi; SaaP — Pite Saami; SaaS — South Saami; SaaSk — Skold Saami; SaaU — Ume Saami; Slk — Selkup; SlkTaz — Taz Selkup; Ud — Udmurt.

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