Научная статья на тему 'The modern concept of team leadership and collective leader team forming'

The modern concept of team leadership and collective leader team forming Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и экономические науки»

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кризис лидерства / концепция командного лидерства / командная роль / психотип / алгоритм формирования команды – коллективного лидера / криза лідерства / концепція командного лідерства / командна роль / психотип / алгоритм формування команди – колективного лідера

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и экономическим наукам, автор научной работы — Kalybayeva Assem Sarmantayevna

Показано, что качественное изменение условий ведения бизнеса стало причиной кризиса научной парадигмы менеджмента, снижения эффективности его основных моделей и методов, одним и проявлений которого стал «кризис лидерства». Обоснована необходимость перехода в современных условиях к концепции командного лидерства. На основании опроса топ-менеджеров казахстанских компаний сделан вывод о том, что на практике эффективность организационных изменений ограничивается исторически сложившимся неоптимальным подбором членов управленческой команды без учёта их психотипов, игнорированием научно обоснованных методов её формирования. Предложен апробированный автором алгоритм формирования команды – коллективного лидера.

It is shown that qualitative change of conditions of business dealing became the reason of crisis of a scientific paradigm of management, to decrease in efficiency of its basic models and the methods, one and which displays there was «a leadership crisis». Necessity of transition for modern conditions to the team leadership concept is proved. On the basis of poll of top-managers of the Kazakhstan companies the conclusion that in practice efficiency of organizational changes is limited to historically developed non-optimal matching of members of management team without accounting of their psycho types, ignoring of scientifically reasonable methods of its forming is drawn. The algorithm of collective leader team forming approved by the author is offered.

Текст научной работы на тему «The modern concept of team leadership and collective leader team forming»

ЭКОНОМИКС. 2014. № 3.

ЭКОНОМИКА ТРУДА И УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ПЕРСОНАЛОМ

UDK: 331. 1:658

A.S. Kalybayeva* THE MODERN CONCEPT OF TEAM LEADERSHIP AND COLLECTIVE LEADER TEAM FORMING

Калыбаева А.С. Современная концепция командного лидерства и формирование команды - коллективного лидера. - Статья .

Показано, что качественное изменение условий ведения бизнеса стало причиной кризиса научной парадигмы менеджмента, снижения эффективности его основных моделей и методов, одним и проявлений которого стал «кризис лидерства». Обоснована необходимость перехода в современных условиях к концепции командного лидерства. На основании опроса топ-менеджеров казахстанских компаний сделан вывод о том, что на практике эффективность организационных изменений ограничивается исторически сложившимся неоптимальным подбором членов управленческой команды без учёта их психотипов, игнорированием научно обоснованных методов её формирования Предложен апробированный автором алгоритм формирования команды - коллективного лидера

Ключевые слова: кризис лидерства, концепция командного лидерства, командная роль, психотип, алгоритм формирования команды - коллективного лидера

Kalybayeva A.S. The modern concept of team leadership and collective leader team forming. -

Article.

It is shown that qualitative change of conditions of business dealing became the reason of crisis of a scientific paradigm of management, to decrease in efficiency of its basic models and the methods, one and which displays there was «a leadership crisis» . Necessity of transition for modern conditions to the team leadership concept is proved . On the basis of poll of top-managers ofthe Kazakhstan companies the conclusion that in practice efficiency of organizational changes is limited to historically developed non-optimal matching of members of management team without accounting of their psycho types, ignoring of scientifically reasonable methods of its forming is drawn . The algorithm of collective leader team forming approved by the author is offered

Keywords: crisis of leadership, the team leadership concept, team role, psycho type, algorithm of collective leader team forming

Калибаєва А.С. Сучасна концепція командного лідерства та формування команди - колективного лідера. - Стаття

Показано, що якісна зміна умов ведення бізнесу стала причиною кризи наукової парадигми менеджменту, зниження ефективності його основних моделей і методів, одним із проявів якого стала «криза лідерства». Обґрунтована необхідність переходу в сучасних умовах до концепції командного лідерства На підставі опитування топ-менеджерів казахстанських компаній зроблено висновок про те, що на практиці ефективність організаційних змін обмежується неоптимальним добором членів управлінської команди без обліку їх психотипів, ігноруванням науково обґрунтованих методів її формування . Запропонований апробований автором алгоритм формування команди - колективного лідера .

* Kalybayeva Assem Sarmantayevna - Master Student of Chair of Economics and Management of Kazakh-British Technical University, Almaty city, Kazakhstan .

Ключові слова: криза лідерства, концепція командного лідерства, командна роль, психотип, алгоритм формування команди - колективного лідера.

The world economy before our eyes is promptly transformed. We live in a world in which the global market environment has undergone really global changes. Literally before our eyes there is a qualitative change of conditions of business dealing.

Until recently economy globalization meant the production efficiency growth which goods are implemented in constantly extending markets . But last two decades the production efficiency growing owing to deepening of processes of the international job specialization, it became impossible to implement because of limitation of the world markets - the marginal level of saturation of commodity markets and services has been reached [1].

Completely not independent participants of the market, and certain sets, coalitions, a generality of the companies having not only similar organizational form and market niches, but also general management structures, and frequently - the same proprietors compete among themselves now These communities, co-operating with each other, are built in a certain hierarchy; they executives are established for themselves by rules of interaction and distribution of functions and borders of segments of the market: they, as a rule, «are not at war», and agree [2; 3].

Conducted by the Swiss mathematicians in 2011 the analysis of capital structures and management of 43 thousand the largest companies of the world working in sector of real economy, has allowed to allocate «kernel» from 1318 multinational corporations which actually supervise them, receiving about 60 % of incomes of their activity. And the majority of financial chains go in a direction of group from 147 multinational corporations; assets are crossed with each other, actually being a common property that provides to this financial conglomerate the control of 40 % of global corporate riches [4]

It is impossible to tell that real economy of the whole world one huge «super corporation»

manages - but it is possible to assert that the prices for goods all over the world are established by several tens multinational corporations on internal markets. Internal / transfer prices system within corporations is not already so much «business unit management system», how many the used everywhere and become method of minimization of taxes (custom duties) used everywhere by the standard business custom and income redistributions between separate groups of shareholders, and also accumulation have arrived in the sales structures registered in zones with the preferential taxation (offshore). «In reality, most of these activities are things that profit-minded business executives should be doing anyway» [5].

«These activities» it has appeared it is so considerable on a global scale that counteraction to it became one of priorities for discussion at a meeting of Ministers of Finance and heads of the Central Banks of countries G20 in July, 2013 on which it has been declared the beginning of the reform of world system of the taxation largest for last hundred years [6].

Now the world economic system reminds a ball interconnected among themselves and consequently difficultly tractable problems A production conclusion in regions with cheap labor power; necessity of provision of continuous growth of consumption for normal functioning of economy; the necessity of the constant credit expansion caused by it which possibilities are already settled; redundancy ofthe financial market and imperfection of risk management practices of financial sector - here their incomplete list

The world is on a threshold of the big shocks, reorganization and changes; in this hover it can remain as early as 10-20 years; however at any moment there can be scale unforeseen events (See, for example, [7]) And the scale of calls of an external environment has changed According to specialists on computer simulation of difficult social and economic systems, the next years there will be

an imposing financial and economic, ecological (climatic), resource (raw) and valuable (social) crises [8].

Qualitative change of conditions of business dealing became the reason of crisis of the management which has become by the reason of change of its scientific paradigm [9; 10] . Still in 1991 Cameron, Freeman and Mishura marked: «Experience of last decades shows that to three quarters of the efforts going on reengineering, total quality management and strategic planning appeared completely unsuccessful» [11]. And in 2007 Rosenzweig has shown that management achievements in many cases are result of «adjustment by authors of the scientific conclusions and results of researches of advanced methods of management of the company under market indicators shown to it» Among the reasons noted by it « the halo effect» - «flagrant violations of main principles of scientific research: identity of correlation and causality; separation of single explanations when try to reveal relative density only one factor; illusion of continuous victories when only successful companies etc.» are exposed to research) the New paradigm of management is, some kind of, attempt of the western authors to keep separate from these» business delusions that deceive managers» [12]

Accordingly, the leadership operating within the limits of an old paradigm, also showed efficiency decrease: already by the XX-th century end the western business has faced leadership crisis [13]. According to Cotter «many companies test an overabundance of management and a leadership lack» [14].

Until recently leadership in management was practically identified with formal obligations of the manager (head): in the literature the person-leader and the manager-head -almost complete synonyms . Leadership was under construction on «status acknowledge-ment» and personal charisma And the tendency ofthe increasing and большего identifications of these concepts was observed [15].

At first sight, the identification of a management and leadership in management

removes the last for group frameworks in wider organizational context

While in other scientific disciplines (philosophy, psychology, sociology) leadership is one of mechanisms of integration of group activity. Being partially blocked by concepts «management», leadership characterizes at the same time and the specific form of relations in group . In psychology leadership is traditionally considered as the relation of domination and submission, influence and following in system of interpersonal relations in group According to this approach, the leader - a member of small group who as a result of intergroup interaction at the specific target decision advances to the forefront, undertaking on functions of the organizer of group activity Thus it shows higher, than others, level of activity, participation, and influence in the decision of the given task. Other members of group accept leadership that is building such relations which assume with the leader that it will lead, and they will be led [16].

The analysis of empirical researches of leadership in management shows that, leadership consideration as organizational process, as a rule, is based exclusively on the results received in small groups [17] at all variety of determinations, approaches and leadership theories, it even at concept use «organizational leadership» is really researched till now exclusively as the group phenomenon . Differently, the leadership phenomenon is reduced to dynamic processes of small group .

Differently, effective the leader of large corporation is, first of all the leader in small group of its top-managers .

And, as have shown researches of modern lines of development of administrative leadership Andersen Consulting, the models of leadership constructed on a principle command, instead of individual leadership all over the world are more and more claimed Research has shown what to connect all characteristics of leadership in one person it is almost impossible - in it one of the reasons of

crisis of leadership . In modern conditions even if it is a question of the small organization, the effective leader is not one person, and successfully developed (or in a special way picked up) a command of managers . So, pledge of success of the leader - management team .

In due time to cast between participants of a command have been considered by Belbin On its idea if the basic function of management -to create from enough chaotic actions, thoughts and desires of people a certain harmonious system which would work on specific goal realization the command acts as a brain of this system, starting, changing and stopping processes in which tens, hundreds, and sometimes and thousand people can participate. Thus at team building it is necessary to consider that each of its members plays a double role The first role, functional, is connected with formal specificity of activity of group and professional компетенций its members The second, which Belbin named «Team role» [18], is much less obvious; however it is essentially important for successful performance . Team role of a team member depends not on vocational training and experience, and from its psycho type.

16 basic psycho types are described by means of four bipolar scales which have been offered by Jung [19]. The standard designations of psycho types represent a combination from four letters . Psycho type of the person is not rigid formation There is a set of situations under which influence in it something changes . In particular, the method of thinking, behavior, the relation to the world, practical skills, and interests can change This process is the adaptive mechanism to the surrounding social world It testifies to an openness of the person as information system to external influences [20].

Speed of change of psycho type essentially more low, than speed of other social and economic processes Therefore to pick up in a command of the employee with the necessary psycho type always easier, than to wait, when it will change .

As has shown our research (poll, 14 Kazakhstan companies with quantity of employees

more than 500), efficiency of organizational changes is limited to historically developed non-optimal matching of psycho types of management team and ignoring of scientifically reasonable methods of its forming.

In practice it, as a rule, means that relations in management team are under construction on principles of rigid submission to the leader who is forced to concentrate almost all administrative functions in the hands; there is no person who could replace it even with short time; work it is complicated by absence in management team of the employees, capable to generate new ideas

For an establishment of psycho types has been used a Keirsey questionnaire. (Online - in each of 70 pairs statements or preferences it is necessary to choose that as seems to you most corresponds to your style of behavior, to a line of action, a decision making method etc. http:// www.socionics . org/test/keirsey asp) Decoding of results of the conducted testing was performed by means of descriptions of the psycho types constituted by Filatova [21]. During research psycho types of all potential participants of project teams have been established.

The following order (algorithm) of collective leader team forming has been offered and successfully approved

At creation by the head of a managing command it is necessary to choose truly, first of all, its two members of «partner» and «the general contractor» (first deputy). Round this administrative triad there is further crystallization of all command All relations between its members are determined by degree of compatibility of their psycho types and degree of conformity of a role in a command to their psycho type

Let's assume, psycho type of the project manager - ENFP (it is «the diagnosis» of the division manager appointed company management received following the results of its answers to a Keirsey questionnaire).

For it an administrative triad it is possible to present optimum model as follows

Fig. 1 Optimum model of an administrative triad of collective leader team for the head with psycho type ENFP.

For roles of «partner» and «the general contractor» two psycho types from 16 are suitable only Having established psycho type of the candidate by means of a questionnaire of Kejrsi, it is possible to eliminate previously 7/8 = 87 % of candidates and operatively to specify, to whom (1-2 persons from ten) it is necessary to pay more steadfast attention. The further work on collective leader team forming is necessary for conducting stage by stage, estimating results of each stage of reorganization .

The list of references

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2. Zelizer V Culture and Consumption / Smelser, N. and R. Swedberg (eds . ) . The Handbook of Economic Sociology. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press . 2005. pp . 331-354.

3. Callon M . What Does It Mean to Say That Economics Is Performative? / MacKenzie D ., Muniesa F. , and L Siu (eds .). How Economists Make Markets . The Performativity of Economics . Princeton: Princeton University Press . 2007.

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5 Ellig J Internal Markets and the Theory of the Firm, Managerial and Decision Economics, 2001 pp 227-237

6. Communiqué. Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors. Moscow, 19-20 July 2013. URL: http://www. en . g 20russia . ru/load/781659263

7. Website John Williams’ Shadow Government Statistics (2013) URL: http://www. shadowstats com/

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