Научная статья на тему 'The investigation of back muscle and abdominal muscle endurance of 10-12 years old soccer players'

The investigation of back muscle and abdominal muscle endurance of 10-12 years old soccer players Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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Ключевые слова
soccer players / adolescent / muscle endurance / techniques

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Hosseini Khezri S A., Anna Zakharova

The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between muscle endurance and some important performance skills of 10-12 years old soccer players. Methods. Technical skills were analyzed by researcher different approaches and were approved by coaches. 17 elite soccer players participated in this study. The testing result of this study showed that technical abilities were at the weak level and no significant connection between technical components and back endurance muscles. Results. Technical ability in soccer was on the weak level and there was no significance between technical skills and abdominal and back muscles endurance. Conclusion. These findings suggest that physical training cannot ensure the success performance of 10-12 years old soccer players.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The investigation of back muscle and abdominal muscle endurance of 10-12 years old soccer players»

DOI 10.14526/03_2017_228

THE INVESTIGATION OF BACK MUSCLE AND ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ENDURANCE

OF 10-12 YEARS OLD SOCCER PLAYERS

Hosseini Khezri S A. - PhD Candidate, Physical education and sports performance sciences Shahrood University of Technology in Iran, 7th tir Square Shahrood, Semnan, Iran Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, Ekaterinburg, Russia Anna Zakharova - Professor, Doctor of Physical Education and Sports Performance Sciences Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, Ekaterinburg, Russia

Email: alihosseinikhezri@gmail.com

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between muscle endurance and some important performance skills of 10-12 years old soccer players. Methods. Technical skills were analyzed by researcher different approaches and were approved by coaches. 17 elite soccer players participated in this study. The testing result of this study showed that technical abilities were at the weak level and no significant connection between technical components and back endurance muscles. Results. Technical ability in soccer was on the weak level and there was no significance between technical skills and abdominal and back muscles endurance. Conclusion. These findings suggest that physical training cannot ensure the success performance of 10-12 years old soccer players.

Keywords: soccer players, adolescent, muscle endurance, techniques.

Introduction

Techniques or sport specific technical skills are a central component in development of young athletes in many sports, including soccer(1). Technical components in soccer players are divided in four main skills such as shooting, passing, dribbling and controlling (2). In soccer the physiological and physical demands are essential to show optimal performance at all level including youth, junior and adult. These demands have influence by different factors such as skill level, style of play and tactical strategies of their using.

As trunk functionality is an important part of athlete's fitness we suggest that it may influence on improving technical ability. Endurance must be the first thing to consider important when describing the physical profile of sport (3). Imai and Kaneoka (4) have reported that trunk muscle are important in improving athletes performance. Whereas Stolen (3) has reported that physical fitness

can influence on technical skill level. Penailillo (5) found a direct relation between muscle strength and skill performance which depend on speed running.

Considering the role of back and abdominal muscle endurance in soccer performance, we will try to determine the influence of two physiological factors on technical skills in soccer players 10-12 years old. To our knowledge, the relationship between back muscle endurance and abdominal muscle strength on the level of 1012 years old soccer players technical ability was not investigated. Therefore, our aim was to find the relationship between back muscle and abdominal muscle endurance of 10-12 years old soccer players technical skill. Methods

This study was performed at the sport technology laboratory of Ural Federal University. The study was approved by the soccer coach and scientific committee and all

participants and their parents received written and verbal information about the study. Participants

Participants were 10 to 12 years old adolescent soccer players who had more than 8 hours of training per week and had experience in competitive sports in youth premier league. They knew about the tests before performing them. 17

players was registered on the test but we got data fifteen from of them.

All recruited participants of the study were invited to the sports technology laboratory for performing technical assessments and measurement of other variables including back and abdominal muscle endurance. Baseline characteristics including age, height, weight, were collected from all participants.

Back muscle endurance test

The isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors was measured via the Sorensen test (Participants lay prone on the examination table while the upper edge of their iliac crests was aligned with the edge of the table. Pelvis, knees, and ankles were

Figure 1: the sorensen test for back muscle endurance

fixed to the table by three belts and arms were folde

^ Figure 2: Abdominal muscle endurance test acros

s the chest. Participants were asked to maintain their upper body horizontal to the ground by isometric contraction of trunk extensor muscles as the time in this position

was recorded. When the trunk was down sloped by more than 5 to 10° the test was stopped (An inclinometer was applied gently between the two scapula for measuring trunk position). The test was stopped after 320 seconds (6).

Abdominal muscle endurance test

The abdominal muscle endurance was measured via the BTC test (7). The starting position of the test places the subject prone with the knees and hips flexed 90 degree so the subject is in effect lying on the floor, with the flights and butt against the side of bench. A bench 0.46 m high is used for the BTC tests. The lower legs rest on the bench with the back of knees in contact with the bench. The subject arms are closed with the hands grasping the elbow of opposite arm. A partner counts a repetition when the subject curls up the trunk so that forearms touch the front of the thighs and then uncurls so the shoulder blades touch the floor. The score is a number of correct repetitions completed in 2 min.

Technical skills Tests

Five tests of technical skills in soccer were administered(8). The tests are recommended by the Federation and are traditionally used in Portugal(9) and has reported by Malina(1). The tests were administered outdoors on a playing field. The players warmed-up in the usual manner before a practice session (stretching and jogging), and also as short time rested between tests. One professional soccer Coach has supported and followed all tests. Tests were performed by researcher at sport technology laboratory and research center. Shooting

A 2^3 m goal was set up at the end line of a 9x9 m square. The target was divided by ropes into six sections. One rope was placed horizontally between the posts at a height of 1.5 m. Two ropes were dropped from the crossbar, 0.5 m from each post. Five points were allocated for the upper right and left sections, and two points for the upper middle section. Three points were allocated for the lower right and left sections, and one point for the lower middle section. Maximum of points should be recorded.

Passing

Five targets were placed 2.5 m apart at the end line of the 9x9 m square. The athlete was standing outside of the square at the opposite line of the target. Two attempts at each target were allowed for a total of 10 attempts. The objective was to hit the targets with the kicked ball in succession from one to five; two attempts were permitted for each target. The score was the number of successful target hits; the maximum score was 10 points. Dribbling

A cone was placed on each corner of the 6x9 m square (marked by four cones). A fifth cone was placed midway (4.5 m) on the line of the square where the test began. Thus, the near end had three cones (one on each corner and the third midway) and the far end had two cones (one at each corner). Beginning at one corner, the athlete had to conduct the ball with the feet (dribble) around the three cones (corner directly opposite the starting

cone, the cone placed midway, and the cone diagonally opposite the starting cone) in slalom fashion, and then dribble the ball into the fifth cone (i.e. not with a pass). The objective was to complete the drill in the fastest time possible by controlling the ball only with the feet without knocking down the cones. If a cone was knocked over, the participant had to place it upright and continue the test. The overall slalom distance was thus about 40 m. Two stopwatches were activated by the timers at the starting signal and were stopped when the ball was dribbled into the fifth cone. The average of the two values was used in the analysis. Controlling with head

Within a 9x9 m square the player had to keep the ball in the air using only the head. The score recorded was the number of hits of the ball before it fell to the floor. Counting stopped when the ball hit the floor, the participant moved out of the square or he touched the ball with any part of the body except the head. One trial was administered, although the participant was allowed to start the trial again if he failed to contact the ball three times in the initial attempt.

Controlling with body

Within a 9x9 m square, the player had to keep the ball in the air without using the arms or hands. The score recorded was the number of hits of the ball before it fell to the floor. Counting stopped when the ball hit the floor, the participant moved out of the square or he touched the ball with the arms or hands. One trial was administered, although the participant could start the trial again if he failed to contact the ball three times in the initial attempt. As our observation, technical scores was collected in official match either is shown on figure 3.

Statistical treatment

The data were stored and analyzed using the Figure 3: Technical Score in offical match

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows Version 20.0). Descriptive data are expressed by mean (SD) and P < 0.05 is considered statistically

with Head

Controlling 6% with Body 10%

Shooting 10%

Dribbling 11%

significant. To evaluate the N111"6 1: Technical Score m offical match

association between each technique with endurance back muscle and abdominal muscle, other variables we used Pearson correlation test for normative data and spearman for abnormal data characteristics.

Results

In total, 17 adolescent soccer players who as shown in Table 1, as a descriptive analysis in the technical components and height, weight of participants. All of measured data were in a close range and there was no relationship between back muscles endurance and shooting(r=0, 731, with <0, 05), dribbling(r=0.065, with p < 0, 05), passing with preferred leg(r=0.488 with p < 0, 05), controlling with body(r=0.314, with p<0, 05), and head.

Shooting

Successful Passing

Successful Passing 63%

Dribbling

(r=0.254, with p < 0, 05). As a consideration, there was founded just relationship between abdomen muscle endurance and controlling with head(r=0.039, with p<0, 05). Descriptive statistics of technical skills soccer players (n=17) is shown on the table 1.

Variables Min Max Mean (SD) Std. D

Shooting 17 7 17 11.65 3.08

Dribbling 17 7.59 10.46 8.74 .814

Passing 17 0 4 1.94 1.08

Controlling with Body 17 6 203 47.17 44.96

Controlling with Head 17 3 22 10.23 6.42

Height cm 17 149 158 152,9 5,59

Weight kg 17 44 55 42,3 6,21

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of technical skills The result of technical skill which was performed on the Competition is shown on the pie chart. They achieved normal level of quality in shooting tests but that was differently in the competition. They were recording 5 times on soccer competition. The results of shooting were not on satisfying level. The median of dribbling score was (8.74 second) but the quality of dribbling was dissatisfaction. They recorded 15 success dribbling on the competition. As a number of passing with preferred leg, they recorded 85 true pass in the competition. The maximum of true pass was 6 times and the minimum of

soccer players (n=17)

successful pass was 2 times. Although, the median of passing with preferred leg (1.94 times) score showed they were in low level of passing ability. Controlling with body (13 times) and controlling with head (8 times) was recorder per competition. The median score of controlling body test (47.17 times) and also controlling with head (10.23 times).As our foundation, the physical ability (Muscle endurance) was not connected with the most of technical skills in soccer players 10-12 years. There was found just relation between controlling with head skill and abdominal muscle (p Value= 0.1 > 0.5).

Technical components

Back Muscle Endurance

Abdominal

Muscles

Endurance

Shooting Dribbling

0.72

0.54

0.065

0.555

Passing

Preferred leg

0.488

0.899

Controlling with body

0.310 0.081

Controlling With Head

0.254

0.039

Table 2: the correlations between technical and Discussion

The present study showed that there was no significance between back endurance muscles and shooting, dribbling, passing, controlling with body and head. According with our knowledge this study is the first study in the field of endurance back and abdominal muscle and technical skills measurement of 10-12 years old soccer players. There is not a controversy among different studies' findings regarding technical skills in soccer players and endurance muscle which influenced on specific technique of 10-12 years old soccer players. This is an expected finding and contradicts prior literature. We did not find any article to determine connection between back muscle endurance and technical components in soccer players. as a clinical reported, (10) showed that soccer players without low back pain had no limitation or weakness in back endurance. One review article found that muscle strength and endurance were risk factors and also specify influences on performance (11). Ramírez-Campillo (12) reported that some plyometric training which included endurance muscle could influence on high performance of young soccer players. Gorostiaga (13) reported, Strength training effects on physical performance of young soccer players under 17 years old. There is a direct connection with the execution of exercise techniques but our study is not consistent with the maximum of previous studies. However, there were found relations between endurance abdominal muscle and controlling with head whereas another technique found no relation between endurance abdominal and technical skills. According to our findings in literature, muscle endurance has an important role in sports performance and also relevance of injury.

trunk muscles endurances in participants (N=17)

Chilly(14) assessed endurance and power, some physiological factor which was connected by soccer players performance and reported, the increased muscle power was related to performance. Contrasting, Nourmohammadpour(15) reported, muscle tightness influenced by injury and could influence on performance of 10-14 years old soccer players. There is lack of research describing each technique of soccer players. Abdominal endurance muscle can influence on soccer players performance. Conclusion

There was no relationship between back and abdominal endurance muscles and shooting, dribbling, passing, controlling with body. Also there was relationship between abdominal endurance and controlling with head. These findings suggest that other factors might be the physical factors on whole of body or different muscles which play important role in 10-12 years old soccer players performance. That should be noticed that coach should know the amount of training process and players' body conditions.

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Submitted: 28.07.2017 Received: 01.08.2017

Author's information

Seyed Alireza Hosseini Khezri - PhD Candidate at Ural Federal University. Physical Education and Sports and Youth services, Ekaterinburg, Russia, Tel: +79634474600 Email: alihosseinikhezri@gmail.com

Anna Zakharova - Professor, Doctor of Physical Education and Sports Science, Ekaterinburg, Russia, Tel: + 79634474600

For citations: Hosseini Khezri S.A., Zakharova A. The investigation of back muscle and abdominal muscle endurance in soccer players 10-12 years old, The Russian journal of physical education and sport (pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems ofphysical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.3, pp. 6-11. DOI 10.14526/03_2017_228

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