Научная статья на тему 'The consideration of foot posture index in Russian soccer players 10-12 years old'

The consideration of foot posture index in Russian soccer players 10-12 years old Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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Ключевые слова
Foot posture index / Foot morphology / Soccer players / Adolescents

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Hosseinikhezri S. A., Zakharova A. B.

Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb to consider the structural status of the foot is effective in the process of training, implementation skills and preventing injuries in soccer player adolescents. Aim. The aim of the study was to understand the foot posture characteristics of Russian soccer players and determine the foot posture characteristics of 10-12 years old soccer players foot structure. The obtained data clearly indicated that there was no inappropriate position of foot in both leg. Just, calcaneus position (-0.07±1.27) was in inappropriate situation. This variable can influence on teaching and performing technique in soccer players. Knowing this result can help the teacher for improving or resolving all limitation in early ages. Reform feet should be done in children because in upper age is more than impossible to reform feet structure. Also, understanding the structural status of the foot is effective in the process of training and preventing injuries of adolescents. Methods. The overall FPI, obtained as the sum of the scores of its six individual criteria, was determined in 18 soccer players10-12 years old in static bipedal stance and relaxed position. Results. The Mean ± SD Foot Posture Index scores ranged from (-0.07 ± 1.27 to 1.67±0.48) in the left foot and (0.00 ± 1 to 1.67±0.48) in the right foot. Conclusion. The result of this study showed that foot posture of soccer players 10-12 years old are in normal situation. This can be useful for coaches and parents to prepare appropriate program to learn more effectively and faster and also safety condition for preventing injury in future. There was an appropriate structure of the both foot in soccer players adolescents. Also, there was an inappropriate structure of calcaneus of the left leg.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The consideration of foot posture index in Russian soccer players 10-12 years old»

olympic-sex-verification-you-say-you-are-a-woman-that-should-be-enough.html; Katrina Karkazis, Rebecca Jordan-Young, Georgiann Davis, and Silvia Camporesi,"Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes." American Journal of Bioetbhics 12(7) (2012): 3-16; Juliet Macur, "Who qualifies to compete as a woman? A fight continues." New York Times (August 6, 2017): http://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/04/sports/olymp[ics/ gender-dutee-chand--india.html; Sarah Teetzel, The onus on inclusivity: Sport policies and the enforcement of the women's category in sport." Journal of the Philosophy of Sport. no 41(1), 2014. pp. 113-127. Availed as:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2013.858394.html

11. Quoted in Coakley. op. cit., 181.

12. Alice Dreger. "Where's the rule book for sex segregation?" New York Times. August 21, 2009.

Submitted: 21.01.2018 Received: 25.01.2018

Availed as:

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/22/sports/22runnerh tml

13. Longman. op. cit.

14. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes preparation based on a complex assessment of functional state. In

Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus).

15. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Recerve Capacity of young Athletes' Organizm. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

Author's information:

Jeffrey O. Segrave - PhD, Department of Health and Human Physiological Sciences, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, e-mail: jsegrave@skidmore. edu

For citations: Jeffrey O. Segrave. Challenging the gender binary in sport: the special cases of caster semenya and dutee chand, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 125-129. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_296

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_297

THE CONSIDERATION OF FOOT POSTURE INDEX IN RUSSIAN SOCCER PLAYERS

10-12 YEARS OLD

Hosseinikhezri S.A. - Postgraduate Zakharova A.B. - Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, House 19, Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia

E-mail: Khosseynikhezri@urfu.ru

Abstract. Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb to consider the structural status of the foot is effective in the process of training, implementation skills and preventing injuries in soccer player adolescents. Aim. The aim of the study was to understand the foot posture characteristics of Russian soccer players and determine the foot posture characteristics of 10-12 years old soccer players foot structure. The obtained data clearly indicated that there was no inappropriate position of foot in both leg. Just, calcaneus

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018

_ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

position (-0.07±1.27) was in inappropriate situation. This variable can influence on teaching and performing technique in soccer players. Knowing this result can help the teacher for improving or resolving all limitation in early ages. Reform feet should be done in children because in upper age is more than impossible to reform feet structure. Also, understanding the structural status of the foot is effective in the process of training and preventing injuries of adolescents. Methods. The overall FPI, obtained as the sum of the scores of its six individual criteria, was determined in 18 soccer players10-12 years old in static bipedal stance and relaxed position. Results. The Mean ± SD Foot Posture Index scores ranged from (-0.07 ± 1.27 to 1.67±0.48) in the left foot and (0.00 ± 1 to 1.67±0.48) in the right foot. Conclusion. The result of this study showed that foot posture of soccer players 10-12 years old are in normal situation. This can be useful for coaches and parents to prepare appropriate program to learn more effectively and faster and also safety condition for preventing injury in future. There was an appropriate structure of the both foot in soccer players adolescents. Also, there was an inappropriate structure of calcaneus of the left leg. Keywords: Foot posture index, Foot morphology, Soccer players, Adolescents.

Introduction. The technical gestures characteristic of certain sports may lead to one type of foot being more prevalent than the others. Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb(Levinger et al., 2010). Rath et al(Ruas, Minozzo, Pinto, Brown, & Pinto, 2015) have reported that deviating foot posture has been shown to cause inefficient motion when performing athletic skills such as running or jumping. Otherwise, resulting in decreased physical activity and work time lost in addition to substantial medical costs(Murphy, Connolly, & Beynnon, 2003).

A key consideration when interpreting these findings is the reliability of the foot posture measures. Previous studies have indicated that frontal plane calcaneal measures have questionable

reliability(Wrobel & Armstrong, 2008), while FPI reliability is moderate to good, depending on the clinical experience of the assessor(Barton, Bonanno, Levinger, & Menz, 2010).

Identifying unique structural, mechanical and other contributing factors related to this fracture would be important for planning targeted preventive measures, as well as management strategies and footwear design following an injury. Nevertheless, scientific evidence to support such contributing factors is inconclusive, although

possible anatomical risk related elements have been described(Hetsroni et al., 2010).

However, using an objective measure that does not require any subjective interpretation may be important to include as part of foot posture assessment. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) has been used as a diagnostic tool for support postures in various sports, but the differences in these postures between sports of distinct gestures in their actions are far from completely understood.

There is a lack of study which considering about foot posture index in soccer players adolescents. As interposition specialization starts at the early age, the understanding of foot posture of soccer players adolescent is of high importance for coaches as well as for sports teachers. The aim of this study is to consider the foot posture index of Russian soccer players 10-12 years old.

Methods. In this descriptive study using the FPI-6, 18 children football players were measured and their feet were classified according to foot posture index (FPI) as neutral, supinated and pronated. The 6 items of the FPI include talar head palpation, curves above and below the lateral malleoli, calcaneal angle, talonavicular bulge, medial longitudinal arch and forefoot to rearfoot alignment. Each item was scored on a 5-point scale between -2 and +2 and provides a total sum of all items between -12 (highly supinated) and +12 (highly pronated). The raw FPI scores were converted to Rash transformed scores to allow the scores to be

used as interval data(Keenan, Redmond, Horton, Conaghan, & Tennant, 2007).

In the most cases there will be a consistent pattern of scores and the clinical picture will be immediately clear. However, in some cases there will be a dominance of motion occurring in one of the three body planes or difference between the function of the forefoot and rear foot.

The foot segment and the body plane measured by each of the observation are indicated on the FPI data sheet. This allows the FPI to provide substantially more information than existing single segment/single plane assessment techniques. The obtained results were processed by means

of standard statistical procedures for determining the basic descriptive statistical parameters - mean (X) and standard deviation (SD). The basic descriptive parameters of foot posture characteristics of the whole group are presented in table 2 (Foot Posture Index).

Results. The average of scores have shown that, there is an inertia in the left calcaneus bone (-0.47±1.27). calcaneus position in right leg is in normal situation. The Tallos left lef (1.67±0.48), right leg (1.53±0.63), Maleol left leg (0.87±0.83), right leg (0.73±1.03) and Talunavi left leg (0.47±1.06), right leg (0.53±1.12) in right and left leg has a normal situation.

Table 1. Descriptive data from foot posture index in both leg of soccer players

10-12 years old m±sd (n=18)

FPI M±SD

Left leg Right leg

Talous head 1.67±0.48 1.53±0.63

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Maleol 0.87±0.83 0.73±1.03

Calcaneus -0.07±1.27 0.00±1

Talunavi 0.47±1.06 0.53±1.12

Forefoot 0.93±0.70 0.80±0.67

Toe 1.67±0.48 1.53±0.51

Discussion. The objective of this paper was determination of the foot posture characteristics and determination of foot structure in soccer players 10-12 years old. The obtained data clearly indicated that there was no inappropriate position of foot in both leg. Just, calcaneus position (-0.07±1.27) was in inappropriate situation. This variable can influence on teaching and performing technique in soccer players. Knowing this result can help to teacher for improving or resolving all limitation in early ages. Reform feet should be done in children because in upper age is more than impossible to reform feet structure. Also, Understanding the structural status of the foot is effective in the process of training and preventing injuries in adolescents.

Angela M et al(Evans, Rome, & Peet, 2012) have reported, relevant measures of foot posture are important for such assessments to be accurate over time. Researchers have measured the magnitude of the impact force. They studied 150 kicking actions performed by 15 elite soccer players by using mobile sensors and high-speed video. In 39% of the kicking actions, the plantar flexion angle exceeded the maximum static plantar flexion angle. They have found that, spur formation in anterior ankle impingement syndrome is related to recurrent ball impact, which can be regarded as repetitive micro trauma to the anteromedial aspect of the ankle(Tol, Slim, Van Soest, & van Dijk, 2002). In the sample of healthy, asymptomatic children age 7 to 15 years, children with a more pronated foot type exhibited greater lower limb and whole-body flexibility, but not greater ankle joint flexibility. There was strong agreement between lower-limb and whole-body flexibility. This study highlights the importance of assessing the pediatric flat foot in the context of a developing body(Hawke, Rome, & Evans, 2016). Otherwise, In an extensive study on the reliability of foot position in children (4-6 years), adolescents (8 - 15 years) and adults (20 - 50 years), it was

131

reported that the reliability of measures of foot position in children were reduced when compared to adults, with raters commenting that children remained less still between repeated measures(Evans, Copper, Scharfbillig, Scutter, & Williams, 2003). The reduced reliability of measures of foot position in children was also known in a later study looking at the intra-rater reliability of measuring anthropometric characteristics of children's feet(Morrison, Durward, Watt, & Donaldson, 2005). The method of measurement is important to recognize the amount of inappropriate position of foot in adolescents.

Finally, we could mention that, knowing the structure of foot posture in adolescents can be useful for planning and teaching different type of technique in soccer players. It has been recognized that all aspect of body should be in right situation to learn more accurately.

Conclusion. The result of this study showed that, foot posture of soccer players 10-12 years old are in normal situation. This can be useful for coaches and parents to prepare appropriate program to learn more effectively and faster and also safety condition for preventing injury in future.

Table 2: Foot posture Index sheet score

scale

Talar Head Palpation

Curves above and below lateral maleol

Inversion/o version of the

calcaneus

Bulge in the region of the TNT

Congruence of the medial longitudinal arch

-2

+1

+2

1

0

Abduction/a dduction of forefoot on rear foot

Figure 1: Foot posture refrences

Highly supinated -5 to -12

Supinated = -1 to -4

Normal = 0 to +5

Pronated = +6 to +9

Highly pronated +10

References

1. Barton C. J., Bonanno D., Levinger P., Menz H. B. (2010). Foot and ankle characteristics in patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case control and reliability study. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, no 40(5), pp. 286-296.

2. Evans A. M., Copper A. W., Scharfbillig R. W., Scutter S. D., Williams M. T. (2003). Reliability of the foot posture index and traditional measures of foot position. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, no 93(3), pp. 203-213.

3. Evans A. M., Rome K., Peet L. (2012). The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study. Journal offoot and ankle research, no 5(1), p. 1.

4. Hawke F., Rome K., Evans A. M. (2016). The relationship between foot posture, body mass, age and ankle, lower-limb and whole-body flexibility in healthy children aged 7 to 15 years. Journal of foot and ankle research, no 9(1), p. 14.

5. Hetsroni I., Nyska M., Ben-Sira D., Mann G., Segal O., Maoz G., Ayalon M. (2010). Analysis of foot structure in athletes sustaining proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture. Foot & ankle international, no 31(3), pp. 203-211.

6. Keenan A.-M., Redmond A. C., Horton M., Conaghan P. G., Tennant A. (2007). The Foot Posture Index: Rasch analysis of a novel, foot-specific outcome measure. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, no 88(1), pp. 88-93.

7. Levinger P., Menz H. B., Fotoohabadi M. R., Feller J. A., Bartlett J. R., Bergman N. R. (2010). Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Journal of foot and ankle research, no 3(1), p. 29.

8. Morrison S., Durward B., Watt G., Donaldson M. (2005). The intra-rater reliability of anthropometric data collection conducted on the Submitted: 02.01.2018

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Received: 07.01.2018

peripubescent foot: A pilot study. The Foot, no 15(4), pp. 180-184.

9. Murphy D., Connolly D., Beynnon B. (2003). Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature. British journal of sports medicine, no 37(1), pp. 13-29.

10. Ruas C. V., Minozzo F., Pinto M. D., Brown L. E., Pinto R. S. (2015). Lower-extremity strength ratios of professional soccer players according to field position. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, no 29(5), pp. 1220-1226.

11. Tol J. L., Slim E., Van Soest A. J., van Dijk C. N. (2002). The relationship of the kicking action in soccer and anterior ankle impingement syndrome. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, no 30(1), pp. 45-50.

12. Wrobel J. S., Armstrong, D. G. (2008). Reliability and validity of current physical examination techniques of the foot and ankle. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, no 98(3), pp. 197-206.

13. Kuznetsova Z., Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Khalikov G., Zakharova A., 2015. Athletes training based on a complex assessment of functional state. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 156-160 (Scopus).

14. Kuznetsov A., Mutaeva I., Kuznetsova Z., 2017. Diagnostics of Functional State and Reserve Capacity of young Athletes' Organism. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology support. SCITEPRESS. P. 111-115 (Scopus).

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018 _ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Hosseinikhezri S.A. - Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, 620002, Russia, Ekaterinburg, Mira str., House 19, e-mail: Khosseynikhezri@urfu.ru Zakharova A.B. - Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, 620002, Russia, Ekaterinburg, Mira str., House 19

For citations: Hosseinikhezri S.A., Zakharova A.B. The consideration of foot posture index in russian soccer players 10-12 years old, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Pshycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp.129-134. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_297

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_298

FATIGUE IS A BIOMECHANICAL CATEGORY

Zinaida M. Kuznetsova — Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4, area of 100 th anniversary of V.I. Lenin's birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia Yriy D. Ovchinnikov — candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, 161, Budenny str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia

E-mail: kzm diss@mail.ru

Annotation: The notion "fatigue" is mainly connected with psychology and a common person got accustomed to the expression "chronic fatigue syndrome". Material. Students of "Adaptive physical culture" specialty of Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, studying biomechanical characteristics of human body, compared body muscular fatigability with fatigability in a human's organism. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, interview. Results. The factors of fatigue, its essential development from biomechanical point of view were revealed. The problem of fatigue is not studied and presented enough in a scientific literature. In the article fatigue is considered as a physiological process in a human body, the stages of its development and its polyfactorial character are demonstrated. Conclusion. Fatigue has biomechanical characteristics, which are presented in the following: time-sensuous demonstration of fatigue; each person's physical rate of fatigue will have its own norm; fatigue as a dangerous category has a scale character and leads to serious consequences for an organism; fatigue causes a sense of shame; physical load as the demonstration of fatigue, a person should learn to spread the load during the day in order to prevent or decrease the level of fatigue; psychological fatigue ruins organism; a person's working capacity spreading in order to prevent the period of fatigue.

Keywords: factors of fatigue, biomechanics, muscular fatigability, physical load, psychological dependence.

The problem of fatigue is not studied enough, though it is very urgent both in scientific and practical activity of any person.

Fatigue as physical quantity can be considered from the point of biomechanics

view, which is the science about motional actions of a person. Students of "Adaptive physical culture" specialty of Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, studying biomechanical

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