Научная статья на тему 'The issues of designing some speaking techniques'

The issues of designing some speaking techniques Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
EFL / teaching speaking / speaking activities / solutions

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Turdiyeva Nilufar Anvarovna, Mansurova Zarifa Olimjonovna

This article is aimed to describe what teaching speaking English is and the problems faced by the teachers and students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Teachers can create more enjoyable speaking class by doing some activities such as role-play, discussion or some kinds of games to promote students’ speaking ability.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The issues of designing some speaking techniques»

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Turdiyeva Nilufar Anvarovna Teacher, Samarkand institute of economics and service Mansurova Zarifa Olimjonovna Teacher, Samarkand institute of economics and service DOI: 10.24411/2520-6990-2020-11457 THE ISSUES OF DESIGNING SOME SPEAKING TECHNIQUES

Abstract.

This article is aimed to describe what teaching speaking English is and the problems faced by the teachers and students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Teachers can create more enjoyable speaking class by doing some activities such as role-play, discussion or some kinds of games to promote students' speaking ability.

Key words: EFL, teaching speaking, speaking activities, solutions

Speaking is one of the most important and essential skills that must be practiced to communicate orally. By speaking, people are able to know what kinds of situations the world. People who have ability in speaking will be better in sending and receiving information or message to another. Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the uses of verbal and non verbal symbol in various contexts.

The mastery of speaking skill is a priority for many second and foreign language learners. Learners often evaluate their success in language learning of English on the basis how well their improvement on speaking the language. In genuine communication, speaking is purpose-driven or it can say that to communicate is to achieve a particular end, expressing a wish or desire to do something; negotiating or solving a particular problem; or maintaining social relationships and friends, etc. Therefore, it can say that speaking as a skill is playing significant role for the learners who studied English especially as a foreign language ( Febriyanti . 2008).

Speaking skill is one of the language skills that are very essential to support further oral communication especially in English, but it is the most difficult skill to develop. The environment in Indonesia provides less support or exposure for the learners, because English is not spoken in the community. Consequently, owing to minimal exposure to the target language and less contact with native speakers, adult EFL learners in general are relatively poor at spoken English, especially regarding fluency, control of idiomatic expressions, and understanding of cultural pragmatics. Few can achieve native like proficiency in oral communication.

According to Kayi (2006) speaking refers to the gap between linguistic expertise and teaching methodology. Linguistic expertise concerns with language structure and language content. Teaching speaking is not like listening, reading, and writing. It needs habit formation because it is a real communication and speaking is a productive skill so it needs practicing as often as possible.

Traditional classroom speaking practice often takes the form of drills in which one person asks a question and another gives an answer. The question and the answer are structured and predictable, and often there is only one correct, predetermined answer. The purpose of asking and answering the question is to demonstrate the ability to ask and answer the question. In contrast,

the purpose of real communication is to accomplish a task, such as conveying a telephone message, obtaining information, or expressing an opinion. In real communication, participants must manage uncertainty about what the other person will say. Authentic communication involves an information gap; each participant has information that the other does not have. In addition, to achieve their purpose, participants may have to clarify their meaning or ask for confirmation of their own understanding.

Foreign language learners learning to acquire the oral proficiency in the target language may have some problems, both internal and external. Internally, they may experience the feeling of anxiety. They may feel reluctant to use the target language as they may be afraid of making mistakes. They may have the feeling of discomfort using the target language as "it deprives them of their normal means of communication" (Nas-cente, 2001, p.18). Therefore, these matters become the main tasks for English teachers, and in order to provide the guidance to the teaching speaking of English and moreover to develop competent speakers of English, the teachers of English should consider about the problems that may occur in the process of teaching and learning of English as a foreign language and also the activities that give students opportunities to practice language use more freely.

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information. Its form and meaning are depending on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary ("linguistic competence"), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language ("sociolinguistic competence") (Nunan,1999:216)

The learning of language involves acquiring the ability to compose correct sentences and it involves an understanding of which sentences or part of sentences are appropriate for a particular context (Widdowson, 1978:2)

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We do speaking in order to communicate with each other. Better communication means better understanding of others and ourselves. Communication is a continuous process of expression, interpretation, and negotiation. The opportunities for communications are infinite and include systems of signs and symbols (Sa-vignon, 1982:8). Communication requires a sender, a receiver and a medium. It can be said that both hearers and speakers do interactions by giving responds to what they have heard and listened to. Generally, people who encounter others through this oral communication have a certain goal that they want to achieve, the goal that underlies people to do the communication.

Spoken language is a primary phenomenon. We speak a great deal more than we write, that is why language should be taught initially through speech. Spoken language is essential to any language learning. Learning to speak a foreign language is a learning that requires knowledge of the language and its application. In mastering the speaking skill, the teacher must train and equip the learners with a certain degree of accuracy and fluency in understanding, responding and in expressing themselves in the language in speech. Techniques should cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency. In our current zeal for interactive language teaching, we can easily slip into a pattern of providing zesty content-based, interactive activities that don't capitalize on grammatical pointers or pronunciation tips. When you do a jigsaw group technique, playa game, or discuss solutions to the environmental crisis, make sure that your tasks include techniques designed to help students to perceive and use the building blocks of language. At the same time, don't bore your students to death with lifeless, repetitious drills. As already noted above, make any drilling you do as meaningful as possible.

Techniques should be intrinsically motivating.

Try at all times to appeal to students' ultimate goals and interests, to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence, autonomy, and for "being all that they can be." Even in those techniques that don't send students into ecstasy, help them to see how the activity will benefit them. Many times students don't know why we ask them to do certain things; it usually pays to tell them why.

Techniques should encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.

This theme has been played time and again in this work, but one more reminder shouldn't hurt! It is not easy to keep coming up with meaningful interaction. We all succumb to the temptation to do, say, disconnected little grammar exercises where we go around the room calling on students one by one to pick the right answer. It takes energy and creativity to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but with the help of quite a storehouse of teacher resource material now (see recommended books and articles at the end of this work) it can be done. Even drills can be structured to provide a sense of authenticity.

Provide appropriate feedback and correction.

In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the teacher for useful linguistic feedback. (In ESL situations, they may get such feedback "out there" beyond the classroom, but even then you are in a position to be of great benefit.) It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are appropriate for the moment.

Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.

Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include listening. Don't lose out on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As you are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may naturally coincide, and the two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension.

Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication.

A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by teacher initiation of language. We ask questions, give directions, provide information, and students have been conditioned only to "speak when spoken to." Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject. As you design and use speaking techniques, ask yourself if you have allowed students to initiate language.

Encourage the development of speaking strategies.

The concept of strategic competence is one that few beginning language students are aware of. They simply have not thought about developing their own personal strategies for accomplishing oral communicative purposes.

Teaching speaking is a very important part of foreign language learning. The ability to communicate in a foreign language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the learner in school and success later in every phase of life. Therefore, it is essential that foreign language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking by providing students with adequate exposure with the language and with adequate motivation to communicate through it. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired. With this aim, teacher should be aware of the problems that may face in conducting the English speaking class; starts from the problem faced by the students and the teachers, in addition, the problem from the language itself that is not spoken in the community. Therefore, this article proposes some things that should become a consideration and guidelines for teacher before they come in to the class, for instance; what kind of speaking class that they want to have, some principles in teaching speaking, some activities to encourage their students to speak, some principles that they must consider in designing speaking techniques, and some suggestions that they should do in teaching speaking.

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References

1. Emma Rosana Febriyanti. 2008. Teaching speaking of english as a foreign language: Problems and solutions. FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Jl. Brigjend H

2. Nascente, R. 2001. Student anxiety. English Teaching Professional, pp.18-20.

3. Nunan, David. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston, Massachusetts. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

4. Savignon, Sandra J. 1983. Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice, Texts and Contexts in Second Language Learning. Urbana. Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

5. Widdowson, H. G. 1978. Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford University Press.

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