Научная статья на тему 'The importance of motivation in education'

The importance of motivation in education Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
MOTIVATION / PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR / INTRINSIC MOTIVATION / EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION / NEGATIVE MOTIVATION / POSITIVE MOTIVATION / FOSTERING MOTIVATION

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Nazarova Gulchehra Usmanovna, Daminova Gulbahor Oybekovna

The article discusses the role of a teacher as a motivator, also different types of motivations and their important role in education.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The importance of motivation in education»

THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION IN EDUCATION

1 2 Nazarova G.U. , Daminova G.O.

1Nazarova Gulchehra Usmanovna - Candidat of medical sciences, Docent, Head of Department, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL; 2Daminova Gulbahor Oybekovna - Teacher, DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES, PEDAGOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY, ANDIJAN STATE MEDICAL INSTITUTE, ANDIJAN, REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

Abstract: the article discusses the role of a teacher as a motivator, also different types of motivations and their important role in education.

Keywords: motivation, psychological factor, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, negative motivation, positive motivation, fostering motivation.

Relevance of the topic. Teaching and learning foreign languages in Uzbekistan has become very significant after establishment of a degree 18/75 "On measures to further improve foreign language learning system" on December 10, 2012 [1]. Especially, much attention has paid on learning English because it has become a means of communication for people over the world. We know that in order to acquire a foreign language, one should be motivated and be eager to subdue the difficulties. It is the unrejectable fact that motivation and education have a link between each other, both of them are important for human beings. Motivation is defined as a factor that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, expectations of the individual (Business Dictionary). According to scholars definition motivation refers to "the reasons underlying behavior" [4]. Broussard and Garrison [3] broadly define motivation as "the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something".

It is obvious that education never ends. The whole of our life, from the moment we become a newborn child till the moment we leave the world , we acquire the knowledge and observe the world. As it is said "Living is all about learning" and learning process ends when we stop breathing. The ones who encourages us mostly are our teachers. Teachers can be considered sculptors who create an extraordinary and unique statue from a shapeless stone. Teacher is never tired of helping his pupils with his motivation and pure love. While teaching, teachers should take into account some psychological factors which play a dominate role in learning process also to upbring the youth, and assist them to be educated people in society.

What inspires teachers to work and what encourages learners to proceed, of course that is motivation. It is the most essential psychological factor. Those who are motivated, learn faster and effectively. Also, it is clear that motivation is an individual feature, because every person may have different ways of being motivated. As for me , in order to escape from my daily routines and problems, I read motivational quotes which treat me not to give up in any situation and to move only forward. I know that inspirational words and inspirational attitude can change someone's life completely and helps to pursue the goal. As it is said "to be motivated means to be moved to do something" [6].

The motivation can be distinguished :

1. Motivation which pushes us to reach our goals. It happens when someone( teachers parents) helps pupil to feel active and be aroused.

2. Motivation which arise when pupils get different pleasant properties, for example money, excellent grades, gold medals , diplomas and etc

3. Motivation which arise by the help of pupil's own thoughts and expectations.

The third one can be of two types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Former one is based on personal enjoyment, later is based on rewards. Brown [2] claims that extrinsic motivation is weaker than intrinsic due to its addictiveness and dependency: depriving pupils of rewards could lead to dismotivation. However, Brown also argues that some rewards (extrinsic motivation) such as positive feedback from the instructor could increase the level of self-determination (intrinsic motivation). From my viewpoint, both types are essential in education. I use both of them in my work. For example each term I conduct a competition among classes, those who become winners get prizes and the ones who lose get positive feedback. I assume that "losers" will become successful next time by the help of motivation.

I have always seen teachers in the role of a motivator. Those teachers always encourage learners not only to learn by having fun during teaching process, but also to make them feel confidence, improve self-esteem by the help of inspiration. Motivation can be a key factor for effective learning. Lack of motivation could lead you into an unhappy life. Pupils who are without motivation, they cannot make progress and achieve high results in education. Scholar Nation (in Nuetra 1979) divides motivation into primary motivation and secondary motivation. Primary motivation is when pupils are excited while studying and interest comes from the learner, not outside the learner whereas secondary motivation is all about obligation, pupils learn in order to pass a test, to avoid punishment, or to please his parents and teachers. It is deliberated that pupils, who are motivated , are more successful on education.

Obviously, coin has two sides, motivation will either be positive or negative. Positive motivation is a reward for an achievement. For instance, When my pupils write or read with mistakes , I help them to correct their mistakes and try to explain every rule patiently. I never jump into a conclusion and punish them, instead I tend to understand them and put all my effort to develop their knowledge , reward them for their little achievement and expect better results next time. Whereas there is a negative motivation which is a punishment for a poor performance or for studies. For example, my nephew is 6 and goes to karate, last month he lost in a tournament and became so depressed because of his trainer' negative. His motivation has been decreased, even wanted to give up. His school teacher said him that he is best and can be successful, if he practices more. Couple days ago, he became a champion. That is the result of a positive motivation.

Most teachers apply fostering motivation which is significant for students to attain knowledge. Finochiaro (in o'Brien, 1977) [5] advises teachers for fostering motivation as follows:

a) Freedom for fear: e.g. learners should not be shamed or embarrassed if they have not done their homework, if they have errors in assignment or if they cannot response immediately.

b)Understanding: e.g. Teachers must consider the socio - economic, cultural, and emotional background of the learners in order to help them maintain their pride in themselves.

c) Experience: e.g. Learners must engage in a wide variety of activities in order to fulfill their need for thinking, learning, doing or choosing.

d) Love: e.g. the teacher often has to take the role of a substitute parents and be aware of the hunger for affection of the learner who, rightly or wrongly, feels rejected by family or peers.

e) Belonging: e.g. Learners should participate with the class "community" in planning and decision making during the learning process.

f) Achievement and actualization: e.g. Learners should be helped to perfect today what they might have been able to do only continuous feedback of their own aspiration and ideas.

g) Grouping and Individualization :e.g. The teacher should be aware of the level at which each student is capable of operating at any moment in time, of his or her optimal way

of learning, of the time he or she needs to learn and should gear classroom group and individual activities to take all these factors into account.

In conclusion, we would like to stress that fostering motivation helps pupils to put their effort more and will be successful in their studies. Every teacher while teaching should create an opportunity to apply fostering motivation which can be a great strategy for any challenge. Doubtless, his pupils will have a willingness to study more , enjoy more and as a result they will enrich their knowledge better on the subject. Whenever they set a goal, they will behave actively towards a target, experience pleasure, love, actualization and satisfaction.

Discussion above mentioned factors highlight types of motivations, its role and we (teachers) have a dominate role to develop pupils' knowledge by the potential and positive effect of motivation and get great results in education.

References

1. A degree 18/75 "On measures to further improve foreign language learning system" on December 10, 2012.

2. Brown H.D., 2000. Principles of language learning and teaching. New York, NY: Longman.

3. Broussard S.C. and Garrison M.E.B., 2004. The relationship between classroom motivation and academic achievement in elementary school-aged children.

4. Guay F., Chanal J., Rattele C.F., Marsh H. W., Larose S. and Boivin M., 2010. Inrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology.

5. O'Brien M.C., 1977. Motivation: A Historical Prospective. In M. Burt, H. Dulay and Finocchiaro, View Points on English as a Second Language.

6. Ryan R.M. Deci E.L. Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2000.

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