Научная статья на тему 'To what extent does English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts'

To what extent does English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts Текст научной статьи по специальности «Государство и право. Юридические науки»

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НЕСОВЕРШЕННОЛЕТНИЙ ПРЕСТУПНИК / JUVENILE OFFENDER / ПРАВА ДЕТЕЙ / CHILDREN''S RIGHTS / ПРАВОНАРУШЕНИЕ / OFFENSE / НАКАЗАНИЕ / PUNISHMENT

Аннотация научной статьи по государству и праву, юридическим наукам, автор научной работы — Trufanova Tatiana Vladimirovna, Vashchekin Andrew Nikolaevich

In this article, the aim is to assess, how English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts. Furthermore, in this article will be demonstrate offenders and punishments for them. The article indicates that there were significantly reduced sentences and correctional facilities became less serious. By the same token, children were receiving a medical treatment, that can help them to change their behavior. This kind of protecting the rights of children leads to reduce the number of crimes.

Похожие темы научных работ по государству и праву, юридическим наукам , автор научной работы — Trufanova Tatiana Vladimirovna, Vashchekin Andrew Nikolaevich,

Английское законодательство о защите прав детей, осужденных за преступные деяния

В статье проводится исследование, в какой степени английский закон защищает права детей, когда их обвиняют в преступных деяниях. Приводятся примеры правонарушений и соответствующих им наказаний. В статье отмечается, что Британское правосудие по делам несовершеннолетних основано на теоретико-медицинской модели, согласно которой правонарушители получают помощь медицинского и образовательного характера. Наличествует тенденция к сокращению сроков наказания, и облегчению условий содержания в исправительных учреждениях. Повышение степени защиты прав детей ведет к сокращению числа преступлений.

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Текст научной работы на тему «To what extent does English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts»

LEGAL SCIENCES

TO WHAT EXTENT DOES ENGLISH LAW PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN WHEN THEY ARE ACCUSED OF CRIMINAL ACTS Trufanova T.V.1, Vashchekin A.N.2 (Russian Federation) Email: Trufanova536@scientifictext.ru

'Trufanova Tatiana Vladimirovna — Lawyer, Student, FACULTY OF CONTINUING EDUCATION; 2Vashchekin Andrew Nikolaevich — Professor,

CHAIR OF INFORMATION LAW, RUSSIAN STATE UNIVERSITY OF JUSTICE, MOSCOW

Abstract: in this article, the aim is to assess, how English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts. Furthermore, in this article will be demonstrate offenders and punishments for them. The article indicates that there were significantly reduced sentences and correctional facilities became less serious. By the same token, children were receiving a medical treatment, that can help them to change their behavior. This kind ofprotecting the rights of children leads to reduce the number of crimes. Keywords: juvenile offender, children's rights, offense, punishment.

АНГЛИЙСКОЕ ЗАКОНОДАТЕЛЬСТВО О ЗАЩИТЕ ПРАВ ДЕТЕЙ, ОСУЖДЕННЫХ ЗА ПРЕСТУПНЫЕ ДЕЯНИЯ Труфанова ^В.1, Ващекин A.^2 (Российская Федерация)

'Труфанова Татьяна Владимировна — юрист, студент, факультет непрерывного образования; 2Ващекин Андрей Николаевич — профессор, кафедра информационного права, Российский государственный университет правосудия, г. Москва

Аннотация: в статье проводится исследование, в какой степени английский закон защищает права детей, когда их обвиняют в преступных деяниях. Приводятся примеры правонарушений и соответствующих им наказаний. В статье отмечается, что Британское правосудие по делам несовершеннолетних основано на теоретико-медицинской модели, согласно которой правонарушители получают помощь медицинского и образовательного характера. Наличествует тенденция к сокращению сроков наказания, и облегчению условий содержания в исправительных учреждениях. Повышение степени защиты прав детей ведет к сокращению числа преступлений. Ключевые слова: несовершеннолетний преступник, права детей, правонарушение, наказание.

The identity of each person begins to develop in childhood. In this period of life, a children discover the world of human relations, begin to expand the scope of knowledge. They have a strong desire to more actively participate in adult life. In particular, behavior of children depends on their family and from the people around them. In light of the fact that, any psychological injuries can give a negative affect for their future life. Currently, the issue about rights of children is very relevant. Children are in dange we can see it in the mass media. For instance, every day, million of minors are exposed to sexual exploitation, abduction, also they are exposed by negative influence of adults, which lead them to commit crimes. Given these facts, in this article, the aim is to assess, how English law protect the rights of children when they are accused of criminal acts. In this article will be demonstrate offenders and punishments for them.

The crime of juveniles prevention in the United Kingdom began since 1854 year, when the Act about Reformatory schools for juvenile offenders was passed. The preventive measures applied to minors in order to prevent the committal of crimes. It can be divided into two groups. The first one is a criminal law measures, which were applied as a punishment and the second group is a preventive measures, which are not punishment. So, Juvenile justice based on medical theoretical model in which juvenile offenders are considered to be mentally usable and they need of intervention of an educational nature to eliminate the mental disorder. Therefore, we can identify the purpose of the Juvenile Court. It is decide,

how to help children or how to re-educate them. The firs Juvenile Court was established in Australia in 1890, and in the UK it was established in 1905 [4].

Criminal statistics indicate, that a high percentage of the offenders are committed by perpetrators under the age of 18 years. Annually in the UK revealed more than 300 thousand socially dangerous acts of minors. Moreover, 100 thousands of them committed by children under the age of criminal responsibility. The most popular crime is a sexual offender. So, Descriptive data based on a retrospective case note study of 121 juvenile sexual offenders referrals to an adolescent forensic unit are presented [2]. The result of investigation suggest, that teenagers commit a lot of crimes, which most often associated with mental disorder. Conduct disorder was the most common diagnosis, while rates of mental illness were lower than in earlier studies [6]. Besides all the above, Acts as a willfully causing death, cause serious injuries or terrorist acts are committed by children aged 14-18. Peak of committing crimes is 16 years. And after 18, delinquency decreases rapidly. The maim reason, why children commit a crimes is the mental disorder in their behavior. Students on the stability of antisocial and delinquent behavior are reviewed, showing that children who initially display high rates of antisocial behavior are more likely to persist in this behavior than children who initially show lower rates of antisocial behavior. Evidence is presented, that chronic delinquents, compared with nonchronic or nondelinquent individuals, tend to have been children who were antisocial in more than one setting, who displayed a higher variety of antisocial behavior, and who showed an early onset of such behavior [5].

The system of punishments became easier and more comfortable for children. Earlier, juveniles are imprison, but now, they are going to the institution for young offenders. Terms of penalties, that can be applied to minors depend from their age. The minimum period of detention in an institution for young offenders aged 15 to 18 years is two months. The maximum period is twelve month. The Criminal Justice Act allowed to send minors aged between 12 and 15 years in private educational centers for period from 4 to 24 months. On the basis of an Act of 1988 year, minors can be sent to the institution for juveniles delinquents if children commit a serious crime or murder. They will be appointed to a term of 10 years and above. In the Sexual offences Act says that a boy who has reached the age of 14 may be found guilty of rape and also sent to the institution for juvenile offenders. Nevertheless, there are another kinds of punishments for juvenile delinquents. The most common of them are fines, public works and temporary arrest. Children penalties for minor offenders, to warn them committing further. It can reach up to one hundred pounds. For the same actions can be given the public works. This punishment have minimum 40 hours and should not exceed 120 hours.

English law protect the rights of children when they accused of criminal acts by the different ways. For example, in 1882, national legislation gave criminal courts discretion either to sentence juveniles to reform schools or to impose such punishment as is otherwise provided by the law [1]. Legislators instituted nationwide reforms in the late nineteenth century to achieve more humane treatment of juveniles, including the establishment of houses of refuge to separate youth from adult prisoners and the eventual establishment of a separate juvenile court system. Since children were considered amenable to rehabilitation, the first juvenile courts were considered civil rather than criminal, with judges who dispensed treatment rather than punishment. Since its inception, the juvenile justice system has been geared toward child welfare, individual assessment and treatment. The goal was to reintegrate youths into society [7]. Accordingly, the establishment of this system was grounded in the beliefs that juveniles offenders could be rehabilitated and therefore should be treated rather than punished and that youngsters should not be stigmatized, in addition, hardened by contact with adult criminals. To put it briefly, English law provide psychological support [3]. It is reflected in the referral children to a medical centers, where they receive the necessary psychological assistance. By the same token, English law reduced sentences in comparison with adult criminals, punishments were replaced by fines and community works. If we are talking about teenagers under 12 years old, the Court may direct them to a private educational center if they were convicted of more than three crimes.

The results of this article indicate that the rights of children convicted of a crime are protected by English law. There were significantly reduced sentences and correctional facilities became less serious. By the same token, children were receiving a medical treatment, that can help them to change their behavior. To put it briefly, this kind of protecting the rights of children leads to reduce the number of crimes.

References / Список литературы

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1. D'AmbraL. A legal response to juvenile crime: why waiver of juvenile offenders is not a panacea // U.L. Rev., 1997. P. 277-281.

2. Dolan M., Holloway J. et al. The Psycholosocial Characteristics of Juvenile Sexual Offenders Referred to an Adolescent Forensic Service in the UK // Med Sci Law., 1996. Oct 36 (4). P. 343-52.

3. Kozochkin I.D. et al. Criminal Law of foreign countries. General and special parts / Moscow. 2016. 1054 p. (in Russian).

4. Konovalova I.A. Experience of dealing with juvenile delinquency in Europe and USA // International Criminal Law and International Justice, 2007. № 2. P. 23-33 (in Russian).

5. LoeberR. TheStability of Antisocial and Deliquent Child Behavior // Child Develop., 1982 V. 53. P. 1431.

6. Sampson R.J. Crime in the Making - Pathways & Turning Points through Life / Harvard University Press., 1995. 320 p.

7. Vashchekina I. V., Vashchekin A.N. Social responsibility policy of Russian credit organizations in a recession // European Journal of Natural History, 2016. № 3. P. 106-110.

ARBITRATION IN CENTRAL AFRICA Simbagaeva H.A. (Russian Federation) Email: Simbagaeva536@scientifictext.ru

Simbagaeva Heda Aslanovna — Student, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL LAW AND PROCESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW, LAW INSTITUTE OF PEOPLES FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA, MOSCOW

Abstract: the article analyzes the order of arbitration in the countries of Central Africa. The subject of the study was the national legislation of the countries of Central Africa in the field of civil proceedings and international commercial arbitration, as well as international arbitration legislation. Results of the study: the legislation of the countries of Central Africa was analyzed and the order of arbitration in each of these countries was revealed. Materials and conclusions are of theoretical and practical importance, both for further scientific research, and in terms of their active use in the study of arbitration in the countries of Central Africa.

Keywords: arbitration proceedings, arbitration agreement, the legal nature of the decision.

АРБИТРАЖНОЕ РАЗБИРАТЕЛЬСТВО В СТРАНАХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ

АФРИКИ

Симбагаева Х.А. (Российская Федерация)

Симбагаева Хеда Аслановна — студент, кафедра гражданского права и процесса и международного частного права, Юридический институт Российский университет дружбы народов, г. Москва

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Аннотация: в статье анализируется порядок арбитражного разбирательства в странах Центральной Африки. В качестве предмета исследования было взято национальное законодательство стран Центральной Африки в области гражданского судопроизводства и международного коммерческого арбитража, а также международное арбитражное законодательство. Результаты исследования: проанализировано законодательство стран Центральной Африки и выявлен порядок арбитражного разбирательства в каждой из этих стран. Материалы и выводы имеют теоретическое и практическое значение как для дальнейшего научного исследования, так и в плане их активного использования при изучении арбитража в странах Центральной Африки.

Ключевые слова: арбитражное разбирательство, арбитражное соглашение, правовая природа решения.

Семь из девяти стран Центральной Африки являются членами Организации по гармонизации коммерческого права в Африке (ОХАДА). Это страны, отказавшиеся от создания национальных арбитражных законов и включившие в национальное законодательство Унифицированный закон ОХАДА об арбитраже 1999 г.1 Это Габон, Камерун, Демократическая Республика Конго, Республика Конго, Центрально-африканская Республика, Чад и Экваториальная Гвинея. Унифицированный закон регулирует порядок арбитражного разбирательства, правовую природу решения, исполнение внутренних и международных арбитражных решений и другие вопросы, связанные с арбитражем.

1 Acte uniforme relatif au droit de l'arbitrage. [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http:// www.droit-afrique.com/upload/doc/ohada/OhadaActe-Uniforme-1999-Arbitrage.pdf (дата обращения: 12.03.2017).

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