Научная статья на тему 'Stylistic originality of fictional narrative: comparative linguodidactic aspect'

Stylistic originality of fictional narrative: comparative linguodidactic aspect Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Nikolayenko G. I., Tayanovskaya I. V.

In this paper we analyze linguistic features of fictional narrative (a genre specificity of Russian folktales), which in classes of Russian as a foreign language for Turkish-speaking audience can be considered in comparison with stylistics of Turkish tales. The morally educative and communicative perspective of using the fabulous narrative as a material in the classroom of the RFL is additionally justified. Examples of initial, middle and final speech formulas, stylistics and expressive language means of portrait and landscape descriptions in Russian and Turkish fairy tales are commented on in a comparative aspect (on the basis of the teaching experiment at the Philology Faculty of the Belarusian State University), which possesses novelty and is of great interest for the development of students'' cultural competence.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Stylistic originality of fictional narrative: comparative linguodidactic aspect»

УДК 372.881.1

Nikolayenko G.I., Tayanovskaya I.V. STYLISTIC ORIGINALITY OF FICTIONAL NARRATIVE: COMPARATIVE LINGUODIDACTIC ASPECT. In this paper we analyze linguistic features of fictional narrative (a genre specificity of Russian folktales), which in classes of Russian as a foreign language for Turkish-speaking audience can be considered in comparison with stylistics of Turkish tales. The morally educative and communicative perspective of using the fabulous narrative as a material in the classroom of the RFL is additionally justified. Examples of initial, middle and final speech formulas, stylistics and expressive language means of portrait and landscape descriptions in Russian and Turkish fairy tales are commented on in a comparative aspect (on the basis of the teaching experiment at the Philology Faculty of the Belarusian State University), which possesses novelty and is of great interest for the development of students' cultural competence.

Key words: fictional narrative, set speech formulas of tales, cultural competence.

Г.И. Николаенко, д-р пед. наук, доц., проректор по научно-методической работе Государственного учреждения образования «Академия последипломного образования», г. Минск; И.В. Таяновская, канд. пед. наук, доц., зав. каф. риторики и методики преподавания языка и литературы Белорусского государственного университета, г. Минск, E-mail: tayanov@tut.by


В статье анализируются языковые особенности занимательного вымышленного повествования (жанровая специфика русской народной сказки), которые на учебных занятиях по русскому языку как иностранному в турецкоязычной аудитории могут рассматриваться в сопоставлении со стилистикой турецких сказок. Дополнительно обосновывается нравственно-воспитательная и коммуникативная перспективность использования сказочного повествования в качестве материала на занятиях по РКИ. В сравнительном аспекте, на основе обучающего эксперимента, проведенного на филологическом факультете Белорусского государственного университета, комментируются примеры начальных, срединных и финальных речевых формул, стилистика и выразительные языковые средства портретных и пейзажных описаний в русских и турецких волшебных сказках, что представляет новизну и интерес для организации формирования культуроведческой и речевой компетенции студентов.

Ключевые слова: вымышленное повествование, устойчивые речевые формулы сказок, культуровед-ческая компетенция.

To substantiate the relevance of this paper, we proceed from the general linguodidactic provision that use of language material from Russian fairy tales in classes of Russian as a foreign language and perception of its features on a comparative basis, in comparison with a fragmentary analysis of tales of foreign folklore heritage can give more vividness, depth and clarity to understanding of both universal and national specificity of the linguistic devices and means used, to promote the development of cultural competence of secondary linguistic identity.

The theoretical significance of this paper is associated with the identification and concretization of certain directions in stylistic analysis, efficient for acquisition of linguocultural specificity of fictional narrative, including development of the worded provisions in the future, when developing the content of foreign language teaching; a direct practical significance of the research - designing of the syllabus for narrative teaching from the comparative stylistic viewpoint (for Turkish-speaking students mastering the Russian language at an advanced level), generalization of the possible types of activities and selection of illustrative narrative for teaching activities.

The authors' individual contribution to the solution of the problem in hand is determination of a number of notable genre stylistic features of Russian and Turkish folk tales productive for reflection when teaching Russian as a foreign language and subject to consideration at the level of analysis of integral narrative contexts, as well as in the parallel complex analysis of both Russian and Turkish folk speech material, which may be used for didactic purposes.

Efficiency of using fictional narrative in the educational process

A fairy tale is always action-packed and therefore it is able to capture one's attention completely, causing a deep empathy with its characters. The works of this genre, in which miracle makes the plot, give special space to imagination and fantasy, lifting up readers or listeners above everyday reality and taking them in a peculiar, bright and colorful world. It is no coincidence that modern psychologists (I.V. Vachkov, T.D. Zinkevich-Evstigneeva, N.A. Sakovich [1], and many others) are confident enough to talk about stress prevention and psychotherapeutic effects of fairy tales. By creating and apprehending a tale, a person gets a feeling of feasibility of the created life scenarios, and feasibility aimed at the triumph of goodness and justice. It would be no exaggeration to say of the triumph of goodness

as an underlying pathos of a fairy tale, and at the same time - an important source of its didactic potential. A tale is deeply optimistic in nature; it helps develop positive moral ideals, convince that they are true. Optimism of tales which is revealed when retelling or creating it, a prospect to act "as a wizard", miraculously contributing to the victory of goodness and justice, provide an opportunity to believe in themselves, in the future, where the reader or listener put their best foot forward.

Ability of fairy tale genre to rouse interest may be considered almost reference-class: not without reason, to attract the students' attention and arouse their interest in the course of teaching various disciplines, presentation of educational material is often given in the form of interesting fairytale texts. A tale has a high potential of moral education, with ethical and aesthetic standards inherent in people's consciousness fully disclosed. Tales narrate about human relations, and these relations are usually very clear, unequivocal, concrete, without superfluous nuances; they are quite comprehensible and accessible for evaluation by foreign students.

A genre of fairy tales is of particular importance in terms of forming ideas of folk speech, its richness, accuracy, figurativeness, etc. Names of characters having become common, the content of well-known fairy-tale scenes, verbal formulas used in the genre are constantly used by native speakers, enlivening and enriching their speech. From the viewpoint of teaching, including differential training, the following specific, traditional feature of the genre of fairy tales seems to be essential: possibility to vary and personalize the power of the storyteller's personal creativity, a degree of transformation of the fairytale text.

Aspects of manifestation of the stylistic specificity of fictional narrative from a methodological perspective (the material is prepared by I.V. Tayanovskaya)

As demonstrated hereafter in this paper, the unique originality of Russian fairy tales in Turkic-speaking, and especially in Turkish-speaking audience may be traced in comparison with a rich and developed Turkish fairytale tradition, which is confirmed by the results of the teaching experiment carried out at Belarusian State University. In modern East Slavic philology a special material for more detailed research was a socio-realistic literary Turkish tale, rooting in the folk fairy tale [see, for example, the papers of the certified turkologist: 2].

In Turkish folk tales, as is shown below in the studied speech material [3], we can find the same universal features of a fairy tale as in their Russian folk analogues [for example, 4]:

• colorful figurativeness and hyperbolized fiction character in speech attributes of descriptions, constructing an extraordinary fairy-tale world;

• presence of speech stereotypes setting up for the perception of the text belonging to a semi-fictional narrative genre.

Introduction and initial language formulas in Turkish folk fairy tales have much in common with those in Russian fairy tales as they sometimes give an indication of the remoteness of events (chronological formula): Many years ago, when the Sultans lived in the palaces, and people used arrows and gold coins, in the heart of a beautiful garden there was a small white house ("Golden Hair"), including immemorial, exceptional antiquity of the events: Once upon a time there lived a Sultan ("The Sultan's Daughter and the Maharaja's Son"). It is believed, however, that in Russian fairy tales, with their extremely popular, well-known initial form of existence (Жили-бы-ли...|| Once upon a time ...), taking back to the past, chronological formula, like ...Когда еще наши деды не учились и пращуры не родились,. жил-был такой старичок, который трех своих сынов научил грамоте и всему книжному \\...When our grandparents did not study and ancestors were not born..., there once was an old man who taught his three sons to read and write, and all the book skills ("Sivko Bourke"); В старые годы появился невдалеке от Киева страшный змей || In the old days, not far from Kiev there appeared a terrifying serpent ("Nikita Kozhumyaka"); В давние времена жили-были в маленькой избушке дед да баба, да дочка Василисушка || In days gone by there lived an old man and an old woman, and their granddaughter Vasilisushka ("Vasilisa the Beautiful"), are less common [5, p. 22].

At the beginning of many Turkish tales emphasis is laid on the conditional actions; a conditional topographical system of events is shown (i.e. a conditional locality in which the action proceeds): Whether it was or was not, in a kingdom there lived a very rich man (topographic formula from a fairy tale "Behnane"). Let's compare this with a typical Russian initial phrase (rhyming is well remembered by the storyteller and the audience): В некотором царстве, в некотором государстве, за тридевять земель - в тридесятом государстве жил-был сильный, могучий царь || In a certain kingdom, in far off lands there lived a strong, powerful tsar ("The Firebird and Princess Vasilisa"). It is necessary to explain to the foreign students that the word lands (in a figure of speech "тридевять земель") in this case means 'a territory belonging to one governor' -and these formulas bear the impress of the ancient ternary numeral system (the so-called trinitarian inherent in Russian and European fairy tales in general), and an educational linguistic quiz includes a question: the fairytale distant lands - is it 27 or 39?

A portrait of a beautiful woman in fairy tales actualizes the widespread and characteristic central language formulas (the so-called "loci communes", general semantic models) of a fictional narrative. Among portrait characteristics from Russian fairy tales there are linguistic patterns-negations: Такая красивая, что ни в сказке сказать, ни пером описать || So beautiful that one couldn't tell in a tale or write with a pen. Descriptions with references to space, plant images, precious metals and stones in the symmetrically organized speech segments, including set expressions are less common: And I would like to marry the tsar and give birth to two sons - their arms are up to their elbows in gold, they are knee-deep in silver, there is a bright moon in the neck, and the sun in the forehead, and a daughter, when she gives a smile, there appear roses, and when she cries, expensive pearls fall down! ("The Singing Tree and The Bird-Talker"). This kind of idealized images is sometimes interpreted as artistic rudiments of vision of human-like celestial bodies and natural phenomena, archetypes of mythological consciousness [6, p. 96]: Those who can find a bride for him, who is more beautiful than the sun, and brighter than the moon and whiter than snow, will be rewarded with sackfuls of money ("The Legless and Blind Warrior Heroes").

In Turkish tales there are quite detailed and colorful descriptions with traditional comparisons: She was beautiful, tall, and slim, with long golden braids, with her eyes as black as cherries, and her face was as innocent as a child's ("Behnane"). The unusual image of the heroine can be set off with long golden hair: this metaphorical epithet is associated with precious coins and ornaments.

In general, detailed portrait and landscape descriptions in Turkish tales are rich in special means of speech expressiveness - orig-

inal epithets and similes, metaphors, hyperbole, enumerations, emphatic repetitions, parallelism in conjunction with logical-semantic figure of separation, effect of artistic concretization:

She was a tearing beauty: graceful, bright, with rosy cheeks, with lips like rose petals! (evaluating and color epithets, set comparison).

Wonderful flowers grew around their house: roses, daisies, tulips, violets (enumeration-amplification), and the flowers flung their fragrance miles and miles away (emphatic repetition^. All the flowers were so bright and beautiful that no one could pass by. Everybody stopped to admire the beautiful garden (hyperbole).

She used to go out into the garden and water every flower, talking to them as if they were alive. And the flowers returned their love to her. Tulips straightened their stems, violets wiggled their leaves and roses came out (characteristic anthropomorphic comparison goes into an extended personification, parallelism is used in conjunction with semantic separation figure), and the flower-buds grew not just big but huge (hyperbole and contextually conditioned antithesis of synonymous words). All the flowers looked competing in their beauty - one more comparison of anthropomorphic character ("Golden Hair").

Portrait as well as landscape fairytale descriptions in Russian and Turkish tales are often based on hyperbolas, more often with positive intensifiers; compare the above description of the garden in the Turkish fairy tale with an aesthetically expressive description of the tree in the Russian fairy tale: And the apple tree grew out of them, and what an apple-tree! Apples in this tree are transparent, the leaves are gold, the twiglets - silver. Whoever is riding by - stops, whoever is passing by - stares in wonder ("Khavroshechka").

Among the color epithets representing a complete picture, with parallel semantic-syntactic deployment, "in the full blaze of colors" (V.P. Anikin [7, p. 165]), similar to that observed in the Turkish tale, the definitions associated with precious metals or stones are widespread; here they obviously show their magic character and supernatural nature of the plant.

A peculiarity of Turkish tales is evident in such a component, as detailed wishes. Depending on the story, they are not always sincere, but always very eloquent. Impersonation of moral concepts and states, metaphors, sometimes deliberately fantastic, rhythmic repetitions and parallel construction are widely used: Let happiness, health and serenity settle in our house. Let stone turn into gold in your hands. Let your house be always warm, jet your heart be high, and let sorrow and evil pass by your house!

The ending and the final language formulas are universal in their happy, optimistic character, a scene of the wedding feast: in Russian: Я там был, мед-пиво пил, по усам текло, а рот не попало || I've been there, drinking honey-beer, the honey was probably sweet, but there was a slip 'twixt the cup and my lip (fictional, fantastic nature of what was happening is emphasized, in fact, it is a paradox ending); Turkish: There they had a wedding party for forty days and nights and finally reached their desires ("The Sultan's Daughter of and the Maharajah's Son). Longevity, prosperity and harmony of the main characters are described: Russian: И стали они все вместе жить-поживать, добра наживать, а лиха избывать || And they all lived together happily ever after and without troubles ("By The Pike's Wish"); Turkish: The prince and Behnane continued to live in peace and harmony ("Behnane").

One of the questions asked by foreign students in connection with understanding of the ending in Russian fairy tales is how it is possible to drink honey. Is it one or two beverages - fairytale "honey-beer"? Why did the storyteller fail to treat himself/herself? Why does the ending look illogical? A popular linguistic version is that honey was an ancient Slavic strong drink, which, as is evident from its name, was made of honey, while the word beer in this combination stands for a generic notion of 'drink'. It is considered that this ending is used to emphasize the unreality of the fairy tale, to return the listeners' imagination from the fictional narrative to real life.

In Turkish fairy tales endings often contain direct characteristics of feelings and open expression of emotions, which also belongs to ethnocultural stereotypes and intensifies a moral pathos of the tale: The man finished his speech and left. The woman followed him with her eyes, clutched her head and began tearing her hair out of grief, shame and despair, with a blood curdling scream! (this is how deep remorse and moral torment of the villain in The Golden Hair fairy tale are described).

The teaching material under consideration during the teaching process is basic to analytical reports and informative messages with

multimedia visualization [for illustrative purposes literary sources 3,4,8 were used].

Surveys carried out after the teaching experiment in 2011-2013 with participation of 3rd year Turkish students of philological specialties at Belarusian State University showed improvement in formation and development of skills:

• o use the initial speech formulas typical of Russian folk tales in retelling;

• to use means of speech expressiveness in portrait and landscape descriptions of fictional narrative;

• to use set concluding formulas specific to Russian fairy

Библиографический список

tales (positive dynamics in the improvement of skills concerns about 26% of the resulting texts, in comparison with the data of ascertaining surveys).

As can be seen from the above, in case of comparative linguistic analysis of fairytale texts it is important to pay special attention to the set speech formulas, which are nationally and culturally more or less universal and specific; to the emotional and evaluative elements and figurative language techniques that can help make speech in fairy tales of different nations unusual, memorable, ornamental and decorative.

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2. Ларионова, Е.И. Из истории турецкой литературной сказки // Вестник Московского университета. - 2008. - № 3. - Сер. 13. Востоковедение; Ларионова, Е.И. Современная турецкая литературная сказка: типология и эволюция жанра: автореф. дис. ... канд. филол. наук. - М., 2009.

3. Турецкие сказки: пер. А.А. Айгистовой, А. Маденли / Турецкая Республика. Мин-во культуры и туризма. Генеральн. упр-ние информации. - Анкара, 2008; Турецкие сказки / пер., сост., предисловие И.В. Стеблевой. - М., 1986; Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk Tales by Kunos. - London, 2013.

4. Ненаглядная краса: рус. нар. сказки / сост. Т.Ф. Тихончук. - Минск, 1991.

5. Герасимова, Н.М. Формулы русской волшебной сказки (к проблеме стереотипности и вариативности традиционной культуры) // Сов. этнография. - 1978. - № 5.

6. Черноусова, И.П. Формула красоты в русских волшебных сказках и былинах // Русская речь. - 2012. - № 1.

7. Аникин, В.П. Русская народная сказка. - М., 1977.

8. Russian Legends: Folk Tales and Fairy Tales Paperback by David Jackson [and others]. - Rotterdam, 2008.


1. Vachkov, I.V. Skazkoterapiya. - M., 2001; Zinkevich-Evstigneeva, T.D. Osnovih skazkoterapii. - M., 2005; Sakovich, N.A. Praktika skazkoterapii. - SPb., 2004.

2. Larionova, E.I. Iz istorii tureckoyj literaturnoyj skazki // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. - 2008. - № 3. - Ser. 13. Vostokovedenie; Larionova, E.I. Sovremennaya tureckaya literaturnaya skazka: tipologiya i ehvolyuciya zhanra: avtoref. dis. ... kand. filol. nauk. - M., 2009.

3. Tureckie skazki: per. A.A. Ayjgistovoyj, A. Madenli / Tureckaya Respublika. Min-vo kuljturih i turizma. Generaljn. upr-nie informacii. - Ankara, 2008; Tureckie skazki / per., sost., predislovie I.V. Steblevoyj. - M., 1986; Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk Tales by Kunos. - London, 2013.

4. Nenaglyadnaya krasa: rus. nar. skazki / sost. T.F. Tikhonchuk. - Minsk, 1991.

5. Gerasimova, N.M. Formulih russkoyj volshebnoyj skazki (k probleme stereotipnosti i variativnosti tradicionnoyj kuljturih) // Sov. ehtnografiya. - 1978. - № 5.

6. Chernousova, I.P. Formula krasotih v russkikh volshebnihkh skazkakh i bihlinakh // Russkaya rechj. - 2012. - № 1.

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8. Russian Legends: Folk Tales and Fairy Tales Paperback by David Jackson [and others]. - Rotterdam, 2008.

Статья поступила в редакцию 05.09.14

УДК 372.853

RemeyevaA.N. PROPERTIES OF TEACHING IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE CLASSES. This article conducts research on a problem of profiling education as part of the early training of students to make a conscious choice of a future profession, which is actual at the present stage of development of education. We focus on features of socio-economic profile classroom (distribution of subjects of importance, striking a balance between core and general education subjects, the factors influencing the learning process in the specialized classes, etc). Analysis of program documents and teaching practice in the socio-economic profile classroom has allowed the author to conclude that this is not only important to differentiate the specialized disciplines deeply, but also systematically reorient other school subjects to meet the challenges of special education. The latter can be implemented within the framework of the deep integration across the contents, forms, methods and techniques of teaching. Students' activities in the socio-economic profile classrooms have also great potential in this regard, because it provides individual orientation of students.

Key words: differentiation, profile training, socio-economic education, profile subjects.

А.Н. Ремеева, канд. пед. наук, доц. каф. общей и теоретической физики Стерлитамакского филиала Башкирского гос. университета, г. Стерлитамак, E-mail: alfa_remeeva@mail.ru


В статье рассматривается актуальная на современном этапе развития образования проблема профили-зации обучения как элемент ранней подготовки школьников к осознанному выбору будущей профессии. Рассмотрены особенности обучения в классах социально-экономического профиля (распределение предметов по значимости, определение соотношения профильных и общеобразовательных учебных предметов, факторы, влияющие на учебный процесс в профильных классах и др.). Анализ программных документов, практики работы в классах социально-экономического профиля позволил автору сделать вывод о том, что при этом важна не только глубокая дифференциация в области профильных дисциплин, но и системная переориентация других школьных предметов на решение задач профильного обучения. Последняя может реализовываться в рамках

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