Научная статья на тему 'Social networks and media literacy: how to use safe'

Social networks and media literacy: how to use safe Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Kitsa Mariana

Social networks is quite a new phenomenon in the Ukrainian media space. Initially, they were used primarily for search and chat with friends, share photos and entertainment content. Today, social networks are not only a platform to communicate with friends and acquaintances, but also a powerful and inexhaustible source of information. So every post in the news stream often serves as a good informative occasion which develops into an important socio-political or a household topic. According to the results of our research, modern Ukrainian journalists widely use social networks to communicate with both officials and recipients, but on the popular social media platforms still remain such possibilities, which are out of the sight of journalists. Nowadays social media are not only a source of information, but also a source of disinformation and fake news. So despite the positive aspects of using social media in journalism, there are some drawbacks. So the inept use of the social networks and the failure of journalism standards may lead not to the increasing of the media audiences, but vice versa.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Social networks and media literacy: how to use safe»

Media Culture

Social networks and media literacy: how to use safe

Dr. Mariana Kitsa,

National University «Lviv Polytechnic», Ukraine Koshytsya str. 7/42, Lviv, 79058, Ukraine E-mail: imkitsa@gmail.com

Abstract. Social networks - is quite a new phenomenon in the Ukrainian media space. Initially, they were used primarily for search and chat with friends, share photos and entertainment content. Today, social networks are not only a platform to communicate with friends and acquaintances, but also a powerful and inexhaustible source of information. So every post in the news stream often serves as a good informative occasion which develops into an important socio-political or a household topic. According to the results of our research, modern Ukrainian journalists widely use social networks to communicate with both officials and recipients, but on the popular social media platforms still remain such possibilities, which are out of the sight of journalists.

Nowadays social media are not only a source of information, but also a source of disinformation and fake news. So despite the positive aspects of using social media in journalism, there are some drawbacks. So the inept use of the social networks and the failure of journalism standards may lead not to the increasing of the media audiences, but vice versa.

Keywords: social networks, Facebook, followers, account, media literacy, media education.


When we hear the phrase "social media journalism" in a certain part of the audience there is a suspicion that this is something with amateur level, something which can not claim to seriousness and credibility interpretations. But now these doubts arise only part of the audience.

Internet information dissemination channels can not only quickly access a set of facts and check their authenticity - with the ability to search online. By the way, the ability to search information that is self-isolation of the data set, which is required, the user can save time and concentrate on the important themes, without spending too much attention to an information garbage.

A case is made for seeing democratic implications not only in the horizontal or 'peer-to-peer' public sphere of citizen journalism networks, but also in the possibility of a more 'reflexive' culture of news consumption through citizen participation (Goode, 2009).

If ever the Internet as a source of information is treated with prejudice, believing that it could not eventually capture most of the market, which dominates the press, television and radio -under the "patronage" of news agencies, the World Wide Web today is somewhere ahead.

Today the information warfare continues. Internet - is the primarily source for it. Social networks in this aspect is a part of the Internet - as well. The social network is conceived as being generated by a bipartite graph, in which actors are linked together via multiple interaction contexts or affiliations (Kossinets, 2006).

Journalists often use social media as a source of information. But sometimes in case of the spreading of big amount of news they do not check the information, which is published in the social media. So in result they spread fake information in their media. That is why journalists have to

know how to check information and how to refute disinformation. And this is the aim of medialiteracy.

A huge number of people are using various social networks. The users of the social networks did not hesitate to communicate. They fill their profiles, share photos, personal video and voluntarily give much more information about themselves. Social networks are widely used for obtaining a variety of information. They have turned into a powerful tool for marketing and information warfare. One of the reason of this phenomenon is the low level of the mediaeducation in our country.

Materials and methods

A study on the use of social media in journalism can be divided into several groups. The first is the study of B. Potyatynyk, G. Pocheptsov, S. Mashkov, V. Ivanov, V. Shevchenko, N. Gabor, A. Chekmyshev, C. Eng-Mole, W. Schneider, who deals with theoretical principles of operation of new media and Internet media in particular. The next group of developments constitute scientific research which actually emphasize the features of the development and use of social networks. Such are the studies of R. Abdyeyeva, S. Afanasyev, A. Bobkova, I. Inozemtsev, L. Masimov, J. Wise, T. Fisenko and others. Among the developments of foreign researchers - there are works of A. Toffler, A. Turyna, J. Kim, S. Tong, L. Lanhvela, S. Mayers and others. In a separate group we offer to isolate Internet resources "Mediakrytkyka", "Tribune", "Mediasapiyens", "Detector media", "My media", sites APM, Mediakrytyka, which often publishes research on social networks and refinement of D. Brown Robert Orchard and others, placed on a platform «You tube».

The theme of the information warfare is researched by G.Pocheptsov, E. Parshakova, L. Makarenko, Winn Schwartau and others. Despite this diversity of coverage of the topic, comprehensive study of the role of social networks in the modern work of journalists today is almost absent.

In our researching we used theoretical, historical method, method of content-analysis, philosophical methods of induction, deduction and analogy, sociological method - survey of the journalists and users of social networks.


Social media networks such as Facebook and Twitter as well as web 2.0 applications like blogs and Google have changed the news industry and the journalism practice inside out. They present awesome possibilities and at the same time a high risk for errors. Social media and web 2.0 have thrown the challenges to news managements and to the work of journalists (Terms, 2010).

In the Internet people find something that, unfortunately, is less and less traditional in media and communication, there is lack of control from the government, intrusive brainwashing, the possibility of free exchange of ideas. Online social networking technologies enable individuals to simultaneously share of information with any number of peers (Bakshy, 2012).

As for social networks and possibilities of their use in journalistic activities, they apparently quite harmoniously fit into the process of searching, processing and dissemination of information. But this is not all the possibilities of using social media in journalism. Their constant improvement provides more opportunities for journalists to find, distribute, broadcast media etc. However, the improper use by journalists of social networks can cause damage to the person, society and state. Therefore, this issue needs thorough investigation.

The term "social network" was introduced in 1954, by the representative of the "Manchester School" James Barnes (Barnes, 1954) in his article "The classes and duties in the Norwegian island parish", which entered the collection of "human relations". He continued to develop the proposed back in 1930 Jacob Moreno approach to study the relationship between people using social communication in which individuals are represented as dots, and the links between them are made

in the form of lines. Other ideas that became the foundation of modern scientific analysis of social networks were formulated in 1970.

From a technological point of view social network is interactive, with many users of the website, the content of which is filled by the participants. The site is an automated social environment that lets users chat with group which is united by some interests. Theoretically, any online community can be viewed in a social network. Social network is formed by readers of the thematic community, created on any blogging service. Many professional societies become the search tool and search of people (Yaremchuk, 2015).

The emergence of social services and social networks are related to meet the needs of Internet users in direct contact and cooperation. The study of sources available concerning the functioning of social services and social networks indicates that content around these concepts needs a discussion. The most general definition of the term "social network" is: "Social Network -is a virtual platform, providing their own means of communication, support the creation, development, display and organize social contacts, including exchange of data between users, which provides pre-creation account " (Parshukov, 2014).

Social Network - is a structure that is based on contacts between individuals themselves or through their mutual interests. The key concept of this association are some of the activities relations between them, based on continuous interaction, mutual influence. When we call journalism as social institution that works to provide comprehensive and objective informing of all social life and social reality, which is indispensable to the optimal functioning of all other social institutions and society as a self-regulating system, social networks greatly complement this mission.

Therefore, if a journalist purposefully joins to selected circles in a particular social network, builds a community of "friends", monitors activity and posts specific user checks, laid by their facts and distributes them through the mediation of traditional media, it proves competitive social networks as sources of information - in comparison with information agencies, their subscribers -television and radio broadcasters and print media, which also boasts the presence of own correspondents.

However, social networks remain active platform for the dissemination of the results of journalistic activities outlined in the traditional form of audiovisual information (TV programs, radio reports, articles). Because most of the traditional media have their reflection in the virtual network, journalist revision also is relatively straightforward (in most cases and if they know how to search) to find. Instead, for the author of the material it is not difficult to extend this to a friend from his account in their own profiles on Facebook, Twitter or YouTube. Then, the number and nature of the assessments and friendly discussion outlined the problem is to track the quality of the work done. There lies another valuable interaction between journalism and social networks, even when in contrasts to the commentary, you can get a personalized view of a man whose face you can see and whose opinion is signed by a real name. Bregtje Van Der Haak says that it is this interaction in social networks - personalized, open and vulnerable to encourage journalistic text labels to continuous self-improvement in labor - in order to circle readers-listeners-viewers were not ashamed. Because they also share raw data and help to refine them not to read the result and if it deserves even expand it further - in their "friendly circles" (Van der Haak, 2012).

Ukrainian researcher O. Chekmyshev (Chekmyshev, 2010, p. 46) defines the characteristics of new media and considers methods of research in Ukrainian and foreign practice, "we can conclude that the main characteristics of the new media as an object of social and communication research is interactivity, chaotic hierarchy of messages, information continuity, flow hypertextual and multimedia. This set features causes convergent application of methods that allow display and multilateral structure of information flow in the World Wide Web ".

The attitude to social networks at various times has been mixed. Pioneer of social networking is an American portal Classmates.com. It developed in 1995. The project was very

successful, so in a few years, appeared a lot of similar services. But the official start of the boom of social networks is considered to be in 2003-2004, when there were launched LinkedIn, MySpace and Facebook.

If LinkedIn was created with the sole purpose - to direct / support business contacts, the owners of MySpace and Facebook have relied primarily on the satisfaction of human needs for self-expression. In fact, according to Maslow's (Maslou, 2008, p. 221) pyramid, it is the highest expression of human need, even ahead of recognition and communication. Social networks have become a kind of online haven where one can find the technical and social base to create your virtual "I". So every user has the opportunity not just to communicate and create, but also to share the results of his work with multi-million audience in a particular social network.

The rapid development of network "Facebook" and "Twitter" changed attitude to social networks. They are often called social media. So let's consider this concept more detailly. The primary meaning of the phrase was the definition of "social media - a series of online technologies on the principles of Web 2.0, through which consumers content via their posts are their colleagues and they can collaborate, cooperate, communicate, share information or engage in any other social activity theory of all other users of a particular service" (Wikipedia). Social Media are the platforms that enable the interactive web by engaging users to participate in, comment on and create content as means of communicating with their social graph, other users and the public (Cohen, 2011).

Currently, social networking is more than enough, and everyone can choose the one that is convenient to him to use, has the necessary features and functionality, as users can focus on whether there friends, colleagues and relatives with whom it will be easy to maintain bond or decide important matters.

Examples of social networks are such as VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Tumbler, Space, Steam, Skype, SciWorld, Ukrainian Scientists Worldwait, LinkedIn, Scribd, Slideboom, Slideschare, Calameo, ICQ, Quip, MNS, Miranda and others .

Social media can be divided into the hierarchy of demand in the audience: first - personal diaries - the blogosphere since LJ. Second - the creation of personal and business relationships. The third - the creation of private personal information manager.

Social networks are focused on different target audience - young people of school and college-age (VKontakte, Instagram), older users (Classmates), university audience (Facebook), the scientific community (SciWorld, Ukrainian Scientists Worldwait), professionals in various fields (LinkedIn) etc. Standard toolkit of the social network involves saving photos, videos, audio materials to the personal page the opportunity foruser to search users on certain features and adding them to a single priority list, provide members of this list certain advantages over other users of the network, limited communication with unwanted visitors in the personal page (Parshukov, 2014).

Especially interesting in this regard is called thematic social network - which occupy a niche in the sector, and offer this all means available. For example, let Odnoklasnyky.ru find your classmates or fellow students to restore the lost connection and meet new people. Last.Fm - Music social network - building connections between users on the basis of musical preferences, using original tools - widgets for blogs, the utility for music and builds charts with music that you have listened. Autokadabra.ru - social network for motorists, cardrivers and jthers, this network is distributed to clubs in which participants want to communicate. Social networks for general themes are such as "Facebook", and his younger brothers - "Twitter" and "Connect", which also have great popularity, though does not offer anything special. These websites accumulate a huge database of contacts and profiles, from which you can learn a lot about the man and his preferences (Pishkovcij, 2008)..

However, social media is increasingly interpreted as a form of media that provides free creation, commenting and dissemination of information on the Internet by anyone. This definition seems to us more relevant to the current state of operation of media space, hence social networks that function as social communication through the publication of information dissemination

hyperlinks, interactive communication through the "comment", "preferences" and so called social media offer. Therefore, in this study, the term "social media" despite its priority is used as a synonym for the term "social networking" to the platform "Facebook" and "Twitter".

In 2014 the attendance of the mediasites had rapidly increased. It is caused by the revolutionary events and military situation in the east of the country. When in September 2013 news sites were visited daily by the audience of 10-15%, in 2014 it is 60% of the daily audience. Earlier news daily revised no more than 1.5-2 million Ukrainian Internet users. Today the situation is different: 1.5-2 million - is only the audience of the Ukrainian Internet-media "Ukrainian Truth" and the total daily audience of Ukrainian media have close to 7 million (Sushhuk, 2011).

With the spread of the hybrid war in Ukraine, social media began to develop especially actively. Soon there were so-called social media NGOs and associations, activist groups and volunteers. Also, conversions users of social networking sites on the Internet media have increased. If in October 2013, according to research, the daily traffic from social networking sites of Ukrainian media was 180-200 thousand, in February-March 2014, this figure increased to 2-2.5 million crossings every day. According to the results of a poll that was conducted in January 2014 by the Academy of Ukrainian press, online media, social networks and the blogosphere became a source of the most objective and complete information, and therefore, an alternative press, television and radio (Dorosh, 2014).

Social networks have dramatically changed the work and structure of modern media. After all, so it was possible not only to transmit information around the clock, but also get prompt feedback and comments. Such possibility is associated with the emergence in 2004 of the social network "Facebook", which gave users the opportunity to highlight his message tape from audio and video files and stream them to friends or subscribers, so-called "followers." Facebook emerged as the architectural equivalent of a glasshouse, with a publicly open structure, looser behavioral norms and an abundance of tools that members use to leave cues for each other. LinkedIn and ASmallWorld produced tighter spaces, which were consistent with the taste ethos of each network and offered less room for spontaneous interaction and network generation. (Papacharissi, 2009).

Instead, the text information up to 140 characters began to spread through a social network "Twitter", which appeared in 2006. New social media technologies such as Twitter facilitate the instant, online dissemination of short fragments of information from a variety of official and unofficial sources (Hermida, 2010).

In fact, it was Twitter, where the information about the earthquake in California, 2009 was published for 9 minutes earlier than in Associated Press (Laskowska, 2012).

Thus it were the journalists who became the most active users of Western social networks. However, the wording began to use social networks actively much later, about 5-6 years ago (Skoryk, 2017). So the workers have got one more editorial task - to monitor social networks and keep them in their media page.

Various social networks have their audience. For example,"Classmates" are popular in the former Soviet audience of 35 to 60 years, instead of "Vkontakte", which has the same geographical coverage, but these people age much younger - from teenagers to students.

The Ukrainian segment of social media Facebook is more than 6 million users. Although "Vkontakte" covers a much larger number of Ukrainian users, but the most valueable in social life still remains "Facebook". It is more powerful. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. First, the social network entirely depends on the content of users. Second, the "Facebook" makes it possible to broadcast their message directly to many users who are friends or followers of your profile. In addition, the social network gives users the greatest set of tools that allow you to display photos, videos, play games and more. In addition, this platform allows you to transfer files, which does not provide for "Twitter." A recent function of "Facebook" is to offer its users the function of "Facebook Live» (Facebook live), which allows for online broadcast. Thus, the "Facebook" has the greatest range of opportunities both for journalists and for ordinary users.

Preliminary study authors, journalists often use in their work the following social networks:

1. Facebook - to search the information, contact to the commentators;

2. Twitter - for getting news from around the world, tracking trends;

3. Instagram - as a source of photographs;

4. Tumbler - to search for photos and ideas / inspiration;

5. Twitter - to collect information about a person;

6. Foursquare - to be aware of where rest and spend time celebrities (including for this purpose also Instagram).

Social media have already changed the structure of the editorial offices. Terms H. (Terms, 2010) says "Today, the BBC has 23 journalists working in a UGC (user generated content) centre to process information, photos and text coming in from the general public. CNN also has a usergenerated content site but the branding is separate. iReport is the section of CNN.com where the stories, photos, texts and videos are uploaded by the audience".

These data were hypothesis for a more thorough investigation. So to find out how and what social networks in its work are useful to modern journalists, we conducted a survey among journalists of regional media in Lviv (32) and Kyiv (68). The study involved 100 representatives of the media who provided answers to the questions which social networks they use and how.

Results of the study were more than predictable. Each of the 100 journalists indicated that they use in their work the social network "Facebook". Also near 70% told that they use also social network "Twitter" and almost 15% mentioned "Instagram", "Vkontakte", "Odnoklasniki". However, almost half (42%) answered that in addition to using social networks and other social media pages such as NGOs, resources, blogs and forums. These platforms journalists serve as a source of information and topics for writing materials. It is interesting, that the journalists of regional media (Lviv) believe that social media are the primary source of information and they visit these resources every day.

Meanwhile, journalists of the central media most preferred the social network "Facebook". Journalists were asked to write three opportunities, in which they use social networks for their work. They use this resource in the following order: search for new information (91%), search for topics to cover and for information causes (75%), networking (73%), monitoring announcements (42%), familiarization with the views of other people or experts (25 %), collecting comments (18%), tracking public opinion (11%), interviews (1%). Such tool of the "Facebook" as a monitoring announcements and networking journalists use irrespective of the region and type of media instead of tracking public opinion surveys which are engaged mainly in metropolitan television journalists (First National, Inter, Espresso). Journalists of the Lviv regional media reported that in the social network "Facebook" they daily visit pages by NGOs, communities and various thematic groups such as "Guard 1". Media workers believe that social networks are a kind of litmus test that determines the relevance of an event.

As for social networks "Twitter" and "Instagram", the first is used exclusively for testing pages which are authorized by officials instead of"'Instagram" which they use to search sensational photos and for investigative journalism (9%). This response provided print media journalists ("RiaUkraine", "Express", "Lviv mail", "High Castle").

Respondents report that social networks present unique means of mass communication, which expands the circle. So people who do not respond to phone calls or avoid meetings are often friendly and sociable in social networking. This phenomenon has its explanation. The fact is that top officials in social networks often are press secretaries or other assistants whose work lies in communication with the audience on behalf of officials and create a positive image of him. In addition, through the account in social networks parties have the opportunity to get acquainted with the personal user data, including data on employment, education, marital status, preferences and more.

Journalists of regional media (Lviv) often combine several journalistic profession, because sometimes they use to work as a reporter at the local newspaper and as news service in the district council and the journalist puts up the official website of the regional council, as well as leading its pages on social networks. Answering on our questions, they acknowledged that social networking is the most effective means of providing information to young and mature. In addition to the statistics of visitings they are able to rely on the opinion of readers indicated in the comments.

Another way of communication with readers is its own initiative journalists. So, the journalist of the newspaper "Express" said that she often writes posts in social groups network "Facebook" on the community to the area. Thus workers get acquainted with the views of ordinary citizens and allocate among them qualified persons.

Despite an active use of social networking by Ukrainian journalists, our respondents mostly ignored the most important opportunity of social media - sharing information. Interviewed journalists effectively use social networks to gather information - namely, to find new data, comments, contacts, photo illustrations, themes for materials, instead of broadcast media to promote their media and attract new recipient. It remains a secondary function for both groups of journalists - region and central.

However, accorging to the results of the survey, which was made by Press Institute, 82,6% of polish journalists use social networks both for work and for private interests, and 4,9% do not use social networks for their journalistic work. 70% of the surveyd journalists use social networks for the contact with interviewer. More than half of respondents says that social networks are very useful for their work and 36,6% can't imagine their journalistis work without social networks.

Journalists from Poland use social networks for different reasons. Except looking for information and contacts with experts, 61,7% of their journalists use social networks as a platform to find out social opinion (Press Institute, 2017).

In the case of spreading fake news through socila networks, we decided to ask journalists about checking the information from the social networks. The next question was "What programs do you use to check the information?" We have got such results: all journalists told that they check information, but for it they use only search engine and Google Chrome. About other programs which can be used for checking the information journalists didn't hear. 32% of our respondents told that they check information by the site "Stop.Fake"


To find out the attitude of ordinary users of social networks, we conducted a survey of people of different ages, social status and level of education. The aim of our study was to find out -whether used and trusted are social networks or Ukrainian. According to our technical capabilities, the sample was of 1000 people of different ages and levels of education.

We considered quota sample as the most appropriate. The general populations are the male and female representatives from the whole Ukraine. We provide representation in the sample of people of different ages (18-23 years; 24-30; 31-40; 41-60 ) and education (secondary, incomplete higher, higher.)

According to the survey, 40% surveyed were 18-23 years old, 35% of 24-30 years surveyed, 15% of surveyed 31-40 and the remaining 10% surveyed - 41-60 years. Educated sample looked as follows: 15% surveyed had secondary education, 40% of surveyed - incomplete higher and 45% of surveyed received higher education.

Championship social networking among surveyed won "Vkontakte" - 45%; Facebook -40% and other social networks - only 15% ("Twitter", "Odnoklasniki", "Instagram"). Table 1 near here

It is interesting that near 30% of respondents have only one account in social media, 50% -two and near 20% - three and more.

which social networks prefer Ukrainians

■ Vkontakte ■ Facebook ■ other social networks

Social media as the main source of information used 82% surveyed, 5% surveyed don't considers social networks as the main source of information. The remaining 13% only sometimes use social media as the main source of information.

Another question was concerned to the convenience of submitting information on social networks. Almost all surveyed agreed that submit information through social networks is easy and respectively (96%), and only 4% disagree with this statement.

The credibility of social networks is low. The survey showed that accurate believe to the information which is posted on social networking pages, only 15% surveyed. Do not trust to the information from social networks 68% surveyed, and sometimes trust - 17% of respondents. Table 3 near here.

Convenience of social networks for submitting new information

■ submit information through social networks ■ disagree with this

The credibility of social networks

It is not surprisingly, because people will always want to consume content from experts and they will always look to trusted news sources and journalists for important news and current events, but the market has become so oversaturated that it is now just as important to rely on one's friends to help to filter the news. When you get a news clip from friends, they are putting their own personal brand on the line, saying "I recommend THIS piece of content to you out of all the content that is out there," - just as they would recommend a restaurant, or a movie (O'Connor, 2009).

So it is evidently that 93% of respondents do not consider the information in the social media as journalism, while only 7% said that it depends on the information. Instead researcher Steve Myers (Myers, 2014) notes that users of all social media and even Twitter use to publish information that has to be called journalism, "they find something worthwhile, talk about it, look for illustrated material interrogate. People check sources confirm facts before publishing them and provide context - these actions are completely journalism." That is why social media should be used to attract new users to the Internet via the media popularization of certain materials in a particular social media, but according to our survey results, journalists rarely resort to such a reception.

The most amount of the respondents (65%) answered that the society, government and journalists should make maximum efforts to fight against fake. 15% of the interviewed think that mass media are responsible of the spreading fake, 10% - government, 15% - administrators of the social media.

Almost all respondents claim that fake news in the social media have a big influence on the audience and can instigate to some actions. For the last 2 years there were situations when social media became the impetus of the Maidan. In fact., the second Maidan, so called " Revolution of dignity" was started from the post in the social media Facebook.

As we have noted, addressing fake news is best done at the level of the major platforms— Facebook, Twitter, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Apple. They control the arteries through which most of the world's fresh information and influence flows. They are best positioned to see a disinformation outbreak forming. Their engineering teams have the technical chops to detect it and the knobs needed to to respond to it. (Braham, 2017).

Social Media - is a relatively new phenomenon in the Ukrainian media space. By popularizing through social networks such media can quickly gain popularity and a large number of


users. However, not each social media is honest and truthful. With the proliferation of war in Ukraine, especially social media have begun to develop. They appeared as a media of so-called civil society organizations and media associations, activist groups and volunteers. Some of these social media deliberately spread fake information.

The first step for safe using of social networks is the high ltvtl of mediaeducation and medialiteracy. In order to the interest of the reader journalists should take into account some features of the social networks on different platforms. Thus, for example, it is important to know by what criteria the network "Facebook" places the link spread your friends. First news of the tape will be your friend posts with videos. Then - with illustrations, and in the least - original text messages. In addition to interest the readerit would be the best to serve posts from the own account of a journalist who already has a positive reputation. If certain media journalists are not known to the public, journalist can repost from the site of the media, but always adding his own commentary. Such links will be faster in the news tape of your friends or followers and raise a greater interest. But when the message is "posted", you can edit only the text. M. Skoryk (Skoryk, 2017) says the key to success of the "post" lies in the following components: theme news, good design, originality supply, emotion, placing. Regarding the last item we should emphasize that "quiet" time on social networks is from 2 am. to 6 am. At this time journalisit should serve only urgent, force majeure news, which the reader will notice, though in the morning, but he will pay attention to placing messages and "appreciate" your efficiency. Other information should be submitted in the morning. You can use such function of the network "Facebook" as planning news. Creating a post, you can select the function of "planning", choose a time - and the news will be published on time.

However, in order to monitor the information on social networks, experts recommend to create relevant interest groups. That is to combine social media pages of certain politicians, the media, NGOs and others. This feature allows you to see all the news of these pages without sorting them by ranking "Facebook". Then the journalist do not miss any new message that appears on the pages which are interesting for him. At the same time to be part of the group of its users - is a significant success for certain media page in the social network.

In addition, out of sight of journalists is using the "Facebook. Live. " This allows you to make online broadcasts, called "Stream" from the event and share them with friends or with all or with individual groups and others. The same possibility more recently have provided social network "Twitter". Exactly this opportunity of the social media is the most expeditious source of information for journalists. To search for information in the network we recommend to search by hashtag, and create them to promote their own news.

According to our survey, journalists rarely use social network "Instagram." The reason for this is that this platform is provided for dissemination of photo information, not the text. However, data from the social network can also be used effectively - for investigative journalism, information events, sensationalism and so on.

Geneva Overholser, director of the University of Southern California's Annenberg School of Journalism thinks that journalists should use social medias in different spheres. He says that "Those of us who ground ourselves in what we know to be an ethically sound and civically essential mode of information gathering and information dissemination has to find a way to be in these conversations - whatever we call the conversations or ourselves. Our job is to keep an eye on the public interest." (Terms, 2010).

Administraotrs of the social media decided to fight against spreading fake information, For example, Facebook has started rolling out its third-party fact-checking tool in the fight against fake news, alerting users to "disputed content". Mark Zucckerberg explains: "We're a new kind of platform for public discourse - and that means we have a new kind of responsibility to enable people to have the most meaningful conversations, and to build a space where people can be informed," he wrote (Hunt, 2017).

Using social media as a source of information, journalists must first adhere to journalistic standards and carefully check the information. For this reason there will be helpful the courses in verification of data on the Internet and fact-cheking. Otherwise the desire for sensationalism and promptness may result in disqualification of the media in the eyes of readers and interpretation of this resource as fakeful.

Readers must also know how to check the information. Tyhere is a number of signs that should alert the reader: no hyperlinks to the original source; materials which are published without the author's signature; no editorial contacts; news is commentated by unknown politicians, experts, activists, etc. Thanks to the Internet, anyone can personally make a fact-cheking. In addition, international experience shows that it is real. Craig Silverman (Craig Silverman), at the Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University has developed a program Emergent (http://www.emergent.info/). It is able to analyze how the virus is spread through the news content on the Internet and can count the number of times users which shared a particular article during some period. Also, the software tracks the source of rumors from the moment when the news began to spread in the network.

Americans have created several other well-known online resources to verify facts. One of the most popular in the USA is - Factcheck.org. It tests the promises and words of American politicians, comparing them with proven facts. For similar principle was established resource Politifact.com, which in 2009 was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. The project is unique.

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For English speakers is available special service for validation video. With All Citizen Evidence Lab network, each user can learn how to use video from the Internet to document evidence to determine the exact time downloading video, geolocation definition video etc.

Krishna Bharat proposes to o assess whether the wave needs to be flagged as suspicious, the algorithm will need to look at traits of both the story cluster and the social media cloud surrounding it. And we definitely agree with her recommendations. Specifically:

1. Is the wave on a topic that is politically charged? Does it match a set of hot button keywords that seem to attract partisan dialog?

2. Is engagement growing rapidly? How many views or shares per hour?

3. Does it contain newly minted sources or sources with domains that have been transferred?

4. Are there sources with a history of credible journalism? What's the ratio of news output to red flags?

5. Are there questionable sources in the wave

(a) Sources flagged for fake news by fact checking sites (e.g., Snopes, Politifact)

(b) Sources frequently co-cited on social feeds with known fake news sources.

(c) Sources that bear a resemblance to known providers of fake news in their affiliation, web site structure, DNS record, etc.

6. Is it being shared by users or featured on forums that have historically forwarded fake news? Are known trolls or conspiracy theorists propagating it?

7. Are there credible news sites in the set? As time passes this becomes a powerful signal. A growing story that does not get picked up by credible sources is suspicious.

8. Have some of the articles been flagged as false by (credible) users?

Each of the above can be assessed by computers. Not perfectly perhaps, but sufficiently well to serve as a signal (Bharat, 2017).


Thus, the role of social networks in the modern journalists is increasing and it takes on new forms. But to use it safe journalists should comply the Code of Journalism Ethics, and should have (in fact, as the readers too) a high level of the mediaeducation and medialiteracy. The survey results confirmed the fact that journalists use social networks primarily for communication with

commentators and officials, to search for new information and information events. The most popular social networks among journalists are "Facebook" and "Twitter". These platforms have grown from social networks in complete social media, which are the source of search, exchange and dissemination of socially significant information. However, media workers are not using all the opportunities of these platforms. So the popularization of media through social media posts, the study of public opinion surveys, analysis of photographs and geolocation of famous persons for investigations, broadcast video online through social media are used by journalists infrequently. However, the ease and accessibility of search and disseminating of information does not always provide the quality and reliability. How easy is it to gain popularity through social networks - just as easy is to lose credibility, which is deserved for years. Therefore, further research in this direction is to study the rules for the use and dissemination of information in social media and introducing a code of ethics in social networks.


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