Научная статья на тему 'Use of Facebook Information for News Production by Journalists in Pakistan'

Use of Facebook Information for News Production by Journalists in Pakistan Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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social media / facebook / journalists / news production / media studies / media text

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Liaquat Umrani, Bashir Memon, Rashid Ali Khuhro

Nowadays, social media is considered one of the vastly used media not only by the public but also by professionals of all fields. Like other professionals, the journalists also use social media for dissemination of their stories with the public and also gathering information for story development through social media. Facebook is one of the popular social media networks among journalists to gather information for the stories. The purpose of this study is to determine and examine the patterns of use of Facebook information news production by Pakistani journalists. The data was collected by applying a survey method from Pakistani journalists through purposive sampling technique. The findings showed that the majority of surveyed urban journalists in this study used information sought from facebook for journalistic professions; mainly, they make the highest use of facebook information for getting themselves updated, writing follow-up stories, and then quoting facebook as source respectively.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Use of Facebook Information for News Production by Journalists in Pakistan»

Copyright © 2019 by Academic Publishing House Researcher s.r.o.

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Published in the Slovak Republic

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy

Has been issued since 2016.

E-ISSN: 2500-106X

2019, 4(2): 66-76

DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2019.2.66 www.ejournal46.com

Use of Facebook Information for News Production by Journalists in Pakistan

Liaquat Umrani a, Bashir Memon a , *, Rashid Ali Khuhro a a University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Abstract

Nowadays, social media is considered one of the vastly used media not only by the public but also by professionals of all fields. Like other professionals, the journalists also use social media for dissemination of their stories with the public and also gathering information for story development through social media. Facebook is one of the popular social media networks among journalists to gather information for the stories. The purpose of this study is to determine and examine the patterns of use of Facebook information news production by Pakistani journalists. The data was collected by applying a survey method from Pakistani journalists through purposive sampling technique. The findings showed that the majority of surveyed urban journalists in this study used information sought from facebook for journalistic professions; mainly, they make the highest use of facebook information for getting themselves updated, writing follow-up stories, and then quoting facebook as source respectively.

Keywords: social media, facebook, journalists, news production, media studies, media text.

1. Introduction

Social media is considered one of the vastly used media not only by the public but also by professionals of various fields. The reason behind its familiarity is its wide range online technological features that allow users internal interaction, creation, and sharing of content and build social networks (Boyd, Ellison, 2007). That is why social media is getting more popular than other technologies because of its interactive nature (Molyneux, Mourao, 2019).

Thus, Belair-Gagnon (Belair-Gagnon, 2015) and Canter (Canter, 2015) suggest that journalists need to adopt these changing platforms for their professional practice. According to studies, these interactive features have brought many changes in society and ended the communication gap among masses around the globe. Along with society, many changes have been observed in the field of journalism during the past two decades. Mostly, it is because of fast developments in computer technology and the rise of new forms of media, especially social media such as various blogs, Twitter and Facebook (Weaver, Willnat, 2016). Such a developing situation has been changing to the journalistic culture.

Social media have not only occurred as a significant news platform for the masses, but also it has proved as a useful tool for journalists too. Journalists use social media to find story leads and to share their work with audiences, which has made journalism more interactive (Pradhan, Kumari, 2018). These proliferated changes in the shape of social media have transformed editorial roles, and it has grown the attention of academicians towards this phenomenon (Jian, Liu, 2018). Existing studies suggest that media practitioners have been integrating social media into their work

* Corresponding author

E-mail addresses: bashir.memon@usindh.edu.pk (B. Memon), rashid.khuhro@usindh.edu.pk (R.A. Khuhro)

routines and creating and experimenting with innovative practices (Barnard, 2016; Hermida, 2012; Lecheler, Kruikemeier, 2016). However, in a study about the role of social media in journalistic routines by examining Turkish news organizations Kiyan and Torenli (Kiyan and Torenli, 2018) revealed that the impact of social media on journalistic routines is limited. It can be contended that professional journalistic norms and practices continue their importance in Turkish news organizations.

Studies have revealed that the journalist uses the most famous Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for dissemination and newsgathering. However, Twitter and Facebook are comparatively more popular. In this way, the purpose of this research is to determine and examine the patterns of use of Facebook information for the production of news by journalists in Pakistan.

2. Materials and methods

The researchers collected the data by applying a cross-sectional survey. Because applying a survey technique in communication research is a common practice (Hansen et al., 1998). Moreover, the survey has central significance in communication research. Hence, researchers personally went to various newspaper organizations, TV channels, news agency offices, and press clubs to meet journalists in a face to face situation, as any query developed about the questionnaire while data collection may be answered and valid responses could be obtained.

The population of this research was working urban journalists in Sindh province, Pakistan. The selection of the participants was those journalists who were in practice of news reporting, news editing, news writing, and other journalism-related activities and belonged to the Karachi division and Hyderabad district of the Sindh province. Additionally, they were in employment in various print, electronic and online media organizations, and news agencies, both privately owned and state-run.

Sample selection was made by applying a purposive sampling procedure; because the complete list of the journalists who worked in the Karachi division and Hyderabad district was not available. Thus, this situation caused a starting point to use a purposive sampling method. As in this regard, contribute Singleton, Straits, and Straits (Singleton et al., 1999) that "In situations that preclude random selection, purposive sampling is an acceptable alternative. Finally, in the survey of this study total of 374 working journalists participated.

For data collection, the researcher personally visited all the press clubs and media organizations available in the Karachi division and Hyderabad district. Moreover, a fully structured questionnaire was designed for primary data collection. The questionnaire has mostly consisted of close-ended questions. Finally, for data analysis, firstly, data was coded in SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software, and then it was analyzed and measured with relevant statistical tests.

3. Discussion

In the present times, social media has proved itself as one of the highly used media in all spheres of public life. From opinion sharing to marketing, it has occupied a unique space in public lives. That is why, from individuals to institutions, social media is used for all purposes, including for fulfilment of professional requirements too. According to Boyd and Ellison (Boyd, Ellison, 2007), the different online technical features of social media allow users to interact, create, and share content and build social networks. Therefore, its interactive nature makes it more popular than other technologies (Molyneux, Mourao, 2019).

According to some studies, these interactive features of social media have changed the global society by ending the communication gap. It has made easy access to information sharing and receiving. Along with society, during the past two decades, social media has brought many changes in the field of journalism too. As put Weaver and Willnat (Weaver, Willnat, 2016), fast developments in computer technology and the rise of new forms of media, especially social media such as various blogs, Twitter, and Facebook, have changed the field of journalism.

Moreover, social media is becoming an increasingly important data source for learning about breaking news and for following the latest developments of ongoing news (Fink, 2014; Fuchs, 2017; Zubiaga, 2018). In a survey from news directors at a national network of affiliated televisions, Adornato (Adornato, 2016) discovered that social media is having an impact on editorial and production decisions related to newscasts. The journalists chose popular or trending, content, and

topics on social media for stories. According to Pradhan and Kumari (Pradhan, Kumari, 2018), proving it as a significant news access platform for masses, social media has occurred as a useful tool for journalists too. The reporters utilize social media as a tool for information gathering to develop story leads and to share their work with audiences. It has made journalism more interactive. Further, Jian and Liu (Jian, Liu, 2018) found that these thrived variations in the form of social media have altered journalistic role. It has increased the attention of researchers towards this phenomenon.

Additionally, some other previous research studies examined and proposed that media practitioners have been adopting social media into their work routines and generating and testing with innovative practices (Barnard, 2016; Hermida, 2012; Lecheler, Kruikemeier, 2016). In this regard, Raymond and Lu (Raymond, Lu, 2011) have also given similar findings that in comparison to ordinary users, journalists use social media to develop relations with online groups and utilize the same for their professional benefits too.

In a journalists' national survey in the US, Weaver and Willnat (Weaver, Willnat, 2016) presented that more than 50 % of journalists told that they use microblogs for the newsgathering process, and social media is a significant source for 40 percent of their work. However, in contrast to the Weaver and Willnat (Weaver, Willnat, 2016) survey results, in a current review by Lecheler and Kruikemeier revealed that, in place of moving conventional news sources, online sourcing was 'a (welcome) addition to journalistic sourcing routines' (Lecheler, Kruikemeier, 2016: 160); while the practice of elite sources still dominated in news reporting. This pattern of social media use in sourcing reflects the common concern among journalists over the accuracy and reliability of social media information, as identified in several other studies (Bossio, Bebawi, 2016; Ritter, 2015).

Added to that, Pradhan and Kumari (Pradhan, Kumari, 2018) viewed that social media technologies have a variety of features made for particular functions, and the media practitioners utilize these different tools for a variety of journalistic purposes. They are related to this, Arceneaux and Schmitz Weiss (Arceneaux, Schmitz Weiss, 2010), elaborate that these social media tools have increased the speed of news gathering and dissemination process for journalists. However, some scholars have segregated the social media usage for journalism in the following three ways: (i) as a venue to freely post news stories to reach out to potential new readers and increase the number of visitors on their websites, cf. (Kwak et al., 2010), (ii) as an analytical platform to explore the preferences of news consumers, analyzing the news stories that users read and share most, cf. (Diakopoulos, Zubiaga, 2014), and (iii) as a gold mine to catch the scoop on breaking news, to retrieve additional context to broaden the coverage of their news reports (Muthukumaraswamy, 2010), and to reach out potential eyewitnesses who they might want to interview (Diakopoulos et al., 2012).

In a survey conducted from Editors-in-chief of German online newsrooms regarding social media use in the newsrooms, Neuberger, Nuernbergk, and Langenohl (Neuberger et al., 2019), examined that social media supports the use of various channel communications. It is necessary for journalists to learn social media operations for their professional use. The medium can be applied to all phases of news production. Further, Neuberger et al. (Neuberger et al., 2019) find out that social media applications Facebook and Twitter are used by journalists for more than one purpose. The study concluded that sustainable and experienced strategic newsrooms use social media for different tasks. In another study, Waters, Tindall, and Morton (Waters et al., 2010) revealed that journalists use social media such as Twitter and Facebook to gather newsworthy information and seek out potential interviewees. Likewise, many other researchers also concluded that social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram are increasingly used for newsgathering and reporting (Lysak et al., 2012; Murrell, 2014).

Finally, to put that review of the literature found various studies on use of social media in journalism in developed countries such as US and Europe. Similarly, studies from developing countries have also shown that the practice of social media in journalism is growing (Rodrigues, 2014). Whereas, the studies found from non-Western states focus on 'individual social or political issues such as corruption in India (Rodrigues, 2014). With this increase in terms of popularity (Saldaña et al., 2017), social media has become a powerful tool for journalists and news organisations ranging from health journalism (Shoenberger, Rodgers, 2017) to sports journalism (Li et al., 2017), including emergency journalism (Bowdon, 2014) and political journalism (Parmelee, 2013).

According to Arceneaux and Schmitz Weiss (Arceneaux, Schmitz Weiss, 2010), journalists could gather and disseminate information at near-instantaneous speed by using social media tools. In that context, Memon and Umrani (Memon, Umrani, 2019) observed that Facebook is better SNSs than other networks for journalists. Media practitioners are inclined to Facebook in search of information for the stories. The journalists find, share, and promote stories on Facebook. Its fast features and saving of journalistic resources compel journalists to use Facebook for their professional purposes (Memon, Umrani, 2019; Gulyas, 2013), while conducting a study regarding public relations and strategies concluded that most journalists seek stories from social media such as Facebook. Previously, Urista, Dong, and Day (Urista et al., 2009) also have given similar results that now, many journalists use Facebook and SNSs for newsgathering. The main reason is the easy accessibility of the information on the networks. In another study Al-Rawi (Al-Rawi, 2017), about stories posted on Facebook pages of four foreign Arabic language TV stations: The Iranian Al-Alam TV, Russia Today, Deutsche Welle, and BBC, it was revealed that social significance and proximity, as well as the news organizations' ideological agenda, are the most important elements that dictate the news selection process (Al-Rawi, 2017).

4. Results

Demographic profile of the journalists

Table 1. Composition of the urban journalists by demographic Variables

Variable Frequency Percentage (%)

Gender

Male 326 (88.8)

Female 41 (11.2)

Marital status

Married 216 (59-7)

Unmarried 146 (40.3)

Age

Up to 25 years 66 (23-7)

Between 25 to 40 years 160 (57.3)

Above 40 years 53 (19.0)

Mother language

Sindhi 256 (69-9)

Urdu 110 (30.1)

Religious identity

Muslim 338 (92-6)

Non-Muslim 27 (7.4)

Education

Intermediate and less 44 (11.8)

Bachelor's degree 135 (36.3)

Master's and above 188 (50.5)

Monthly income

Up to 15000 PK Rupees 103 (27.7)

Above 15000 PK Rupees 154 (41.4)

No answer 110 (29.6)

Working city

Hyderabad 162 (44.1)

Karachi 205 (55.9)

Table 1 shows that the proportion of more than four-fifth (88.8 %) of the respondents was male. Whereas, against it, a little proportion of 11.2 % of the journalists was female. Thus it was concluded that the vast majority of the surveyed journalists were male. Subject to the marital status of the surveyed journalists the data showed that the proportion of almost three-fifth (59.7 %) of them was married, and the remaining proportion of slightly over two fifths (40.3 %) was unmarried. In this way, it was revealed that the majority of the journalists were married. In the context of age, the data showed that the proportion of nearly three-fifth (57.3 %) of the journalists mentioned their age between 25 to 40 years, whereas the second proportion of nearly one quarter (23.7 %) of the journalists was up to 25 years old. Moreover, the remaining proportion of almost one fifth (19.0 %) of them was more than 40 years old. Thus, it was concluded that the majority proportion of the journalists was young and actively engaged in the journalistic profession.

Moreover, the respondents were also asked about their mother language; then; as a result, the data showed that the proportion of more than two-third (69.9 %) of the journalists was Sindhi language speaking. While the remaining proportion of little less than one third (30.1 %) of them was Urdu language speaking. Therefore, it was concluded that the majority of the sampled journalists spoke the Sindhi language.

From the perspective of religious identity, the data showed that the proportion of more than four-fifth (92.6 %) of the journalists was Muslim. While the remaining proportion of less than one-tenth of them (7.4 %) were non-Muslims. Therefore, it was shown that the majority of the journalists were Muslim.

Academically, the proportion of over four-fifth (86.8 %) of the journalists had a university degree, while the remaining proportion of little higher than one-tenth (13.3 %) mentioned that they earned their final degree from colleges and schools. In this way, the majority of the journalists in this study were graduates having a degree of bachelor, master, or more than that.

Moreover, the analyzed data about the income level of the urban journalists in Sindh province showed that the proportion of more than a quarter (27.7 %) had their monthly income up to 15000 PK rupees. While the proportion of higher than two-fifth (41.4 %) of them said that they earned more than 15000 PK rupees from the journalistic profession; whereas, the remaining proportion of over than a quarter (29.6 %) of the surveyed journalists did not answer to this question.

Finally, about the working city, it was found that the proportion of over fifty percentage (55.9 %) was working in Karachi, whereas the remaining proportion of more than two-fifth (44.1 %) of them were working in Hyderabad city. Thus, it was concluded that the majority of the surveyed urban journalists were working in Karachi.

Work profile of the journalists

Table 2. Work profile of the urban journalists in Sindh

Variable Frequency Percentage (%)

Job nature

News editing 202 (54-3)

News reporting 106 (28.5)

Other 60 (16.1)

Media organisation

Newspaper 128 (34-4)

Radio 13 (3-5)

Magazine 11 (3.0)

News agency 35 (9.4)

TV channel 188 (50.5)

Online sites 39 (10.5)

Work experience

Cub journalist 79 (33.8)

Junior journalist 65 (27.8)

Senior journalist 90 (38.5)

Data in Table 2 reports findings regarding the work profile of the urban journalists surveyed in this study. In this way, first, regarding the nature of work, it was observed that the proportion of over fifty percent (54.3 %) was related to news editing. Furthermore, the proportion of over a quarter (28.5 %) said that they did news reporting. Whereas, the remaining proportion of over one-tenth (16.1 %) said the nature of their job was other than news editing and news reporting. Thus overall, it was found that the majority of the surveyed journalists in this study were involved in news editing. Second, in the context of media organisation it was seen that the proportion of slightly over fifty percent (50.5 %) of the journalists worked for TV channels.

Moreover, the other proportion of slightly over than one third (34.4 %) mentioned that they worked for newspapers; however, the remaining number of the surveyed journalists worked for online sites (10.5 %), news agencies (9.4 %), radio (3.5 %) and magazines (3.0 %). Hence, it was deduced that the majority of the journalists worked for TV media and newspapers. Third, in the context of work experience of the surveyed journalists it surfaced that the proportion of about two-fifth (38.5 %) of the journalists were senior. Added, the second-highest proportion sizing one third (33.8 %) were cubs. However, the last proportion of over a quarter (27.8 %) was junior journalists. Thus, it was observed that overall the highest proportion of the journalists surveyed in this study were senior journalists.

Use of Facebook information for news production

Table 3. Use of Facebook information for news production

Items Minimum Maximum Mdn Mean SD

1: Getting fresh news 1 3 2.00 2.01 .62

2: Quoting Facebook as source 1 3 2.00 2.33 .74

3: Developing professional identity 1 3 2.00 2.17 .78

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4: Writing follow-up stories 1 3 3.00 3.35 .73

5: Getting news updates 1 3 2.00 2.37 .61

Note: Higher mean scores equal a higher level of dependency on Facebook information.

The scale ranges from 3='to great extent'2= 'to some extent,' 1='not at all.'

Data in Table 3 presents findings regarding the surveyed news-workers' use of Facebook information for journalistic activities and getting updates. The scale contains a total of five items related to seeking Facebook information by the news-workers that had to be used for journalistic activities and to get an update.

The data was collected on a three-point scale ranging from 3 = to a great extent, 2 = to some extent, 1= not at all. In this way, the descriptive statistics for the construct "measured a mean value 2.25 and standard deviation .69 for all the items. Hence, the mean score was higher than average level of 3-point Likert scale. Thus, it revealed that the construct has functional importance as the majority of the surveyed news-workers seek Facebook information and use it for journalistic activities and getting an update.

Moreover, it was observed in table 3 that out of the total of five, the first highest rated item in the construct was using Facebook information for "getting news updates" (Mean = 2.37, SD = .61). And then, the second-highest mean score was collected by the item using Facebook information for "writing follow-up stories" (Mean = 2.35, SD = 73). Whereas, the third-highest mean score was assigned to the item to use Facebook information for "Quoting Facebook as source" (Mean = 2.33, SD = .74). Thus, while interpreting these three items in series, it deduces that the news workers first get update from the Facebook information and then use Facebook information in journalistic activities, i.e., they use Facebook information in writing follow-up stories even quoting to Facebook

as source of information.

They are added to that the lowest mean scores were given to the items to use Facebook for "Developing professional identity" (Mean = 2.17, SD = .78) and to use Facebook for "Getting fresh news" (Mean = 2.01, SD = .62). Thus, overall, the above-analyzed data showed that urban journalists used Facebook to seek information that has to be used for journalistic activities and getting updates.

Additionally, inferential statistical analysis was run upon this construct by selecting an Independent-Sample T-Test to know whether any significant differences could be observed between the demographic and profession-related groups and the Facebook information for news production.

Facebook information for news production and demographic groups

Facebook information for news production and age

Table 4. Facebook information for news production and age

Age

Items Up to 30 years Above 30 years T-test P-value

Mean Mean

Getting fresh news 2.05 1.86 2.64 .00

Quoting Facebook as source 2-33 2.20 1.44 .15

Developing professional identity 2.13 2.05 .87 .38

Writing follow-up stories 2.41 2.18 2.62 .00

Getting news updates 2.53 2.26 3.47 .00

Note: Higher mean scores equal a higher level of dependency on Facebook information. The scale ranges from 3='to great extent'2= 'to some extent,' i='not at all.

Table 4 presents data about journalists' use of Facebook information for news production and age categories. In this way, first, subject to getting fresh news, it was observed that those journalists who were up to thirty years old (M=2.05) on average used Facebook more to get fresh news as compared to those journalists who were above than thirty-year-old (M=1.86), (t=2.65, p=.00). Second, in the view of quoting Facebook as a source of news story the data revealed that those journalists who were up to thirty years old (M=2.33) on average quote Facebook more as a source of news story than those journalists who were above than thirty-year-old (M=2.20), (t=1.441, p=.151). Third, in perspective to usage of Facebook to develop a professional identity as journalist the results indicated that those journalists who were up to thirty years old (M=2.13) on average used Facebook more to develop their professional identity than those journalists who were above than thirty-year-old (M=2.05), (t=.876, p=.382). Fourth, in the context of writing follow-up stories the data showed that those journalists who were up to thirty years old (M=2.41) on average used Facebook information more for follow-up stories than those journalists who were above than thirty-year-old (M= 2.18), (t=2.622, p=.009). Fifth, regarding getting news updates the results showed that those journalists who were up to thirty-year-old (M=2.04) on average used Facebook more to get news updates as compared to those journalists who were above thirty-year-old (M=1.95), (t=3.478, p=.001). Therefore, overall, it was concluded that those journalists who were up to thirty years old used Facebook information more for news production than those journalists who were above thirty years old.

Facebook information for news production and education

Table 5. Facebook information for news production and education level

Items

Education level

Up to bachelor Master and above T-test P-

Mean Mean value

2.09 1.94 2.29 02

2.42 2.25 2.21 02

2.23 2.12 1.25 21

2.44 2.26 2.43 01

2.44 2.31 1.80 07

Getting fresh news Quoting Facebook as source Developing professional identity Writing follow-up stories Getting news updates

Note: Higher mean scores equal a higher level of dependency on Facebook information. The scale ranges from 3='to great extent'2= 'to some extent,' 1='not at all

Table 5 presents data about the journalists' use of Facebook information for news production and education level. Thus, first, subject to getting fresh news, it was seen that those journalists who were qualified up to a bachelor degree (M=2.09) on average used Facebook more to get fresh news as compared to those journalists who had education up to master degree or above (M=1.94), (t=2.29, p=.02). Second, in the view of quoting Facebook as a source of news story the data revealed that those journalists who were qualified up to bachelor degree (M=2.42) on average quoted Facebook more as a source of news story than those journalists who had education up to master degree or above (M=2.25), (t=2.21, p=.02). Third, perspective to usage of Facebook to develop a professional identity as journalist the results indicated that those journalists who were qualified up to a bachelor degree (M=2.23) on average used Facebook more to develop their professional identity than those journalists who had education up to master degree or above (M=2.12), (t=1.25, p=.21). Fourth, in the context of using Facebook information for writing follow-up stories the data showed that those journalists who were qualified up to a bachelor degree (M=2.44) on average used Facebook information more for writing follow-up stories than those journalists who had education up to master degree or above (M= 2.26), (t=2.438, p=.015). Fifth, in the regard of getting news updates the results showed that those journalists who were qualified up to a bachelor degree (M=2.44) on average used Facebook more to get news updates as compared to those journalists who had education up to master degree or above (M=2.31), (t=1.804, p=.072). Therefore, it was concluded that overall, those journalists who were qualified up to bachelor degrees on average used Facebook information more for news production than those journalists who had education up to master degrees or above.

Facebook information for news production and mother language

Table 6. Facebook information for news production and mother language

Mother language

Items Sindhi Urdu T-test P-

Mean Mean value

Getting fresh news 2.05 1.91 1.93 .05

Quoting Facebook as source 2.40 2.16 2.84 .00

Developing professional identity 2.25 2.00 2.87 .00

Writing follow-up stories 2.41 2.20 2.52 .01

Getting news updates 2.42 2.27 1.84 .06

Note: Higher mean scores equal a higher level of dependency on Facebook information. The scale ranges from 3='to great extent'2= 'to some extent,' 1='not at all.

Table 6 presents data about the use of Facebook information and mother language. Hence, first, subject to getting fresh news, it was observed that those journalists who spoke Sindhi language (M=2.05) on average used Facebook more to get fresh news as compared to those journalists who spoke Urdu language (M=1.91), (t=1.93, p=.05). Second, in the view of quoting Facebook as a source of a news story, the data revealed that those journalists who spoke Sindhi (M=2.40) quote Facebook more as a source of news story than those journalists who spoke Urdu language (M=2.16), (t=2.84, p=.00). Third, perspective to usage of Facebook to develop a professional identity as a journalist, the results indicated that those journalists who spoke Sindhi language (M=2.25) used Facebook more to develop their professional identity than those journalists who spoke Urdu language (M=2.00), (t=2.87, p=.00). Fourth, in the context of using Facebook information for writing follow-up stories the data showed that those journalists who spoke Sindhi language (M=2.41) on average used Facebook information more for follow-up stories than those journalists who spoke Urdu language (M= 2.20), (t=2.523, p=.012). Fifth, regarding using Facebook for getting news updates the results showed that those journalists who were Sindhi speaking (M=2.42) on average used Facebook more to get news updates as compared to those journalists who spoke Urdu (M=2.27), (t=1.84, p=.06). Therefore, it was concluded that overall, those journalists who spoke Sindhi language on average used Facebook more for news production than those journalists who spoke the Urdu language.

Facebook information for news production and job type

Table 7. Facebook information for news production and job type

Job type

Items News editing News reporting T-test P-

Mean Mean value

Getting fresh news 2.00 1.93 .95 .33

Quoting Facebook as source 2.36 2.32 .38 .69

Developing professional identity 2.09 2.33 -2.64 .01

Writing follow-up stories 2.35 2.30 .49 .62

Getting news updates 2.32 2.38 -.82 .43

Note: Higher mean scores equal a higher level of dependency on Facebook information.

The scale ranges from 3='to great extent'2= 'to some extent,' 1='not at all

Table 7 presents data about the use of Facebook information for news production and their job type. In this way, first, subject to getting fresh news, it was observed that those journalists who did news editing (M=2.00) on average used Facebook more to get fresh news as compared to those journalists who were involved in news reporting (M=1.93), (t=.95, p=.33). Second, in the view of quoting Facebook as a source of a news story, the data revealed that those journalists who did news editing (M=2.36) on average quote Facebook more as a source of a news story than those journalists who were involved in news reporting (M=2.32) (t=.38, p=.69). Third, perspective to usage of Facebook to develop a professional identity as journalist the results indicated that those journalists who did news reporting (M=2.33) on average used Facebook more to develop their professional identity than those journalists who were involved in news editing (M=2.09), (t=-2.64, p=.01). Fourth, in the context of using Facebook information for writing follow-up stories the data showed that those journalists who did news editing (M=2.35) on average used Facebook information more for follow-up stories than those journalists who were involved in news reporting (M= 2.30), (t=.49, p=.62). Fifth, regarding using Facebook for getting news updates the results showed that those journalists who were involved in news reporting (M=2.38) o n average used Facebook more to get news updates as compared to those journalists who did news editing (M=2.32), (t=-.82, p=.43).Therefore, overall it surfaced that those journalists who did news editing made the use of Facebook and its information more for getting fresh news, quoting Facebook as a news source, and writing follow-up stories. Whereas, against it those journalists who were involved in news reporting made the use of Facebook more for developing their professional identity and getting news updates.

5. Conclusion

Social media is such a platform of communication that is made use of not only by professionals but also by ordinary people as well. In this way, the purpose of this research endeavor was to assess how journalism professionals make use of Facebook for news production activities. Thus, it was found that the majority of the surveyed urban journalists in this study used information sought from Facebook for journalistic activities; mainly, they make the highest use of Facebook information for getting themselves updated. Then they use Facebook information for writing follow-up stories and also quote Facebook as the source, respectively. Additionally, it was observed that younger age journalists comparatively make more use of Facebook for news production activities. Whereas, it was also seen that those journalists who had higher-level education comparatively make less use of Facebook information than those who had lower level education. Finally, it was also known that the journalists who were involved in news editing comparatively make more use of Facebook information than those journalists who report news.

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