Научная статья на тему 'Тибетцы в Бурятии: новое явление в культурном разнообразии Республики'

Тибетцы в Бурятии: новое явление в культурном разнообразии Республики Текст научной статьи по специальности «История и археология»

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ТИБЕТЦЫ / TIBETANS / ДИАСПОРА / DIASPORA / БУРЯТИЯ / BURYATIA

Аннотация научной статьи по истории и археологии, автор научной работы — Ванчикова Цымжит Пурбуевна

В статье рассматривается история становления тибетской диаспоры в Бурятии. Автор рассматривает роль тибетских лам в восстановлении буддизма в Бурятии. Особое внимание уделяется адаптации тибетских монахов в чужой языковой и этнической среде.

Похожие темы научных работ по истории и археологии , автор научной работы — Ванчикова Цымжит Пурбуевна

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Tibetans in Buryatia: a new phenomenon in cultural diversity of the Republic

The article examines the history of the formation of the Tibetan diaspora in Buryatia. The author considers the role of Tibetan lamas in the restoration of Buddhism in Buryatia. Special attention is paid to adapting Tibetan monks in a foreign linguistic and ethnic environment.

Текст научной работы на тему «Тибетцы в Бурятии: новое явление в культурном разнообразии Республики»

and perspectives of complex research of Russian Old Believers. - M., 1998. -Р. 400.

Васильева Светлана Владимировна - доктор исторических наук, доцент кафедры истории Отечества Бурятского государственного университета. Vasilieva S.V. - ScD, professor, Buryat State University.

УДК 317.72 (=584) (571.54) © Ts.P. Vanchikova

Tibetans in Buryatia: a new phenomenon in cultural diversity of the Republic

The article examines the history of the formation of the Tibetan diaspora in Buryatia. The author considers the role of Tibetan lamas in the restoration of Buddhism in Buryatia. Special attention is paid to adapting Tibetan monks in a foreign linguistic and ethnic environment. Keywords: tibetans, diaspora, Buryatia.

© Ц.П. Ванникова

Тибетцы в Бурятии: новое явление в культурном разнообразии республики*

В статье рассматривается история становления тибетской диаспоры в Бурятии. Автор рассматривает роль тибетских лам в восстановлении буддизма в Бурятии. Особое внимание уделяется адаптации тибетских монахов в чужой языковой и этнической среде. Ключевые слова: тибетцы, диаспора, Бурятия.

The republic of Buryatia is remarkable for its cultural diversity. This fact is due to different peoples living in it, each with their authentic culture and traditions. Nowadays representatives of more than 30 different nationalities inhabit the territory of Buryatia. The socialist theory of building «one great nation -that is of a soviet people (narod)» failed after the beginning of «perestroika». The new epoch have created challenges to which all peoples have responded with innovative discourses. Peoples of the former USSR of almost of all nationalities and ethnic groups either large or small began to seek for their ethnic roots. The same happened in Buryatia. By the beginning of 90-ies there appeared many public ethnic organizations and communities with the aim to restore and to revive their ethnicity and formerly forbidden ethnic traditions. All this made the social life of the Republic diverse and varied. These processes are characterized by several specific features. One of the quite innovative and remarkable features in these processes through which Buryat identity and Budd-

* Впервые опубликована в Улан-Баторе в материалах конференции «Cultural diversity of nomads», 2011. - P. 99-106.

hism have been constructed nowadays is connected with the Tibetan refugees settling down in Buryatia. The overwhelming majority of Tibetans are represented by Buddhist monks. In the paper a preliminary survey of the history of Tibetan monks' settling down in contemporary Buryatia will be given. It is closely connected with the process of broad revival of Buddhism beginning from 1990 after the issue of the Russian «Law on freedom of confession». The Buddhist church as well as other religious confessions was given help and assistance in gradual rebirth of monastic religious activities and educational system. Alongside with many changes in Buryat Buddhism the appearance of Tibetan monks and Tibetan temples in Buryatia became quite a new phenomenon. This is a multi-dimensional process.

First Tibetans in Buryatia

In the paper history of relations between Tibetan monks and the Buryat population will be looked upon as well as their influence on the local population. To start with I would like to give in brief a short history of former relationship between Tibetans and the Buryat people. As is known Buddhism was brought by several Mongol chieftains that flew away with their kinsmen from Mongolia between 1620-17601. They came with their Buddhist monks and started to conduct first sermons in felt yurts. They have settled down and mixed up with local people. The Buryats became interested in Buddhist teaching, received primarily knowledge from the comers, took novice's vows, etc. The process of Buddhist penetration was slow but steady. Later Buryat lamas themselves began to go to monasteries of Mongolia and Tibet for studying. The earliest known contacts of the Buryat people with Tibetans go back to the beginning of the XVIII century.

Scanty information about this time we find in Buryat historical records. Thus in the earliest records of Toboev and Yumsunov we find data about the arrival of 150 Tibetan and Mongolian lamas in 1712 who fled to Buryatia escaping from military clashes in Mongolia and Tibet2. They wandered around different Buryat ethnic groups, mainly in the border area, and spread Buddhist teaching. Some of them became the first abbots of the first Buryat Buddhist temples, for example Agvan Puntsok and Lubsan Sheirab3.

1 Buryatskie Letopisi (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev and Ts. P. Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 108.

2 T. Toboev. Proshlaya istoriya khorinskikh i aginskikh buryat (Early History of Qori and Aga Buryats) in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 15; V. Yumsunov. Istoriya proiskhozhdeniya 11 khorinskikh rodov (The history of origin of 11 khori tribes). in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimit-dorzhiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 43; G.-D. Natsov. Materialy po Lamaizmu v Buryatii (Materials on Lamaism in Buryatia). Edited by G.R. Galdanova. Ulan-Ude, 1998. - P. 31.

3 T. Toboev. Proshlaya istoriya khorinskikh i aginskikh buryat (Early History of

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Also we find information that lamas from Mongolia and Tibet often travelled to Transbaikal region especially in the second half of the XIX and the beginning of the XX cc. They performed various religious sermons in different Buddhist monasteries1. The Tibetan monks were mostly from Amdo region that is why monks of most of Buryat monastic schools studied according to the syllabus of the monasteries of that region. Among them there mentioned are several high ranked lamas from North West Tibet2.

Many oral stories transmitted by Buryat elders tell us about huge amount of goods, cattle and money donated to them by the believers. This testifies the fact that Tibetan monks were quite popular among the Buryat population and were revered by them. According to the available data we can say that the relations between Tibetan monks and Buryats were quite stable and more or less regular. The more so Buryat monks and pilgrims used to go for pilgrimages to holy Buddhist places of Mongolia, Tibet and by the end of the XIX and beginning of XX cc. to China and India. This process ceased after the October revolution. From the end of 30-ies of the last century after the atheistic purges Buddhism officially ceased to exist, all monasteries were destroyed, lamas arrested and sent to concentration camps. It cannot be said that people completely obeyed the authorities, though believers were deprived of the possibility of public expression of their belief in temples, Buddhism was kept privately by the elders in everyday family life and in traditional consciousness.

A new stage in Tibeto-Buryat relations

After the World War II slight changes in the policy towards religions began. In 1945 it was allowed to open Aginskii and to build Ivolginskii Buddhist monasteries. Although this did not mean a change in general policy towards religion, at least Buddhism in Buryatia was allowed to exist as an officially recognized religion. Besides these 2 centres, where it was allowed to have only 20 monks, dozens of monks that were freed from concentration camps illegally served in villages almost in all regions of Buryatia. By 1970 only a few elder lamas remained. So till the beginning of «perestroika» there were only 2 functioning Buddhist monasteries that were under strict state control.

After the beginning of the process of «perestroika» some juridical actions were taken to execute constitutional rights of freedom of belief. After the liber-

Qori and Aga Buryats) in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 15; V. Yumsunov. Istoriya proiskhozhdeniya 11 khorinskikh rodov (The history of origin of 11 khori tribes). in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 43-44; G.-D. Natsov. Materialy po Lamaizmu v Buryatii (Materials on Lamaism in Buryatia). Ulan-Ude, 1998. - P. 6.

1 G.-D. Natsov. Materialy po Lamaizmu v Buryatii (Materials on Lamaism in Buryatia). Ulan-Ude, 1998. - P. 139-141.

2 G.-D. Natsov. Materialy po Lamaizmu v Buryatii (Materials on Lamaism in Buryatia). Ulan-Ude, 1998. - P. 56-58, 111, 127-129.

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al law of 1990 of M. Gorbachev on the freedom of conscience, religious situation in Russia began to change. Religious confessions almost eradicated during the Soviet period began to revive. It was accompanied by active process of restoration of destroyed temples, the revival of forgotten religious traditions and rituals in everyday life of the people. This process was caused and connected with the increase of national self-consciousness and with the search of ethnic roots in which Buddhism was considered to be one of the main fundamental strongholds of national culture and identity1. Nowadays there are 203 registered different Buddhist organizations in Russia, among them 56 are registered in Buryatia.

This time contacts with Tibetans were laid down by several visits of His Holiness Dalai-lama, the first being in 1979. During the first visit he discussed with Buryat Buddhist leaders the problem of revival of Buddhism that greatly depended on teaching and preparing younger generation of monks. This became possible since 1990 and 1991 when 2 Buddhist schools were opened at Aginski and Ivolginski datsans and several Tibetan monks were sent by Dalai-lama to serve as teachers at these schools. The most important step in this direction has been done about 20 years ago in accordance with kind permission of His holiness Dalai-lama when dozens of Buryat young boys have been sent to Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, to be trained in Dharamsala and Go-man/Drepung monasteries. Now more than 50 students study there.

For teaching at these Buryat Buddhist schools, later transformed into institutes, well-educated Tibetan monks have been sent by His Holiness Dalai-lama. During these years the number of monks has increased, the best of them continue education at Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India for several years and return back to Buryatia. Now there are about 1000 monks in all Buryat monasteries according to the data given by the Buryat head monk Damba Ayusheev to the Council for religious affairs of the government of Buryatia during discussion, but this data seems to be too exaggerated.

Buddhism in Buryatia is presented practically by all its main schools and denominations. Thus alongside with the teaching of traditional Gelugpa school some other schools of Buddhism, like Nyingma, Kargyu, Karma, Sakya started spreading. Tibetan esoteric Dzogchen is also becoming quite popular. In 1990-ies the hierarchs of all 4 main Tibetan Buddhist schools have visited Buryatia as well as many high-ranked Tibetan monks. In general there is a special kind attitude and interest towards all Tibetans from the side of the Buryat people. It has historic roots, as all Tibetans are associated with the name of Dalai-lama and Tibet itself, which was traditionally considered by Buryat believers to be a holy land inhabited by gods. Buddhists of Buryatia traditionally had and now have restored close relations with Buddhist communities of Mongolia and Tibet, presented by Tibetan

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1 Buddhism was not the only component for the revival of national self-consciousness and national identity. They were also based on shamanism, revival of the all-Mongolian idea of Chingis-khan and folk hero Geser.

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monks from India. This gave a stimulus for the development of Buddhism here. Buddhists of Buryatia are quite active in some international political problems, in particular, regarding the status of Tibet. Lay communities like «Society of Friends of Tibet», «Green Tara», Agvan Dorzhiev's foundation, «Aryabala» promote active propaganda in support of the struggle of «Tibe-tan people for independence from communist China».

Tibetan monks in nowadays Buryatia

Of special interest is the missionary work of Tibetan monks-refugees. Since 1993 Tibetan monks regularly came for teaching Buddhist courses and helping in restoration of some religious sermons and rituals, like tantric and meditative practices as well as the Kalachakra tantric practice, etc. The more so we witness quite a new phenomenon for Buryatia that is connected with the process of migration and naturalization of Tibetan monks in Buryatia and appearance of Buddhist monasteries built and run by Tibetans. This time the movement is presented by Tibetans born in India, mostly by the second generation of Tibetan refugees.

The hierarchs of the Buryat traditional sangha are anxious with penetration of religious figures from abroad, especially from Indian Tibetan emigrants' diaspora. Tibetan refugee monks quite successfully conduct missionary work among the believers while Buryat Buddhist monks are not active in this aspect and that is why Traditional Buddhist sangha of Russia (mainly the Khambo lama Damba Ayusheev) disapproves the activities of Tibetan Buddhist monks and organizations. This was openly declared by khambo lama in newspapers1 not for once. One of the main reasons of this being competition with Tibetan monks.

At the first stage after coming to Buryatia Tibetans served at Buryat Buddhist temples together with Buryat lamas. Little by little they acquired their own followers and believers and began to occupy their own niche and to integrate in the society.

And soon the question of their official status in Russia has risen. Those Tibetan lamas who wanted to stay in Buryatia began to look for the ways to do it and how to receive Russian citizenship.

As it is known Russian citizenship can be received in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Law «About citizenship of Russian Federation» issued on 31 May, 2002 and the President's Decree No 1325, from Novem-ber14, 2002. It is quite a complicated bureaucratic procedure like in any other country. In order to receive a Russian passport a person has to live with Residence permit in Russia for 5 years without going out of the country, he has to

1 For example in one of his interviews to the question about ethnic relations in Buryatia he answered: «In Ulan-Ude there became too many Tibetan monks. They left their monasteries in Tibet and India, this is not good. Lamas must not leave their monasteries» [Informpolis, 26 January, 2011. Ulan-Ude].

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pass an exam in Russian and to testify that he can earn money for living. There are several exclusions giving less complicated possibility such as marriage to a Russian citizen. As far as it concerns the Tibetans there are several ways of their naturalization. Some of the Tibetans received citizenship before issuing the Law when the requirementswere not so strict; some have received it in Kalmykia, where Buddhism was supported by the President Kirsan Ilyumzhi-nov and that is why it was much easier than in any other place, and some of them disrobe and marry native girls in order to obtain legitimate rights for staying in Russia. Some of them live with temporal documents - Residence permits. Those with Russian passports can freely travel in Russia and abroad and lead active religious work.

Some of Tibetan monks are good propagators and have acquired lots of monk and lay disciples. Particularly large numbers of disciples and followers have Yelo-Rinpoche and geshe Tinley.

One of the most vivid personalities is Eshe-Lodoi Rinpoche (his abbreviated name is Elo Rinpoche), Tibetan high-ranked monk. Eshe-Lodoi Rin-poche is considered to be the fourth incarnation of Elo-tulku and one of the well educated Tibetan Buddhist monks. He entered monastic school of Goman philosophical faculty of Goman monastery at the age of 6. He escaped from Tibet to India in 1959. From 1959 till 1969 he lived in Buxa Duar settlement in West Bengal. At the age of 20 he received monastic vows from His Holiness Dalai-lama. From 1969 up till 1961 he lived in Dharamsala and worked there as a head librarian at the Tibetan works and archives. In 1979 Eshe-Lodoi Rin-poche obtained the philosophic degree of geshe-lharampa at Goman monastery in India. In 1991 he was sent by Dalai-lama to Mongolia where he was a teacher at the Buddhist university at Gandantekchenling monastery. In 1993 he was invited to Buryatia for restorating Buddhist monastic education and Buddhist religious tradition. He was one of the first Tibetan teachers to come to Buryatia and teach during one of the most difficult period of restoration of the monastic educational system. In 1997 Elo Rinpoche has received Russian citizenship and settled down in Ulan-Ude. He has built one of the largest Buddhist temples in Ulan-Ude that is supposed to become a new centre for the further dissemination of Buddhism in the region. He regularly reads lectures and gives different types of initiations for his numerous disciples. Usually his lectures are published or distributed in electronic versions as well as general literature on Buddhist theory and practice. He is most popular among the population of the Republic and has a lot of followers in different regions of Russia. Several times a year he goes there with missionary purposes.

Also the name of another Tibetan Buddhist monk - geshe Jampa Tinley, the former representative of His Holiness Dalai-lama to Russia is to be mentioned. He came to Russia for the first time in April 1993 and in 1998 has received the Russian citizenship. He was born in 1962 in South India in a family of Tibetan refugees. He has graduated the 7-year courses at Sarnath Institute of Tibetan studies. At 25 he took monk's vows. He knows well English, has learned Russian quite well. In one of his interviews to local newspaper he told

that his main task is to help to revive Buddhism and Buddhist education for monks, to create Dharma centres for the lay people. Due to his proselytising talent his activities are quite successful. He has acquired lots of disciples all over the Russia who consider him to be their guru. The texts of his sermons and lectures have been published in Russian in large editions.

Judging from the activities of Buddhist missionaries in Russia, as well as in Buryatia we observe the emergence not only of a large quantity of just belivers, but of certain communities of educated secular people, interested in Buddhist teaching, united by the same spiritual teacher. This is one of the most vivid results of Tibetan Buddhists monks' activities here and this can also be considered a hallmark of this period.

Tibetan monasteries in Ulan-Ude

There about 20 Tibetans in Buryatia serving mostly at 4 Buddhist temples built by Tibetan monks. Most of them serve at monasteries and small religious centres organized either by themselves or by Buryat monks. Some Tibetan monks rent houses and organise small temples in them, like Tibetan lama Gen-den Gyaltsen (his temple is named as Gundelling). There is no strict attachment to that or this monastery, some of the monks freely serve in several temples together with Buryat monks, often go with religious purposes to different regions of Buryatia or cities of Russia.

The largest of the temples is the temple of a regional Buddhist organization «Tibetan cultural centre «Rinpoche bagsha»«, an independent religious organization that was organized in 2000, registered on 25.01.2001. «Bagsha» is a Buryat word for Indian guru - teacher. The chairman of the centre and the head monk of the temple is a Tibetan Rinpoche (Elo Tulku) - Eshe Lodoi Elo Rinpoche1. As it is said in the registration documents it's main purpose is to con-

1 Venerable Eshe Lodoi Rinpoche was born in Tibet in 1943. At the age of 3 he was recognized as the fourth incarnation of Elo Rinpoche. At the age of 6 he began his monastic education; at 7 he has taken primarily monastic vows, at 11 he began studying Buddhist philosophy. In 1959 he escaped from Tibet to India where he continued his education. In 1963 he received full monastic vows from his Holiness Dalai-lama. After graduating from the Buddhist University in Sarnath he has received an honorary diploma of achariya. Later he served as a chief librarian at the Tibetan Library and Archives in Dharamsala. In 1979 he received highest Buddhist scholarly degree of geshe-lharamba. In 1992 he was sent to Mongolia by Dalai-lama. In 1993 he was sent to Buryatia for teaching at the newly opened Buddhist institute Dashi Choinkhorling. He was one of the first Tibetan teachers who have greatly contributed to the restoration of the process of Buddhist educational system in nowadays Buryatia. He has organized sending Buryat young monks for continuing their education to Goman monastery in India. Beginning from 1996 Elo-rinpoche began missionary activities. He started reading lectures on Buddhist philosophy, explaining to ordinary people and to the believers the fundumentals of Buddhist teaching, giving consecrations and blessings. Little by little a lot of people of various nationalities and professions gathered around him and became his disciples. They officially found a community centre and named it as «Rinpoche

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serve and to spread classic Buddhist teaching and culture of Gelugpa tradition. In 2000 the construction of a new temple was begun by Elo-rinpoche and his disciple geshe-lharamba Tenzin-lama in Ulan-Ude. Elo Rinpoche in 1999 received a blessing and a permission of Dalai-lama for the erection of a temple. It was finished and consecrated in 2004. In its construction financial help was given by different organizations, state and municipal, as well as by numerous followers of Rinpoche and donators.

There are approximately 20 monks in this monastery all together; 3-5 of them are Tibetans. The centre publishes its newspaper (Migjed) and last year it has created its own Web-site1. The temple is being reconstructed and enlarged gradually. The largest statue of Golden Buddha was enshrined in the main temple in 2004, in 2005 eight stupas have been built, in 2009 the first in Russia large Buddhist bell was erected. For the short period of time the temple of Elo-rinpoche became an important religious centre for numerous pilgrims and believers.

Another large monastery has been built by geshe Jampa Tinley2 who also has one of the most numerous communities of disciples. They have built a temple in Ulan-Ude and are building an all-Russian Baikal retreat centre not far from the Baikal lake. In Ulan-Ude he works in close cooperation with Green Tara community3.

bagsha», built a large temple and it became the place where they can gather and receive spiritual guidance. In 2009 and 2010 he led a group of Buddhists to India where His Holiness Dalai-lama gave for the first time special consecrations and teachings for the believers from Russia. He has his followers all over Russia and abroad, he has founded several Dharma centres. He is Professor Emeritus of the Buryat state university. He has written 7 books and a number of articles that were published in Russian.

1 Available from http://elo-rinpoche.ru/

2 Geshe Jampa Thinley was born in 1962 in South India in the family of Tibetan refugees. He has graduated from the Central Institute of higher Tibetan studies in Sar-nath and received shastri degree. In 1994 he became a geshe - doctor of Buddhist philosophy. At the age of 25 received monk's vows. In 1993 he was sent to Russia by HH Dalai-lama as his representative. Since this time all his life is closely connected with Russia and Buryatia and the revival and development of Buddhism. Due to his active missionary work he has acquired many followers all over the Russia. He is a spiritual leader of several Buddhist dharma centres, such as Moscow Buddhist centre of lama tsonkapa, Chenrezi centre in Elista, Manjusri centre in Kyzyl, Tara centre in Omsk, Atisha centre in Irkutsk, Maitreya in Novosibirsk, Tushita in Ufa, etc. All his lectures have been published. In 2004 he disrobed and continues his missionary activities. There are 3-4 registered Tibetan monks serving at this centre. Available from http://www.geshe.ru/

3 Green Tara (Nogoon Dara eke) is an independent religious organization in Ulan-Ude. This community of Buddhists was registered on 01.07.1999. The head of the community is getsulma (Buddhist nun) Tenzin Choidron. Her lay name is Urbanaeva Irina S., she is a doctor of philosophy and works at the IMBTS SB RAS. This community was founded by the initiative of geshe Jampa Tinley.

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Quite popular among the believers are Tibetan medical centres, such as Buddhist medical temple or centre, named as «Sorig oiling». This religious community was found in 2004 by Yamphel-lama (Y amphel Dondup Ganphel Jigme). In 2006 this group has built a new large building for the centre, which serves as a Buddhist temple also. There are approximately 3-4 Tibetans in this community.

All Tibetan temples work autonomously, most of them have their own parish and parishioners, but any other people can freely visit them and address their monks. There is no strict attachment to that or this temple.

On special occassions, for example, Tibetan New year all Tibetan monks come to to the temple of Elo-Rinpoche and express their greetings for the coming year and participate in religious sermons. Also Tibetans gather during large religious ceremonies at the temple of Elo-Rinpoche when they are asked for. The spiritual authority of Elo-Rinpoche is quite high for all the Tibetans here.

Conclusions

There are several reasons of such successful activities of Tibetans in Burya-

tia.

1. The main reason for their success in Buryatia, in contrast to their missionary work in the West, lies in the fact that Buddhism in Buryatia has been a living tradition and has been preserved by the people, especially by the older generation. Despite decades of atheist persecution it was one of the driving forces of national consciousness growth with the beginning of the perestroika period. This made their mission much easier.

2. Tibetan monks were most needed for the restoration of broken lineage of Buddhist tradition of transmissing teaching from a teacher to a pupil. They participated in the revival of most religious monastic sermons and rituals.

3. The Tibetans for more than half a century of immigration and residence in a foreign linguistic and ethnic environment not only have acquired experience of survival, but also improved methods of preaching and missionary work. They have successfully adapted the complex parts of Buddhist teachings, presenting them in a simple and easy to comprehend way. That's why they managed to organize their circle of followers and believers in Buryatia relatively quickly.

4. Many Tibetan teachers can deliver their lectures in English. Moreover, the lamas who settled in Buryatia successfully master the Buryat and Russian languages in which they explain the meaning of key provisions of the Buddhist teachings and communicate with the people.

We can conclude that Tibetan monks took an active part in restoration of Buddhism in Buryatia. Tibetans, as well as Buddhist monks and lay people, have adapted themselves and their monasteries quite well to the modern society, especially if to take into consideration the fact that earlier they lived in secluded monasteries of India and their life differed greatly from modernity. They have quickly accepted the realities and accommodated themselves to the quite

Б. Нацагдорж. Причины миграции бурят в Монголию: на примере ацинских цонг ол-бурят

different structures of the world alien to them and contributed their share in the formation of social and cultural diversity of the Republic. Tibetan diasporiza-tion for those who became Russian citizens in Buryatia as well as in Russia in general has proven to be successful and that it is still in the process of development.

References

1. Buryatskie Letopisi (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorz-hiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. - Ulan-Ude, 1996. - 198 p.

2. Khambo-lama. God zaitsa budet napryazhonnym (The Year of Hare will be tense) // Informpolis, 26 January, 2011. Ulan-Ude.

3. Natsov G.-D. Materialy po Lamaizmu v Buryatii (Materials on Lamaism in Buryatia). - Ulan-Ude, 1998. - 187 p.

4. Toboev, Tugulder. Proshlaya istoriya khorinskikh i aginskikh buryat (Early History of Qori and Aga Buryats) in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. - Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 5-35.

5. Yumsunov, Vandan. Istoriya proiskhozhdeniya 11 khorinskikh rodov (The history of origin of 11 khori tribes). in Buryatskie Letopisi. (Buryat Historical Records). Edited by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev and Ts. P. Vanchikova. - Ulan-Ude, 1996. - P. 36-102.

6. http://elo-rinpoche.ru/

7. http://www.geshe.ru/

Ванчикова Цымжит Пурбуевна - доктор исторических наук, профессор,

Институт монголоведения, буддологии и тибетологии.

Vanchikova Ts.P. - ScD, professor, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan

Studies.

УДК 317.74 © Б. Нацагдорж

Причины миграции бурят в Монголию: (на примере ацинских цонгол-бурят)

В статье исследованы причины и характер миграции в Монголию в начале XX в. ацинских цонгол-бурят, потомки которых ныне проживают в сомо-нах Батширээт и Биндэр Хэнтэйского аймака и сомонах Мунгунморьт и Эр-дэнэ Центрального аймака. Автором выявлены причины этого явления на основе большого объема исторических документов. Ключевые слова: миграция, цонгол-буряты, бурятские казаки.