THE EFFECT OF GRAIN PROTEIN CROPS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PIGS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Животноводство и молочное дело»

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Ключевые слова
pea / amaranth / pigs / internal organs / feeding / productivity.

Аннотация научной статьи по животноводству и молочному делу, автор научной работы — Ovsiienko S.

It is proved that the introduction 0.2 kg of pea or amaranth grain into the main diet of growing and fattening pigs as a feed additive increases the average daily gain by 139 120 g, or 33.2 28.6% and does not cause probable changes in structures of different functional zones of the stomach, intestines and internal organs in comparison with control animals

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Ovsiienko S.

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor Vinnytsia National Agrarian University


It is proved that the introduction 0.2 kg of pea or amaranth grain into the main diet of growing and fattening pigs as a feed additive increases the average daily gain by 139 - 120 g, or 33.2 - 28.6% and does not cause probable changes in structures of different functional zones of the stomach, intestines and internal organs in comparison with control animals.

Keywords: pea, amaranth, pigs, internal organs, feeding, productivity.

Statement of the problem. The profitability of pig fattening depends on the average daily gain, feed costs for live weight gain and the quality of slaughter products. These indicators are related to the genetic characteristics of animals and the nutrition balance. It is known that development of bones and muscles prevails in the initial period of pigs fattening, and their growth is slowed down in final. However, live weight of animals increases due to growth of fatty tissue in comparison with muscular one, this fact should be considered at the organization of young growth [1]. Scientists consider it necessary to adjust the amount of protein in the diet for fattening periods because of the intensive development of muscle tissue in pigs up to 6 months of age [2].

A balanced diet of pigs for protein is an important condition for the meat accumulation in carcasses (in the range of 20-21% of meat). Protein is necessary for the formation of other organic compounds of protein nature, i.e., enzymes, hormones, nucleic acids and others, which are very important in the regulation of vital processes in animals [3].

The organization of a complete protein diet in this period is one of the urgent tasks of science and practice. Balancing diets by amino acid composition has become popular, which allows the rational use of constantly deficient protein feeds of plant and animal origin.

The literature review proves that the problem of protein nutrition of pigs is rather relevant and should be addressed through the use of feed with a high content of amino acids. The pigs being monogastric animals need a constant supply of complete protein with the required concentration of essential amino acids.

Protein is one of the main elements of pigs' diet. That's why, it is necessary to pay special attention compiling rations taking into account the existing norms of feeding, which are constantly being improved. The need of pigs for protein depends on the genotype, growth rate, physiological condition and age of the animals and their keeping conditions. Balancing diets at a high level in terms of amino acid composition, availability and absorption of amino acids and energy supply of animals contributes to the rational use of protein feeds of various origins in pork production [4].

Taking into account the differences in the scientific literature on the nutritional value of amaranth grain and methods of its preparation for feeding, we used it as a native feed additive in a crushed state in feeding

pigs in order to research the effectiveness of using amaranth and pea grain as feed additives in the main feed rations for growing and fattening pigs and establishing the effect on the state of their internal organs and phys-icochemical indicators of muscle tissue.

Analysis of recent studies and publications that started solving the problem. The scientifically substantiated addition of fodder crops containing a significant amount of biologically active substances to the diets of farm animals and poultry, depending on the period of ontogenesis, the direction of productivity, maintenance technology and many other indicators, is one of the topical issues of modern agricultural science. Amaranth belongs to grain fodder crops, which are not widespread in Ukraine. However, it is recognized in foreign countries. Its grain accumulates 15-23% of protein, which contains 5.6-11.7 g of lysine per 100 g of protein. The uniqueness of amaranth protein is that it contains almost all essential amino acids in a relatively optimal ratio for animal feeding [5].

In Ukraine, amaranth should be considered both as a source of nutritious vegetative mass and a promising forage crop. According to the literature review, some varieties of amaranth are able to provide a yield of 2560 quintals of grain per hectare [6].

Despite the significant grain productivity and high nutritional value of amaranth seeds, data on the effectiveness of its use in animal husbandry are limited, although there are some studies that examined the methods of rationing, processing and its use for feeding farm animals and poultry [7].

The use of amaranth grain for the preparation of feed for various species of farm animals require special attention. According to A.I. Kotliarov and S.P. Chu-machenko [8], the use of amaranth grain as a component of feed for fattening heifers helped to improve the general condition of animals in the experimental group and led to an average daily gain of 560 g, which is by 8.7% higher than their control group counterparts. Feeding pre-start compound feed with the addition of heat-treated and ground amaranth grain to dairy calves contributed to both the normalization of their metabolic processes and the improvement of the growth processes intensity. The addition of amaranth grain to the diet of calves causes an increase in live weight gain, increases the number of formed elements and the content of hemoglobin in the blood, as well as increases the concentration of plasma protein. Feeding suckling piglets (from 20 days of age to weaning) by compound feed

with amaranth grain contributed to a higher average daily weight gain in the experimental groups for the accounting period by 17 and 20 g (or 5.5 and 6.5%) compared to animals of the control group [9].

The amaranth seeds were used as a feed additive in most experiments carried out on poultry. According to B. Pisarikova et al. [10], the inclusion of amaranth seeds or amaranth seed flour in a mixture with rapeseed in poultry feed increases the preservation of livestock, increases the weight gain of broiler chickens and reduces feed costs per unit of output. The addition of amaranth seed flour to the diet of laying hens by changing the fatty acid composition improves the dietary quality of eggs.

It is widely recommended to use amaranth when fattening pigs. Lraly L. [11], Riadchikov V.I. et al. [12], S.V. Kadyrov, A.V. Sturua [13] consider that the inclusion of amaranth grain instead of wheat in the diets of suckling sows increases the growth rate of suckling piglets by 5.5%, increases the number of erythrocytes in the blood, the concentration of albumin fraction of plasma protein and hemoglobin content. M.H. Hamidov et al. [14] noted that feeding amaranth to sows improves their reproductive capacity and reduces costs per piglet.

In terms of lysine content, amaranth protein is twice as much as wheat protein. Most amaranth proteins are albumins and globulins with a balanced amino acid composition. Amaranth contains 18 basic amino acids out of 20 (both essential and substitute), it is not observed in any traditional fodder crop. The basis of fat is unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Researches have shown that the inclusion of amaranth

in the diet of replacement pigs and sows led to an increase in fertility of sows by 14.2%; reduction of live weight loss of suckling sows by 71%; increase in milk yield by 23.5%; improving the safety of piglets by 2.7%; improving the growth and development of suckling piglets by 8.3%; increase in the growth rate of replacement pigs by 11.1% [15].

The uniqueness of the amaranth grain chemical composition is that it is able to supplement the protein of the main grain forage crops with individual amino acids and improves the level of protein balance in the diets of farm animals.

Intensive animal husbandry is impossible without a strong fodder base and complete fodder. The use of unbalanced diets leads to a decrease in animal productivity, overuse of feed for the production of a unit of production, increase its cost and, ultimately, reduce the efficiency of the industry.

The goal of the work. The goal of the research was to make a comparative assessment of the nutritional value of amaranth and pea grains with pigs feed for rearing and fattening and to study their impact on the internal organs and physicochemical parameters of pig muscle tissue.

Material and methods of research. The research of the productive effect of pea and amaranth grains on slaughter indicators with the influence of their feeding during rearing and fattening pigs, the state of internal organs and morphological parameters of stomachs was carried out on young white breed in the industrial complex for fattening pigs. The main methodological method of staging a scientific experiment on pigs was the principle of analogue groups. Three groups including 15 goals were formed for the experiment (Table 1).

Table 1

Feeding patterns

Group of animals Number of animals in the group, heads Characteristics of feeding by periods

Equalizing, 25 days Basic, 164 days

I - control 15 Basic diet Basic diet + 0.2 kg of barley grains per head

II -experimental 15 Basic diet Basic diet + 0.2 kg of pea grains per head

III - experimental 15 Basic diet Basic diet + 0.2 kg of amaranth grains per head

Feeding rations were compiled in accordance with the established norms for each period. Piglets were weighted individually at the beginning and end of the periods.

The research included one control and two experimental groups of pigs. Comparing the effect of protein grains on the productive effect of dietary feed, the experimental groups of animals were self-control to each other for an additionally agreed approximately equivalent protein component, it allows to objectively analyse the results.

Nine heads were slaughtered to research the slaughter rates at the end of the experiment, 3 heads were selected from each group. The samples were taken for morphological measurements of the wall thickness of the mucous and serous membranes of different areas of the pigs' stomach. The selected samples were fixed

with formalin, the studies were performed on a stereoscopic microscope MBS-9. The obtained data were processed biometrically according to M. Plokhinskyi.

Research results and their discussion. According to the research data, it was found that the animals of experimental group II fed additionally by pea meal had a higher gross weight by 22.8 kg than the control, and the gross gain of pigs experimental group III fed additionally by amaranth meal had a higher gross weight by 19.7 kg (P<0.001) than the control (Table 2).

Changes in the growth energy of pigs under the action of additional feed factors indicate an increase in the metabolic process's intensity in their body. The average daily growth of pigs experimental II group increased by 33.2% (P <0.001), the average daily growth of pigs experimental III group increased by experimental by 28.6% (P<0.001) to the level of 558 g and 539 g against 419 g in the control group, respectively.

Table 2

Indicators of pigs' live weight and its growth during the experiment, M ±m, n = 15

Indicator Group of animals

I - control II - experimental III - experimental

Initial live weight, kg 35.8±0.48 36.7±0.26 37.2±0.25

Live weight at the end of the period, kg 104.5±1.2 128.2±1.24**** 125.6±1.04****

Fodder days 164 164 164

Increase received for the accounting period, kg 68.7±1.25 91.5±0.86**** 88.4±0.83****

Average daily gain: g 419±5.05 558±5.56**** 539±3.46****

% 100 133.2 128.6

Costs per 1 kg of gain:

feed units 6.2 4.7 4.9

exchange energy, MJ 67.3 50.7 52.3

digestible protein, g 598.5 487.5 495.4

The cost of feed units, metabolic energy and digestible protein per 1 kg of live weight gain have reduced in animals of II and III experimental groups. Pigs of the II experimental group consumed by 1.5 feed units, 16.6 MJ of metabolic energy and 111 g of digestible protein per 1 kg of growth less than in the control group, it was 4.7 feed units, 50.7 MJ of metabolic energy and 487.5 g of digestible protein. These rates were the lowest among all groups. Pigs of the III experimental group spent 4.9 feed units, 52.3 MJ of metabolic energy and 495.4 g of digestible protein on the formation of a unit of growth. 416 MJ from barley grain, 428 MJ from peas, 532 MJ from amaranth were spent additionally per 1 kg of live weight gain of pigs. 2.8 kg,

Feeding by additives could have both positive and negative effects on the pigs' body, i.e., on their internal organs and systems. We and veterinary specialists studied their internal organs, including stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, and pancreas during the

6.3 kg and 4.7 kilograms of digestible protein were spent respectively, it corresponds to the cost per 1 kg of increase in metabolic energy, respectively, 6.0, 4.7, 6.0 MJ and 40.6, 68.4, 52.9 grams of digestible protein.

Thus, the addition to the pigs for growing and fattening diet of 200 g of peas and amaranth as feed additives increases the average daily gain, efficient use of nutrients and feed energy by animals. The pea and amaranth grains, as feed additives in the main diet, act as stimulators of metabolic processes in the body of experimental pigs and provide supplementation of rations for basic nutrients in comparison with additionally fed barley grain to control pigs.

Table 3

control slaughter of experimental pigs. However, experts did not find significant deviations of their condition from the norm. We also determined internal organs absolute and relative weight (Table 4).

Table 4

Weight of internal organs of experimental animals, M ± m, n=3

Indicator Group of animals

I-control II - experimental III - experimental

Liver, kg 2.2±0.10 2.3±0.04 2.6±0.07**

Heart, g 0.39±0.05 0.32±0.01 0.36±0.04

Kidneys, g 320±14.7 366±5.9 359±4.4

Spleen, g 159±6.34 170.7±0.08 164±3.1

Stomach, g 671±4.78 700.3±2.37*** 700.0±2.36**

Small intestine

- weight, kg 1.8±0.06 2.15±0.02** 2.23±0.11*

- length, m 20.3±0.62 21.8±0.12 21.5±0.21

Large intestine

- weight, kg 1.7±0.11 1.97±0.03 1.87±0.03

- length, m 4.7±0.11 4.87±0.03 4.93±0.03

Pancreas, g 140±6.18 149±0.94 148.3±1.44

Slaughter rates of experimental animals, M ± m, n=3

Indicator Group of animals

I - control II - experimental III - experimental

Preslaughter weight, kg 110.0±7.64 128±0.47 127±0.47

Slaughter weight, kg 85.9±1.02 98.6±1.95** 97.3±0.39***

Slaughter output, % 78.1±0.85 77.0±1.45 76.6±0.66

Carcass weight, kg 76.0±4.73 87.6±1.51 86±0.97

Carcass output, % 69.1±0.70 68.4±1.16 67.7±0.86

Internal fat, kg 2.2±0.12 2.1±0.05 2.5±0.09

Head weight, kg 5.5±0.11 6.5±0.31* 6.4±0.09***

Feet weight, kg 2.2±0.09 2.4±0.09 2.4±0.03

Carcass length, cm 106.6±4.05 106.3±2.6 106.4±1.91

Fat thickness, cm 3.9±0.75 4.1±0.21 3.9±0.22

According to Table 4 data, the animals of III experimental group had a higher liver weight (P <0.01), it indicates an increase in organ activity associated with greater intensity of metabolic processes in the body.

The animals of II and III experimental groups had greater weight of the stomach by 29.3 g (P <0.001) and 29.0 g (P <0.01), respectively. However, the weight of the organ relative to the live weight of the animals was within physiological limits.

Both small intestine weight and length increased significantly (P <0.01; P <0.05) in experimental groups II and III. The weight of the large intestine and its length was greater in pigs of the II and III experimental groups, however, statistically insignificant (P> 0.05). In the experimental groups there is a tendency to increase the weight of the pancreas.

The differences in the internal organs weight can be associated with a feed factor (peas and amaranth), they were a stimulating sign in increasing the growth

rate of animals and the corresponding adaptive response of their body. According to research data, there is no negative impact of feed additives on the internal organs and digestive tract of pigs. It should be noted that the weight of the internal organs of all animals was within the physiological norm, it is a positive sign of the effectiveness of feeding pea and amaranth grain as feed additives. The quality of pork mainly depends on the breed and is formed under the influence of feeding and keeping factors.

We evaluated the quality of the experimental pigs' meat to compare the productivity of the main products in quantitative and qualitative terms.

When assessing the quality of meat, we paid attention to its physical and chemical parameters (moisture holding capacity, pH, and colour intensity) because their nutritional, culinary and technological properties depend on them (Table 5).

Indicator I -control II - experimental III - experimental

Total muscle moisture, % 77.0±1.41 76.5±0.98 75.5±1.96

incl. free, % 15.8±0.5 16.5±0.62 15.3±0.49

bound, % 64.85±1.82 64.33±0.72 63.77±1.57

Dry matter, % 23.0±1.25 23.5±0.85 24.5±0.62

pH 6.4±0.25 6.17±0.19 6.1±0.14

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Color intensity, E 1000 248±7.54 240±7.12 232±6.6

Table 5

Physical and chemical parameters of pig muscle tissue, M ± m, n=3

The moisture content was slightly lower in the experimental groups than in the control.

This figure is lower by 0.8% in experimental group II, it is lower by 1.08% in experimental group III. There is an increase in dry matter content in pig meat of by 2.1% (experimental group II) and 6.1% (experimental group III), respectively. According to Table 5, the intensity of meat colour was 248 E units (extinction units) in the control group, it is higher by 8 and 16 E units in the experimental groups.

Table 6

Morphological parameters of the stomach of experimental animals, M ± m, n=3

Indicator Group of animals

I - control II - experimental III - experimental

Cardiac zone

Wall thickness, mm 3.89±0.29 3.75±0.49 4.05±0.28

incl. serous-muscular, mm 3.26±0.28 2.94±0.41 3.32±0.26

mucous membrane, mm 0.63±0.04 0.81±0.01* 0.73±0.08

Fundal zone

Wall thickness, mm 2.88±0.17 3.25±0.02** 2.70±0.08

incl. serous-muscular, mm 1.44±0.10 1.60±0.07 1.33±0.09

mucous membrane, mm 1.44±0.08 1.65±0.07 1.37±0.08

Pyloric zone

Wall thickness, mm 6.34±0.22 6.08±0.58 5.52±0.76

incl. serous-muscular, mm 5.12±0.16 4.95±0.52 4.39±0.45

mucous membrane, mm 1.22±0.07 1.13±0.05 1.13±0.04

We have researched the pH of the longest muscle of the pigs back, it was found that the pH value in the carcasses of control group animals slightly exceeded the allowable values for meat category NOR (5.6-6.2) in one hour after slaughter being within normal limits in pigs of experimental groups. Thus, feeding peas and amaranth as feed additives does not affect the pH of meat and is 6.17-6.1 pH units.

According to the research of the stomach morphological parameters, there is a decrease in wall thickness by 0.14 mm in the cardiac zone in animals of the second experimental group, there is an increase in wall thickness by 0.16 mm in the cardiac zone in animals of the

third experimental group (the difference is insignificant) (Table 6).

There is an insignificant thinning of the wall by 0.26 mm in group II and by 0.82 mm in group III in the pyloric zone of the stomach of pigs of the experimental groups. Thus, the use of feed additives from pea (group

II) and amaranth (group III) has no significant effect on the morphological parameters of the stomach.


1. The productive effect of pea and amaranth grain as feed additives provides the average daily gain of live weight of pigs during the period of rearing and fattening at the level of 558-539 g at a cost of 4.7-4.9 feed units per 1 kg of growth and increases the slaughter weight of pigs by 12.7 and 11.4 kg.

2. The use of amaranth grain meal as a feed additive has an effect on increasing the weight of pig liver by 0.4 kg (P <0,01), which indicates an increase in the functional state of this organ associated with greater intensity of metabolic processes in body.

3. As a result, the stomach weight of pigs in the experimental groups was greater by 29.3 g (P <0.001) and 29.0 g (P <0.01), there was an increase in the weight of small (P <0.01; P < 0.05) and the large intestine and its length.

4. Pea and amaranth grains, as feed additives, do not affect the physicochemical parameters of pig muscle tissue.

5. The reaction of the structural and functional parts of the stomach of pigs to the feeding by peas and amaranth had differences in the cardiac and fundal zones. They did not affect the digestive processes; it is confirmed by the results of live weight gain.


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