Научная статья на тему 'The diversity of fatty acid composition in traditional and rare oil crops cultivated in Russia'

The diversity of fatty acid composition in traditional and rare oil crops cultivated in Russia Текст научной статьи по специальности «Биологические науки»

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Аннотация научной статьи по биологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Gavrilova Vera, Shelenga Tatyana, Porokhovinova Elizaveta, Dubovskaya Aleksandra, Kon'Kova Nina

This review is devoted to the description of chemical peculiarities of industrial oil crops cultivated (or prospective for cultivation) in Russia, which are stored in the VIR collection. Different crops have similar fatty acids biosynthesis pathways, but each species has its own individualities in the chemical composition of the oil and its genetic control. The diversity of oil crop chemical composition opens the possibility of its multipurpose utilization practically in all industrial segments. Sunflower, rapeseed, flax, mustard, camelina and safflower are cultivated in Russia as oil crops. Castor beans, perilla, lallemantia and noog are not cultivated on an industrial scale, but have original oil properties and are prospective for future cultivation. Hemp and poppy seeds contain oil valuable for food, but they are not widespread. Cotton and peanut oils are prospective for industrial purposes when early, already created varieties of these crops will be cultivated in Russia. Oil properties depend on the ratio of its basic fatty acids: saturated (stearic, palmitic) and unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic). As a rule, lauric, myristic and palmitoleic acids are determined in minor quantities. The oil of Brassicaceae crops also includes arachidic, eicosenoic, eicosadienoic, behenic, erucic and lignoceric acids. Fatty acids accumulation is influenced by growing conditions, though it has strict genetic control.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The diversity of fatty acid composition in traditional and rare oil crops cultivated in Russia»



The diversity of fatty acid composition in traditional and rare oil crops cultivated in Russia

Vera Gavrilova, Tatyana Shelenga, Elizaveta Porokhovinova, Aleksandra Dubovskaya, Nina Kon'kova, Sergey Grigoryev, Larisa Podolnaya, Aleksey Konarev, Tamara Yakusheva, Natalya Kishlyan, Andrey Pavlov, and Nina Brutch

Federal Research Center N. I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Bol'shaya Morskaya ul., 42-44, Saint Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation

Address correspondence and requests for materials to Nina Brutch, n.brutch@vir.nw.ru


Citation: Gavrilova, V., Shelenga, T., Porokhovinova, E., Dubovskaya, A., Kon'kova, N., Grigoryev, S., Podolnaya, L., Konarev, A., Yakusheva, T., Kishlyan, N., Pavlov, A., and Brutch, N. 2020. The diversity of fatty acid composition in traditional and rare oil crops cultivated in Russia. Bio. Comm. 65(1): 68-81. https://doi. org/10.21638/spbu03.2020.106

Author's information: Vera Gavrilova, Dr. of Sci. in Biology, Chief Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0002-8110-9168; Tatyana Shelenga, PhD, Senior Researcher, orcid. org/0000-0003-3992-5353; Elizaveta Porokhovinova, PhD, Senior Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0002-8328-9684; Aleksandra Dubovskaya, PhD, Senior Researcher, orcid. org/0000-0003-2487-5912; Nina Kon'kova, Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0002-4920-3904; Sergey Grigoryev, PhD, Leading Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0001-7670-4360; Larisa Podolnaya, PhD, Leading Researcher, orcid. org/0000-0002-4962-1989; Aleksey Konarev, Dr. of Sci. in Biology, Chief Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0003-2938-1014; Tamara Yakusheva, Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0002-2661-2377; Natalya Kishlyan, PhD, Senior Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0003-4454-6948; Andrey Pavlov, PhD, Head of Department, orcid.org/0000-0002-5098-4904; Nina Brutch, Dr. of Sci. in Biology, Leading Researcher, orcid.org/0000-0003-2253-6263

Manuscript Editor: Anton Nizhnikov, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Received: August 23, 2019;

Revised: December 3, 2019;

Accepted: January 3, 2020;

Copyright: © 2020 Gavrilova et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the License Agreement with Saint Petersburg State University, which permits to the authors unrestricted distribution, and self-archiving free of charge.

Funding: The work was carried out in the framework of state assignment № AAAA-A19-119013090159-5 to VIR, project No. 0481-2019-0001.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

This review is devoted to the description of chemical peculiarities of industrial oil crops cultivated (or prospective for cultivation) in Russia, which are stored in the VIR collection. Different crops have similar fatty acids biosynthesis pathways, but each species has its own individualities in the chemical composition of the oil and its genetic control. The diversity of oil crop chemical composition opens the possibility of its multipurpose utilization practically in all industrial segments. Sunflower, rapeseed, flax, mustard, camelina and safflower are cultivated in Russia as oil crops. Castor beans, perilla, lallemantia and noog are not cultivated on an industrial scale, but have original oil properties and are prospective for future cultivation. Hemp and poppy seeds contain oil valuable for food, but they are not widespread. Cotton and peanut oils are prospective for industrial purposes when early, already created varieties of these crops will be cultivated in Russia. Oil properties depend on the ratio of its basic fatty acids: saturated (stearic, palmitic) and unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic). As a rule, lauric, myristic and palmitoleic acids are determined in minor quantities. The oil of Brassicaceae crops also includes arachidic, eicosenoic, eicosadienoic, behenic, erucic and lignoceric acids. Fatty acids accumulation is influenced by growing conditions, though it has strict genetic control.

Keywords: oil crops, fatty acids, sunflower, linseed, rapeseed, safflower, mustard, castor bean, hemp, peanut.


Until the second half of the 19th century, flax and hemp were the main oil crops in Russia. Fibre from the stems of these plants was widely used for tissues, ropes and burlap, and edible oil was pressed from the seeds. Confectionery was prepared on the basis of poppy oil. For lighting (burning torches), rapeseed and colza (Bras-sica campestris) oils were used. In the Volga region (Volgograd, Astrakhan region) brown mustard (Brassica juncea), which is one of the main oilseeds in the East (in India and Southeast Asia), was cultivated. Archaeological excavations have shown that in ancient times one of the main oilseeds of the Far East was perilla. Perilla oil hitherto was used in Korea. In 1862 in Alekseevka (Belgorod region) the industrial method of sunflower oil production from seeds was invented. This oil appeared to be tastier than the others and was widespread. Now, sunflower, rapeseed, flax, mustard and safflower are cultivated in Russia. Hemp — the old Russian crop — is restricted to the cultivation of varieties lacking tetrahydrocannabinol. Until 2016 castor bean production was maintained. At the same time, now the growing area of camelina — a very early maturing crop, with a wide area of growth, resistant to salinization, many pests of cabbage crops and other adverse environmental factors — is increasing. The yield of most of these crops in the best

years reaches 10-15 t/ha (FAOSTAT, 2019). Mustard and safflower give up to 7 t/ha, and hemp gives up to 5 t/ ha. Cotton is not cultivated now as an oil crop, but it is a strategically important crop. Promising crops for future cultivation are: noog, perilla, lallemantia, crambe and eruca. The yield of their seeds does not exceed 1 t/ha.

The collection of the VIR Department of Genetic Resources of oilseeds and fibre crops maintains about 29,700 living accessions, including 11,500 oilseeds (sunflower, oilseed cabbage crops, castor beans, rare oilseeds), 16,500 double-use crops (flax, hemp, cotton) and about 700 accessions for industrial purposes only. Most folk-bred oilseed varieties contain 33-40 % oil in seeds. As a result of breeders' work, high-oil sunflower varieties were created, containing up to 56 % oil in seeds (and up to 60 % oil in the kernel); up to 45-53 % oil in flax seeds; 45-48 % oil in rapeseed; 50-60 % oil in peanuts; 33-39 % oil in safflower (in the kernel — up to 50-56 %). The main components of oils are fatty acid triglycerides. The oil properties are determined mainly by the ratio of saturated (stearic and palmitic) and unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) fatty acids. These fatty acids are contained in oil that is considered edible. Oil containing a high amount of long-chain acids (over 22 carbon atoms) is suitable only for industrial use.

In the process of fatty acid synthesis, the elongation of the carbon chain is influenced by two synthetases, which are complex enzyme systems. One of the synthetases extends the carbon chain from C16 to C18. The other synthetase extends the carbon chain from C18 to C30. The formation of double bonds occurs under the control of the desaturase enzyme system. Oleic (C18:1) and eru-cic (C22:1) acids contain one double bond. Two double bonds are characteristic of linoleic acid (C18:2). Linolenic acid (C18:3) has three double bonds. The action of elon-gase and desaturase in linolenic acid leads to the formation of arachidonic acid (C20:4), which has four double bonds (Krasilnikova et al., 2004).

The most detailed principle scheme of fatty acids biosynthesis and its genetic control was developed using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Ohlrogge and Browse, 1995; Schmid, 2016). The substrate for the synthesis of saturated stearic acid (C16:0) is Acetyl-CoA, which is modified by a multi-enzyme complex. The elongation of the carbon chain to 18 atoms to form palmitic acid (C18:0) occurs under the action of the gene FAB1 (Fatty Acid Biosynthesis 1). The FAB2 gene, encoding the desaturase enzyme, is responsible for the formation of oleic acid (C18:1). Two genes, FAD (Fatty AcidDe-saturase): FAD2 (C18:1^C18:2) and FAD3 (C18:2^C18:3), are responsible for the desaturation of non-chloroplast lipids in Arabidopsis, and chloroplast lipids desaturation is controlled by five genes: FAD4 and FAD5 (C16:0^C16:1), FAD6 (C18:1^C18:2), FAD7 and FAD8 (Q^C^s). However, different plants have their own characteristics

of fatty acid composition and peculiarities of its genetic control.

Industrial crops for oil production

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. family Asteraceae).

The best sunflower varieties of traditional use for oil have the following fatty acid composition: 1.0 % stearic acid, 1.2 % palmitic acid, 10.8 % oleic acid, 70.0 % linoleic acid, and 1.0 % linolenic acid (Tab. 1). Modern devices and methods of evaluation make it possible to expand the range of quantitative evaluation of fatty acids in oil. A. Chernova et al. (2019) presented data on the content of 11 fatty acids (C12-C24) in oil. However, the percentage content of the minor acids ranging in the interval of 0.002 %- 0.003 % has no effect on the qualitative characteristics of sunflower oil (Demurin et al., 2016). Mutants with a high content of palmitic acid up to 25 % (Perez-Vich, 2002) or with a high content of stearic acid (~25 %) (Fernandez-Martinez et al., 2004, 2007) were created. It was supposed that the high content of palmitic acid in sunflower oil is controlled by several recessive alleles: one in the line 275HP (Ivanov et al., 1988) and three in the line CAS-5 (Perez-Vich et al., 2002). One recessive allele Es (Perez-Vich et al., 2006.) controls the high content of stearic acid in the CAS-14 line.

With the help of chemical mutagenesis K. I. Solda-tov et al. (1976) obtained a mutant sunflower form with an oleic acid content of about 70 %. The increased content of oleic acid prevents rancidity of the oil, which is essential for storage and is of special importance for the canning industry. This amount of oleic acid is controlled by a single dominant OL gene (Demurin and Borisenko, 2011). The presence of modifying genes in the genotype increases the content of oleic acid up to 80 % and even 90 % (Miller et al., 1987). Other authors consider that the trait of high oleic acid content is determined by three dominant complementary genes (Fernandes-Mar-tines, 1989; Perez-Vich, 2002) or five OL genes (Velasco et al., 2000). It was later shown that the increased content of oleic acid correlates with the expression of the gene FAD2-1, which determines the synthesis of the desaturase enzyme and conversion of oleic acid to linoleic (Schuppert et al., 2006). Most likely, evaluation of the inheritance of genes controlling the synthesis of desaturase enzymes will help to understand the genetic control of fatty acids in the sunflower. Over time, it turned out that more balanced oil with a medium amount of oleic acid is more practical. Thus, a line with 69 % oleic acid in oil was created (Demurin et al., 2016).

Safflower (Carhtamus tinctorius L. family Asteraceae). Safflower is widely used as an oilseed, colorant and fodder crop. Seeds contain 35-50 % oil and 15-20 % protein. Safflower oil differs from sunflower oil in fatty acid composition, but its taste is softer and more neu-


Table 1. Fatty acids composition of the oil in representatives of the family Asteraceae (sunflower, safflower, noog) in the VIR collection

Number of the VIR catalog Name Origin Place and year of growth Fatty acids. % of total amount of oil Reference

12:0 14:0 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:1 c11 18:2 18:3 20:0 22:0

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

2051 Perdovik VNIIMK Krasnodar r. 1970 - - 6.8 - 5.5 27.3 - 60.4 - - - Ermakov etal., 1982

3453 VIR 114 B VIR Krasnodar r. 2016 0.01 0.05 5.35 0.09 6.21 41.67 0.38 44.60 0.04 0.58 1.04 own data

2194 Sputnick VNIIMK Krasnodar r. 2016 0.02 0.01 3.46 0.05 3.65 39.01 0.35 52.18 0.08 0.39 0.80 own data

LG 26 VNIIMK Krasnodar r.2017 - 0.04 5.20 0.12 4.80 83.62 - 3.13 0.10 0.48 1.77 Demurin etal., 2016

LG 26 VNIIMK Krasnodar r.2014 - - 4.7 - 4.7 88.2 - 2.4 - - - Demurin et al., 2016

LG 27 VNIIMK Krasnodar r.2017 - - 4.2 - 3.4 65.9 - 26.5 - - - Demurin et al., 2016

LG 27 VNIIMK Krasnodar r.2014 - 0.03 4.77 0.06 5.05 62.68 - 24.34 0.09 0.38 1.70 Demurin et al., 2016

Safflower (Carhtamus tinctorius L.)

309 N17 Israel Uzbekistan 1969 9.7 3.8 10.4 76.5 Ermakov et al., 1982

317 47-53 Australia Uzbekistan 1969 8.9 2.7 11.7 76.7 Ermakov et al., 1982

280 Local China Uzbekistan 1969 6.2 3.0 13.2 79.0 Ermakov et al., 1982

21 Afghanistan Krasnodar r. 2001 9.3 1.9 19.9 68.9 Nizova etal., 2008

262 Milutinskiy 114 Uzbekistan Krasnodar r. 2001 8.1 1.7 14.3 75.9 Nizova etal., 2008

262 Milutinskiy 114 Uzbekistan Krasnodar r. 2003 6.8 1.8 11.9 79.5 Nizova etal., 2008

Noog (Guizotia abyssinica L. F.)

40 Valencia Spain Moscow r. 1988 - - 10.2 - 8.2 13.9 - 66.7 0.6 Nizova etal., 2008

41 K. o. Portugal Moscow r. 1988 - - 8.8 - 7.7 11.2 - 71.8 0.5 Nizova etal., 2008

Note: «-» fatty acid was not detected; Ci2:o Laurie acid. C 14:o Myristic acid. C 16:0 Palmitic acid. C 16:1 Palmitoleic acid. C 18:o Stearic acid. C 18:i Oleic acid.C 18 C 183 Linolenic acid. C 2o:o Arachidic acid. C 22:0 Behenic acid.

Cis-vaccenic acid. C 18:2 Linoleic acid.



tral. Safflower oil can contain up to 88.3 % linoleic acid, 19.9 % oleic acid, 9.3 % palmitic acid, 2.3 % stearic acid and 0.2 % linolenic acid (Minkevich, 1939). The high content of essential linoleic acid in the oil makes saf-flower oil valuable for nutrition (Tab. 1). Safflower is also an unpretentious oilseed due to the fact that it can be grown in the arid conditions of steppe regions, which allows farmers to make a profit without the use of complex farming techniques. It was shown that the composition of fatty acids in safflower oil is affected by the genotype and the place of cultivation, but the most important factor is the temperature. Higher temperatures contribute to higher contents of oleic acid, but a lower amount of linoleic acid (Dergisi, 2007).

In India in 1957, a safflower line was isolated with oil containing 64-83 % oleic acid and 12-13 % linoleic acid. Knowles and Hill (1964) conducted a hybridologi-cal analysis and found out that the ratio between oleic and linoleic acids was regulated by the main locus of the OL gene. The OLOL genotype determined the synthesis of 72-80 % linoleic acid in oil, and olol controlled the increased content of oleic acid (72-80 %). In 1964 in Palestine, a safflower line was found with seed oil containing about 43 % oleic acid, but it had in its genotype neither OLOL nor olol. Genetic analysis showed that the portion of oleic acid in the seed oil of this line was determined by one allele, ol1, which is located in the same locus as the alleles OL and ol, while the genotypes ol1ol1 and OLol1 provided approximately equal amounts of oleic and linoleic acids (Knowles et al., 1964, 1965; Burkhardt et al., 1971). In 1989, the authors reported that OLOL and olol genotypes were more tolerant to temperature changes than the ol1 gene. At the highest temperature in the genotypes ol1ol1 and OLol1 linoleic acid content was slightly reduced, and that of oleic acid was proportionally increased (Knowles, 1989; Liu et al., 2016).

Mutants with a high content of stearic acid (5-12 %) were found among accessions from Israel and Russia. They had the same mutations at the st locus, which was independent of the ol gene (Ladd and Knowles, 1970, 1971). A safflower mutant was found in Portugal with linoleic acid contents in oil between 85 and 90 %, which was 10 % higher than the standard high linoleic type. The levels of all other fatty acids were reduced. This phe-notype was controlled by the gene li, different from the loci ol and st (Futehally, 1982).

Later, in safflower an unusual large family of FAD2 genes was also found (Cao et al., 2013). Ct-FAD2-1 and CtFAD2-10 are encoding oleic acid desaturases, specific for the ripening seeds and flowerhead, respectively. CtFAD2-5 and CtFAD2-8 are expressed in root tissues, while CtFAD2-3, 4, 6, 7 are common mainly for cotyledons and hypocotyl of young safflower seedlings. It was found that CtFAD2-9 encodes a new desaturase running on substrate C16:1. CtFAD2-11 is a three-

functional enzyme capable of a double bond formation between carbon atoms in the cis or trans configuration, or a triple (acetylene) bond between carbon atoms in oleic acid, which converts it to linoleic acid. The authors believe that these 11 FAD2 genes are not allelic and probably have evolved through gene duplication at several hierarchical levels (Cao et al., 2013).

Noog (Guizotia abyssinica L. family Asteraceae). The oil content of noog seeds in different accessions of the VIR collection ranges from 37 to 44 %. It can contain up to 71.8 % linoleic acid, 13.9 % oleic acid, 10.2 % palmitic acid, 8.2 % stearic acid and 0.6 % linolenic acid (Tab. 1). Noog oil is characterized by the predominance of linoleic acid and a nutty flavor.

Rapeseed (Brassica napus (L.) subsp. oleifera Metzg. family Brassicaceae). Rapeseed oil includes fatty acids with carbon atom chains of 12 to 24, among which are saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids (Tab. 2). Many acids are synthesized in an amount of less than 1 % of total oil volume, and about 95 % of oil is formed by palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), gondoinic or cis-11-eicosenoic (C20:1) and erucic (C22:1) acids. Among the long-chain acids the most abundant one is monounsaturated erucic acid, which is not digested by mammalian enzyme systems. Without breeding aimed at specific oil fatty acid composition, the erucic acid content may vary widely, for example, from 13 % in the Fedorovsky variety (k-4680) to 51 % in the Snitynsky variety (k-4688) (Nizova et al., 1999).

In the 1960s, Canadian researchers found a rape-seed mutant that does not contain erucic acid in its oil (Stefansson et al., 1961). Modern agricultural standards in Russia allow the content of erucic acid to make up no more than 5 % of rapeseed oil used for food purposes (GOST 31759-2012), but in reality, the released varieties contain less than 1 % erucic acid. The initial breeding lines do not form erucic acid, but in industrial cultivation of the varieties and hybrids of rapeseed, a certain amount of erucic acid is synthesized. Erucic acid synthesis is controlled by two genes with five alleles for each one. Recessive allele e determines the synthesis of less than 1 % erucic acid in the total amount of oil, Ea forms 10 % erucic acid, Eb — 15 % erucic acid, Ec — 30 % erucic acid, Ed — 3.5 % erucic acid (Krzymanski and Downey, 1969).

Oil of varieties with a high content of erucic and eicosene fatty acids (55-60 %) is considered to be industrial and is used for the manufacturing of varnishes, paints, lubricants, in the production of polymers and synthetic fabrics, in the soap and perfume industry, for the production of methyl alcohol and as diesel fuel (Gavrilova et al., 2005a, b). With a decrease in the erucic acid content in the oil, oleic acid is accumulated up to 60-65 % (Tab. 2). It brings rapeseed oil quality close to

Table 2. Fatty acid composition of the oil in representatives of the family Brassicaceae (rapeseed, camelina, eruca, mustard) in the VIR collection

Number of the VIR Name catalog Origin Place and year of growth Fatty acids. % of total amount of oil Reference

12:0 14:0 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 20:0 20:1 20:2 22:0 22:1 22:2 24:0 24:1

Rapeseed (Brassicanapus ssp. oleífera Metzg.)

5236 WRG-156 Ukraine Moscow r. 2015 0.05 0.03 4.56 0.49 4.04 65.56 20.77 2.94 0.30 0.91 0.00 0.08 0.12 - 0.07 0.07 own data

4765 Lenora Germany Moscow r. 2009 0.06 0.00 4.00 0.10 0.90 21.40 10.40 1.80 0.50 9.90 0.00 0.30 50.40 - 0.20 0.00 own data

5460 Germes Belarus Tambov r. 2017 0.05 0.01 2.82 0.06 2.61 70.72 18.14 3.86 0.35 0.87 0.04 0.18 0.17 - 0.07 0.06 own data

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz)

170 Moscow Moscow r. 1988 6.7 2.0 15.7 19.3 35.3 0.0 16.1 1.9 2.1 Nizova et ai., 1999

253 Penza region Moscow r. 1988 5.4 2.2 14.0 17.3 40.9 0.8 13.9 1.4 3.1 Nizova et ai., 1999

519 Germany Moscow r. 1989 6.2 2.3 15.4 20.5 33.0 1.8 14.1 1.9 3.2 Nizova et ai., 1999

Eruca (Eruca sativa L.)

327 USA Tambov r. 1999 - - 5.9 - 0.6 11.0 10.1 12.6 0.5 10.3 0.6 - 46.8 0.2 1.4 - Nizova and Konkova, 2008

Leningrad r. 1999 - - 3.5 - 0.8 9.5 7.6 12.3 0.7 7.4 0.5 - 55.1 0.4 2.2 - Nizova and Konkova, 2008

Mastard (Brassica junceae L.)

2881 Local Volgograd region Ukraine 1977 - - 2.6 - 1.3 21.9 20.5 13.5 - 15.9 - 1.8 20.7 - - - Ermakov et ai., 1982

3979 Local India Ukraine 1977 - - 2.2 - 1.1 12.5 17.2 12.3 - 9.7 - 0.1 41.0 - - - Ermakov et ai., 1982

Note: «-» fatty acid was not detected.

that of olive oil. Increasing the oleic acid proportion is the goal of many breeding groups. For example, breeders of the Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops, using the method of chemical mutagenesis, have created a variety of spring rape, Amulet, with 77.5 % oleic acid in the oil (Gorlov et al., 2015).

Canadian scientists have increased the content of oleic acid in rapeseed oil to a level significantly higher than that of existing varieties. Their work confirmed the exact number of alleles of the FAD2 gene found in B. na-pus. By detailed genetic analyses and sequencing, they have found that there are four alleles of the FAD2 gene in the rapeseed genotype. By combining the properties of each individual fad2 allele, they formed the optimal combination of alleles for the creation of new rape-seed lines with oleic acid content increased up to 86 % (Nath et al., 2016). The use of traditional breeding approaches and biotechnological methods made it possible to increase oleic acid in rapeseed up to 89 % (Sakhno, 2010).

In rapeseed it was found that the synthesis of linole-nic acid can occur two different ways: by direct desaturation of oleic acid (C18:1) forming linoleic acid (C18:2) and then producing alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3), or by desaturation of short-chain acid with 12 carbon atoms followed by the elongation of the carbon chain (C16:3 and then C18:3) (Brar and Thies, 1978). The ratio of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids is controlled by the FAD3 gene (Bocianowski et al., 2012).

Mustard (Brassica junceae L. family Brassica-ceae). This species is also known as brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard. The oil content of mustard seeds ranges from 29 to 42 % in different accessions of the VIR collection. A special feature of mustard oil is the presence of eicosenic acid (C20:1) — up to 17 % — and erucic acid (C22:1) — up to 40 % of all unsaturated acids (Tab. 2). Behenic acid (C22:0) is present in a small amount (about 1 %). In spite of the presence of long-chain fatty acids, mustard oil is edible. Breeding of the crop is aimed at the reduction of the amount of erucic acid, and mutant lines without it were obtained — Zm1and Zm2 (Nizova et al., 1999)

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) family Brassica-ceae). Camelina is also known as gold-of-pleasure or false flax, also occasionally wild flax, linseed dodder, German sesame and Siberian oilseed. This crop belongs to the group of plants containing oil with linolenic and eicosenic acids dominating. The content of the main fatty acids in camelina oil in the VIR collection is: palmitic acid 5.4-6.7 %, stearic acid 2.0-2.3 %, oleic acid 14.0-15.7 %, linoleic acid 17.3-20.5 %, linolenic acid 33.0-40.9 %, eicosenic acid 13.9-16.1 % (Tab. 2). The ratio of fatty acids in camelina oil differs significantly from the oils of other oilseed crops of the family Brassicaceae,

not only by its low amount of erucic acid (1.3-4.5 %), but also by its significant amounts of saturated fatty acids, more than 13 % (Ghamkar et al., 2010). Camelina oil is characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (more than 70 %) and a sufficient amount of monounsaturated fatty acids, up to 35 % (Nizova et al., 1999). Camelina oil is resistant to oxidation due to the presence of tocopherols, which are powerful natural antioxidants. For technical purposes, camelina oil is used as a raw material for the production of environmentally friendly biodiesel (Nagornov et al., 2014).

Eruca (Eruca sativa L. family Brassicaceae). Eruca is characterized by high (up to 55 %) erucic acid content (Tab. 2). A low (36.5 %) content of erucic acid was found in VIR accession k-338 from Pakistan. For almost all accessions evaluated in 1999 in the Leningrad region, the percentage of erucic acid was higher than for that of the Tambov region. For some accessions, for example, k-337 from the United States, the differences were statistically significant. With an increase in erucic acid content, there was a decrease in the amount of both saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic) and unsaturated ones—oleic and linoleic acids. The linolenic acid content was not changed, and the amount of lignoceric acid (C24:0) increased.

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. family Linaceae). Linum has varieties for various purposes and is used to produce both fibre (flax) and oil (linseed). Seeds contain 40-53 % oil and up to 30 % protein. Flax oil contains five basic fatty acids: two saturated — palmitic (5-7 %) and stearic (3-4 %) and three unsaturated — oleic (16-20 %), linoleic (14-17 %) and linolenic (50-60 %) (Tab. 3). Lin-olenic acid (C18:3) prevails in the oil of most accessions, due to which linseed oil has unique healing and technical properties, but at the same time it contributes to rapid oil oxidation and complicates the use of the oil in the food industry (Kutuzova et al., 1998, Gavrilova et al., 2005a).

In the process of fatty acids synthesis in flax, the carbon chain elongation from C16 to C18 occurs under the influence of synthetase encoded by the FAB1 gene. The formation of double bonds occurs under the control of the desaturase enzyme system, which is encoded by the genes SAD1 and SAD2, and converts stearic acid into oleic acid. Each SAD gene contains three exons and two introns; SAD1 length is 3626 bp, and SAD2 is 2519 bp. Both genes encode proteins of 396 amino acids with a homology of 91 % for the genes sequences and 99 % for the protein structure. For SAD1, four isoforms are known, and the first one, A (three alleles with synonymous replacements), is present in almost all 120 accessions of the Canadian flax collection, evaluated for their fatty acid compositions (Thambugala et al., 2013).

The next stage of desaturation, which forms linoleic acid (C18:2), is controlled by genes FAD2A and FAD2B.


Tabel 3. Fatty acid composition of the oil in flax, hemp, poppy, perilla, lallemantia in the VIR collection

Number of the VIR catalog Name Origin Place and year of growth Fatty acids. % of total amount of oil Reference

16:0 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 18:3(9) 20:2

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) family Linaceae L.

gc-159 1-1 from k-7659 (Bionda, Germany) VIR Leningrad r.2011 4 3 23 18 52 Porokhovinova eta.I., 2017

gc-136 1-1 from k-6634 (Mermilloid, Check) VIR Leningrad r. 2011 5 5 15 14 62 Porokhovinova et al., 2019

gc-119 I-2-3 from k-6210 (NP (RR) 38, India VIR Leningrad r. 2011 5 4 34 17 39 Porokhovinova et al, 2019

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gc-394 I-3 from i-595808 (Linola, Canada) VIR Leningrad r. 2017 5 4 20 37 34 Porokhovinova et al., 2019

gc-523 1-8-1 from i-595808 (Linola, Canada) VIR Leningrad r. 2017 6 4 17 67 6 Porokhovinova et al., 2019

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) family Cannabaceae L.

407 Monoicous (South) Hungary Moscow r. 1965 8.1 2.0 15.8 53.3 2.2 18.7 0.0 Ermakov et al., 1982

407 Monoicous (South) Hungary Moscow r. 1966 9.2 2.4 17.0 48.0 5.0 20.0 0.4 Ermakov et al., 1982

48 Local Central Russian Oriol region Moscow r. 1965 7.4 2.2 15.2 56.9 1.4 16.0 0.9 Ermakov etal., 1982

48 Local Central Russian Oriol region Moscow r. 1967 6.9 2.4 14.4 56.4 1.8 17.9 0.4 Ermakov etal., 1982

Poppy {Papaversomniferum L. family Papaveraceae)

2077 Voronezhskiy 1042 Russia Leningrad r. 1970 9.8 2.4 15.7 71.8 Ermakov etal., 1982

2276 Przhevalskiy 133 Kirgizia Leningrad r. 1970 9.0 2.1 8.8 80.1 Ermakov etal., 1982

Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britl. and ocymoides L. family Lamiaceae)

324 Amurskaya 12 Primorsky region Rostov r. 1972 5.8 1.3 15.3 11.8 65.8 - - Ermakov etal., 1982

249 VNIIMK 141 Krasnodar region Rostov r. 1972 5.9 2.2 19.6 12.7 59.5 - - Ermakov etal,. 1982

Lallemantia (Lallemantia ibérica F. et M. family Lamiaceae)

11 VIR 11 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1960 6.3 2.0 16.2 12.8 62.7 - - Ermakov etal,. 1982

64 Tall 26 Rostov region Rostov r. 1971 6.8 1.8 18.1 12.7 60.5 - - Ermakov etal., 1982

Note: "-" fatty acid was not detected; Ci2:0 Laurie acid, C 14:o Myristic acid. C 16:0 Palmitic acid, C 16:1 Palmitoleic acid, C 18:o Stearic acid, C 18:i Oleic acid, C 18:i cn 183 Linolenic acid. C 20:o Arachidic acid. C 22:0 Behenic acid.

Cis-vaccenic acid, C i8:2 Linoleic acid. C



Linolenic acid (Ci8:3) is formed under the influence of genes FAD3A, FAD3B and FAD3C. FAD3A and FAD3B genes, having 3280 and 3002 bp respectively, contain six exons and five introns and encode proteins of 391 and 392 amino acids. The similarity of these gene sequences is 85 % and similarity of the protein sequences is 94 %. The size of the genes differs due to indels from 1 to 29 bp, located in introns. For the FAD3A gene, six isoforms are known, four of which do not lead to inactivation of the enzyme. The first one, A (eight alleles with synonymous substitutions), is the most common; isoforms B, C, E (one to two alleles) are rare. Isoforms D and E have lost their functionality due to nonsense mutations. For FAD3B, seven isoforms are known. Of them, five do not lead to inactivation of the enzyme. These are isoforms A (four alleles), D (eight alleles), G (seven alleles) E and F (two alleles). Only two isoforms do not give a complete product. They are B — due to the nonsense mutation in the first exon and C — due to the replacement of histi-dine by tyrosine in the first His-box of the active center of desaturase. All accessions with genes forming inactive product were obtained by EMS-mutagenesis (Thambu-gala et al., 2013).

The first varieties with a low amount of linolenic acid content (solin) appeared only in the late 1970s in Canada (Green, 1986). They contained about 2 % linolenic acid and were double recessive homozygotes of the complementary genes ln1 and ln2 (lufad3a and lufad3b). Then other varieties were bred, as descendants of the Linola variety, or created independently of it. These varieties are widely cultivated, but patented and practically inaccessible for scientific research (Brutch et al., 2016).

Thus, two groups of varieties were formed: high-linolenic, containing in oil 30-70 % linolenic acid, and low-linolenic, having about 3 % linolenic acid (Tab. 3). For a healthy diet, it is important to achieve an optimal ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids. For a normal diet this ratio should be 5-10/1, and for a therapeutic diet — 3-5/1 (Rational Nutrition..., 2008). Most of the varieties have a ratio of ~0.25/1. Therefore, for food use, and especially for the production of full-fat flour from seeds, it is necessary to reduce the content of linolenic acid. In the low-linolenic varieties bred to date, this ratio is 13.224.6/1. Thus, neither traditional (containing too much linolenic acid) nor low-linolenic (synthesizing too little of it) flax varieties give the optimal ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Genes fad3a andfad3b (ln1 and ln2) are considered valuable for flax breeding, since they encode desaturases that convert linoleic acid into linole-nic acid, necessary for industrial oil, but undesirable for food (You et al., 2014).

Now varieties with a medium content of linolenic acid are gaining popularity. Their oil can be stored longer than oil with a high amount of linolenic acid, but it is more useful than oil with a low amount. One of the

first varieties of that kind was Raciol (Czech Republic, AGRITEK), which has approximately the same amount of linoleic and linolenic acids (Tejklova et al., 2011). A line with a decreased content of linoleic and linolenic acids in the oil due to an increase of oleic acid was created in VIR (Prokhovinova et al., 2019) (see Tab. 3).

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. family Cannabaceae Lindl.) Hemp is characterized by a balanced content of linoleic (about 50 %) and linolenic (about 20 %) acids (Tab. 3). Due to this, hemp oil is not oxidized as quickly as linseed oil. Linolenic acid is represented by both omega-6 (0.2-5.0 %) and omega-9 (14.4-20.2 %) forms. In addition to that, hemp oil contains a small amount of eicosadiene (C20:2) acid. This fatty acid composition is extremely useful for nutrition.

The nutritional value of hemp oil is determined not only by its fatty acids composition, but also by the ratio between separate components or their groups between themselves (Grigoriev and Illarionova, 2015). The ratio of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in hemp oil is approximately 2/1. The presence of tetraunsaturat-ed cis-6,9,12,15 octadecatetraenoic omega-3 fatty acid makes hemp oil unique. The content of alpha-linolenic and, to a greater extent, gamma-linolenic acids in oil varies depending on the geographical location of hemp cultivation: the minimum content of these substances was found in seeds produced in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation, and the maximum content — in seeds from the Siberian Federal District. Changes in the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of hemp seed oil can be traced from the Southwest to the East of Russia (Shelenga et al., 2011).

Poppy (Papaver somniferum L. family Papav-eraceae Juss.). The poppy is a very polymorphic species. The oilseed poppy is a subspecies, Eurasiaticum (Veselovskaya, 1975). European forms of poppy are low in morphine and are cultivated for food purposes. Oil poppies are mainly cross-pollinated, so this subspecies is very diverse in morphological characters — the color of flowers, seeds and the shape of capsules. Poppy oil has excellent taste, and the absence of linolenic acid in its composition allows the oil to be stored for a long time. The oil is obtained by pressing or extraction. Cold pressing gives approximately 30-35 % of the light-yellow oil, which is used for food purposes. After hot pressing (at 115 °C), the oil is dark yellow or reddish and is used only as a refined product (Salunkhe and Desai, 1986). For food, not only is poppy oil used, but also the whole seeds, as a supplement to bakery products.

Poppy accessions with dark seeds have 37-50 % oil, including breeding varieties with 44-50 %; forms with light seeds have more oil, 43-56 %. The oil content in the seeds also depends on the growing conditions. Increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers lead to an increase in seed yield and protein content, and oppositely affect oil con-

tent (Kutuzova et al., 1998). Poppy seed oil contains 65 % linoleic acid, 25 % oleic acid and 6-10 % saturated fatty acids. Table 3 shows the fatty acid composition of oil in poppy varieties with contrasting levels of oleic and lin-oleic fatty acids (Ermakov et al., 1982).

Breeding of oilseed poppies in the USSR began in the 1930s, but as it was a crop of bilateral use (food and medicinal), special attention was paid to the increase of the morphine content in dry capsules. Due to the increase of drug addiction in the 1980s, the direction of breeding was changed to the creation of poppy varieties exclusively for food use. Currently in Russia two opiumfree low-alkaloid varieties of poppy for oilseeds and confectionery use have been released.

Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.) and lalleman-tia (Lallemantia iberica Fisch et Mey) family Lamia-ceae. In the oil of minor crops perilla and lallemantia, as in flax oil, linolenic acid (60.5 %-62.7 %, Tab. 3) is dominating. Unfortunately, the properties of these oils have not been evaluated sufficiently. On the territory of the Russian Federation, perilla is a prospective crop in the Far East, while in other areas it is impossible to obtain a seed yield. Seeds retain germination ability for only one year. Lallemantia is capable of producing seeds in the southern regions of the Russian Federation.

Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. family Eu-phorbiaceae). Castor bean seeds contain up to 70 % oil. This oil thickens in the air, but is not covered by film and is not oxidized. (Moshkin, 1980). The oil is dense, viscous (18 times more viscous than sunflower oil) and non-drying, with a low pour point (-18° to -22 °C). Castor oil dissolves in alcohol and by this feature differs from other vegetable oils, but it does not dissolve in mineral oil and gasoline, does not affect rubber and does not leave any residue when burned. The oil contains palmitic acid (0.9-1.5 %), stearic acid (1.4-2.1 %), linoleic acid (2.5-6.5 %), oleic acid (3.1-5.9 %), ricinolenic acid or ricinoleic acid (C1sH34O3) (Tab. 4). Ricinoleic acid (12-OH-delta 9-18:1) has one unsaturated bond, a high molecular weight and a low melting point (5 °C). Ricin-oleic acid is synthesized on the basis of the oleic acid under the unusual action of the gene fad2, and makes up 85-95 % of castor oil (Ohlrogge and Browse, 1995). These properties of castor oil make it an indispensable lubricant for engines operating in severe conditions, namely in rocket engines and rocket technology, in the Far North, in precision instruments and watches and in hydraulic brake fluid. Castor oil is used for the production of high quality varnishes and paints, plastics, artificial fibres, printing inks, rubber, insulation materials, toilet soap, textile (for impregnation and etching of fabrics) and in the leather industry (for greasing leather), not to mention its use in perfumery (for aromatics and lipstick) and medicine, where castor oil (or ricin oil) is used as a bactericidal agent and a strong laxative, as well

as in the manufacture of various ointments. In India, it is used for lighting, as it gives white non-smoking flame (Moshkin, 1980).

Castor bean plants contain the alkaloid ricinin (CgH802N2), the monocyclic pyrimidine derivative with a cyanide group. The initial substance for its biosynthesis is nicotinic acid. For humans, ricinin is of low toxicity, but moth caterpillars die from it. Accumulation of ric-inin occurs in the vegetative organs, and then in generative parts. The seeds accumulate the poisonous protein ricin, which belongs to the phytotoxins, the most poisonous proteins. The degree of its toxicity is comparable to that of the tetanus, botulism and diphtheria toxins. Both ricinin and ricin do not get into the oil and remain in oilcake or meal, so castor oil is not toxic.

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. family Pedalia-ceae). Sesame is an oil crop grown all over the world. Sesame is one of the few oilseeds for food purposes with the highest content and quality of oil. Sesame seeds contain 50-64 % oil, up to 27 % protein and 20 % carbohydrates. Among the 369 Sesamum species, the oil content ranges from 27.89 % to 58.73 %, and the protein content ranges from 16.72 % to 27.79 % (Li et al., 2014). Sesame oil is stable due to the presence of natural antioxidants such as sesamolin, sesamin and sesamol (Anilakumar et al., 2010). Sesame oil contains 46-49 % oleic acid, 38-41 % linoleic acid, 8-9 % palmitic acid, 4-5 % stearic acid and 0.4-1 % arachidonic acid. The ratio of the two main fatty acids (oleic and linoleic) is almost ideal, 1/1 (Tab. 4) (Bedigian and Harlan, 1986; Anilakumar et al., 2010). Sesame oil produced by cold pressing seeds is a food product with high taste qualities. By hot pressing, oil for technical purposes is obtained, for example, for the production of mascara. From white sesame seeds, tahini oil is obtained, which is used in the production of various sweets.

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. family Fabaceae). Peanut oil forms 44-56 % of dry seed weight and consists of various fatty acids. Essential fatty acids include oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic (C20:0), behenic (C22:0), lignoceric (C24:0) and gadoleic (C 20:1) acids (Chen et al., 2010). Peanut oil contains about 80 % unsaturated fatty acids and 20 % saturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are presented by 42 % oleic and 37 % linoleic acid (Tab. 4) (Wang et al., 2015). Tests of 10 peanut accessions from our collection revealed 15 fatty acids. Contents of some of them did not exceed 1 %, including palmitoleic or hexadec-9-enoic acid (C16:1). Hypogaeic (hexadec-7-enoic) acid is a specific compound of peanut oil which was found in the middle of the previous century (Hoerr and Osol, 1956). This acid is also found in human breastmilk, and can be important for the production of baby food. But unfortunately, now scientists do not pay attention to this substance in peanut oil.

Number of the VIR catalog Name Origin Place and year of growth Fatty acids. % of total amount of oil

14:0 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:1 12-OH 18:3 20:0 20:1 20:2 Reference

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. family Pedaliaceae)

901 Belosemanniy M-7 Tajikistan Uzbekistan 1967 9.8 5.5 40.0 44.0 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.7 Ermakov etal., 1982

775 Local Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1967 10.2 5.7 39.8 40.0 0.5 0.5 0.2 3.0 Ermakov etal., 1982

865 Local Iran Uzbekistan 1967 11.0 5.1 40.6 41.2 0.3 1.7 Ermakov etal., 1982

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. family Fabaceae)

172 Local Brazil Uzbekistan 1966 11.2 2.2 39.0 41.9 1.3 1.7 2.8 Ermakov etal., 1982

322 Tashkentskiy 112 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1966 11.7 3.2 40.3 39.4 1.1 3.5 0.8 Ermakov etal., 1982

555 India Krasnodar r. 2016 0.01 8.5 0.1 2.2 53.3 27.4 0.06 1.2 1.7 own data

Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. family Euphorbiaceae)

936 VNIIMK165 Krasnodar r. Krasnodar r. 1969 1.5 - 1.6 4.2 6.4 84.3 0.8 - 0.6 Ermakov etal., 1982

1152 Chervonaya Krasnodar r. Krasnodar r. 1969 1.1 - 1.3 4.0 4.3 87.8 0.6 - 0.5 Ermakov etal., 1982

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) family Malvaceae

3811 108 F Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 25.9 - 3.0 20.1 49.1 Ermakov etal., 1982

5795 Stoneville 213 USA Uzbekistan 1973 0.7 22.8 - 2.5 18.5 54.8 Ermakov etal., 1982

5936 Acala 4-42 USA Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 25.8 - 2.6 19.2 50.6 Ermakov etal., 1982

6033 Deltapine 16 USA Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 28.3 - 2.4 16.4 51.3 Ermakov etal., 1982

6419 Acala 1517-v USA Uzbekistan 1973 1.0 30.1 - 3.0 18.2 46.3 Ermakov etal., 1982

6420 Acala 1517- BR USA Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 22.5 - 2.4 17.3 55.9 Ermakov etal., 1982

Egypt cotton (G. barbadense L.) family Malvaceae

6110 C-6030 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1973 0.9 25.9 0.9 3.0 19.9 49.2 Ermakov etal., 1982

6350 Giza-7 Egypt Uzbekistan 1973 0.7 27.4 0.7 2.9 18.5 49.7 Ermakov etal., 1982

4969 01 Pima 67 USA Uzbekistan 1973 0.9 27.9 1.2 3.6 13.0 53.1 Ermakov etal., 1982

2462 Type 4 D-O. S. I. St. Vinsent Trinidad and Tobago Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 23.4 0.8 3.6 22.2 49.1 Ermakov etal., 1982

4783 9078-I Turkmenistan Uzbekistan 1973 0.8 23.7 0.4 2.9 20.9 51.1 Ermakov etal., 1982

Note: "-"fatty acid was not detected; Ci2:o Laurie acid, C 14:o Myristic acid, C 16:0 Palmitic acid, C 16:1 Palmitoleic acid, C 18:o Stearic acid, C 18:i Oleic acid, C 18:2 Linoleic acid, C 183 Linolenic acid, C 2o:o Arachidic acid, C 20:1 Eicosenic acid, C 22:0 Behenic acid, C12-0H 18:1 — Ricinoleic acid.


Peanut oil with a maximum content of linoleic acid is vulnerable to oxidation, which leads to an unpleasant smell, taste and short expiration of oil and other peanut products. The third major fatty acid is palmitic (C16:0) acid, which is about 10 % of the total oil content. The remaining 10 % are minor fatty acids (Wang et al., 2015). In general, human consumption of peanut oil with a high content of oleic acid and a low content of linoleic acid is preferable, because it reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing the level of low-density lipoproteins in the blood (Vassiliou et al., 2009). In this regard, the identification of the first peanut mutants with a high level of oleic (80 %) and low level of linoleic (2 %) acids — F435-2-1 and F435-2-2 — was a breakthrough in improvement for peanut oil quality (Norden et al., 1987).

The content of oleic acid in peanuts is controlled by two recessive genes, ol1 and ol2 (Moore and Knauft, 1989). Modifier genes involved in the synthesis of oleic acid at medium and low levels were later found (Lopez et al., 2001). Mercier et al. (1990) discovered that additive effects are more important than non-additive effects in the inheritance of oleic and linoleic acids levels and their ratios. Intermediate and high estimates of these characters' heritability showed the possibility of their improvement in the original peanut population (Singkham et al., 2010). The stage of seed maturity also affects oleic acid content (Golombek et al., 1995; Hinds, 1995).

The ratio between oleic and linoleic acids in most commercial peanut varieties varies ranges from 1/1 to 2.5/1 (Lopez et al., 2000), while the mutant F435 has a ratio of about 35/1 (Norden et al., 1987). This high-oleic phenotype had two recessive mutations ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B (Moore et al., 1989; Jung et al., 2000). In 20102016 in India, crosses were made between peanut accessions with low, medium and high levels of oleic acid. The results confirmed that the enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation of oleic to linoleic acid is encoded by the genes FAD2A and FAD2B (Gangadhara and Nadaf,

2016). Also, it was found that this enzyme is encoded by two homologous genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) located in A and B subgenomes, respectively. Both FAD genes have 99 % sequence homology and inactivation of corresponding enzyme results in high oleic acid content in mutants due to replacement (G: C by A: T) and insertion (A: T) of one base pair in FAD genes located in subgenomes A and B, respectively (Chen et al., 2010). These mutations lead to the accumulation of more oleic acid and the reduction of linoleic and palmitic acids, which improves oil quality by increasing storage life. Molecular mapping of peanut oil content and fatty acid composition was recently performed (Shasidhar et al.,


Cotton (Gossypium L. family Malvaceae). Cotton is a major world fibre crop. It is cultivated to a differ-

ent extent in 89 countries in the tropical and subtropical zones. The main producers of this crop are India, the USA, China, Pakistan and Uzbekistan (FAOSTAT, 2019). Cotton fibre is the outgrowths of the seed ex-otestal—unicellular trichomes. Fibre makes up 30-40 % of the seed weight; 2/3 of the raw cotton yield falls on the actual seeds, which also find different applications, primarily as a source of vegetable oil for food and technical purposes.

Cottonseed oil contains 40-55 % linoleic acid, 18-30 % oleic acid, 20-25 % palmitic acid, up to 1.2 % palmitoleic acid, 2-7 % stearic acid and a small amount of myristic and arachidonic acids. A distinctive feature of the Malvaceae family is the presence of cyclopropane acids in the oil. Cottonseed oil contains from 0.5 to 2 % malvalic, sterculic and dihydrosterculic acids. The content of tocopherols is 0.92 mg/g, including 55.4 % alpha and 44.6 % gamma (Dowd, 2015). A distinctive feature of all cotton types is the presence of small glands in the plant organs containing fat-soluble gossypol. Gossypol is a polyphenolic terpenoid that has a significant influence on how the seed is processed and used. Gossypol in cottonseed is of particular importance, as the compound responsible for anti-nutritive and toxicity issues associated with the overfeeding of cottonseed products. This pigment makes up 1-2 % of cotton seeds, so oil intended for food purposes must be refined and deodorized. Oil is produced by pressing and extraction. It is used to produce salad oil and frying oil, margarine, mayonnaise and lard substitute.

In the 1970s the fatty acids composition of some accessions of the VIR cotton collection was evaluated. We present here data on accessions grown in 1973 (Tab. 4). Already from this small example it can be seen that the collection presents all kinds of cotton fatty acids composition. Interestingly, the species Gossypium barbadense L. differs from G. hirsutum L. by the presence in its oil of palmitoleic acid, which reaches 1.2 %. The absence of references on this acid in the bibliography is probably based on the fact that analyses were made mainly of medium-fibre cotton, the most common and in demand.

Active work is currently underway on identification of the genes responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids, as well as attempts to transform them in order to reduce the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase the content of linoleic acid (Liu et al., 2002). American scientists in 2001 reported the creation of transgenic cotton plants with high oleic acid content in seeds (Liu et al., 2002). These plants were obtained by transformation mediated by Agrobacterium for suppressing the expression of the cotton fad2 gene and introducing the mutant allele of the soybean fad2 gene into the cotton genotype. The increase of oleic acid content to 47 % was achieved due to the decrease of linoleic acid.


Different oil crops are characterized by their own fatty acids composition. At the same time, among the different accessions of each crop there is a hereditary diversity of each fatty acid content. A significant change in the fatty acids composition leads to changes in oil utilization. Representatives of the oil crops of the Asteraceae family have a similar fatty acids composition with a predominance of oleic or linoleic acids and the absence of long-chain fatty acids with 20, 22 and 24 carbon atoms. Linolenic acid in the oil of these crops is practically absent. Oil becomes inedible either due to the high content of long-chain fatty acids, as it is in representatives of the Brassicaceae family, or because of the presence of toxic compounds like in castor oil. All crops presented in the article can be cultivated on the territory of the Russian Federation. Currently, the area of industrial crops are known for sunflower (6-7 million hectares annually), rapeseed (about 700 thousand-1 million hectares), flax (700 thousand hectares), mustard (up to 150 thousand hectares), camelina (140 thousand hectares) and saf-flower (up to 400 thousand hectares). Industrial cultivation of hemp, which is now permitted and is developing, now exceeds 3.5 thousand hectares. The castor bean is a prospective and strategically important industrial crop. Cotton, noog, peanuts, sesame and lallemantia are promising for future cultivation.


The work was carried out in the framework of state assignment № AAAA-A19-119013090159-5 to VIR, project No. 04812019-0001.


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