Научная статья на тему 'Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review'

Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review Текст научной статьи по специальности «Биологические науки»

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Ключевые слова
GUAR / ARABIC GUM / TRAGACANTH GUM / FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES

Аннотация научной статьи по биологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Hassanpour F.

Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1) easily soluble in cold water, 2) the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3) having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4) no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

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Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1) easily soluble in cold water, 2) the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3) having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4) no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

Текст научной работы на тему «Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review»

Обзорная статья/Review article_

DOI: http://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2016-4-148-150

Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

_Farnoush Hassanpour 1_

1 food science and technology department, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Islamic azad university, Isfahan, Iran

Summary.Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties;

1) easily soluble in cold water, 2) the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3) having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4) no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details._

Keywords: guar, arabic Gum, tragacanth Gum, Functional properties_

Introduction

There are many challenges in way of production of functional beverages. The main target is supplying health claims and permanent developments of flavor profile and desire mouth feel throughout their shelf life.

Formulating a functional component is an obligation and fulfillment of functional properties is one of the controversial issues in production of any functional foods. All these challenges increase in terms of final product. It must be noted that compounds are final and critical items in ensuring the quality and safety of final products (Pimenov N., 2015). Before formulating, it is important that final functionality must define base on all the food ingredients (Pimenov N., 2016).

Texture definitions and beverages stabilization

Texture is a wide term which covers many rheological and sensorial qualities. Texture covers appearance and mouth feel of beverage when drink: appearance when poring, glassing on bottle, mouth feel, precipitation of taste.

The importance of rheological behavior, in particular flow properties of hydrocolloids can be related to mouth feel and textural properties of Gum (Glykex Mann, 1982). Stabilizing, a term relating to bio-physiochemical mechanism is complicated and different. Each parameter needs to be categorized correctly and overall, a stabilized beverage is homogenous and flow. A homogenous beverage defines as a beverage with no gelling status, no viscosity, lack of layer forming, lack of phase separation, lack of clarification,

Для цитирования Farnoush Hassanpour.Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review // Вестник ВГУИТ.2016. № 4. С. 148-150. doi:10.20914/2310-1202-2016-4-148-150

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with no flocculation (Pimenov N., 2013). Each parameter has different parts and depends on formulation and process of beverage.

Mainly, hydrocolloids create the following proerpties in different formulation of food stuffs:

— Viscosity enhancing or thickening properties

— Gelling properties

— Surface activity and emulsifying properties

— Hydrocolloids as edible films and coatings

— Fat replacers

Hydrocolloids can modify organoleptic properties and consider as one of food additives. Due to the property of having conformationally disorder chains, hydrocolloids are good alternatives for creating thickening agent. In regards to create thickening properties polymer solvent interaction is needed (Philips et al., 1986).

There are several factors affecting aforesaid property such as the type of used hydrocolloid,

its concentration and food system.

From the viewpoint of functionality hydro-colloids categorize in two groups as follows:

1) Thickening agent: creating beverage texture but unable to make it suspension, they slow down precipitation of oil droplet with no possibility of prevention of separation.

2) Gelling agent: make connections and bond among molecules along with 3 dimensional matrixes. It leads to stabilize oil droplets in matrix and thus density of created droplets will be less than the amount of efficacy in matrix.

Since Gums have solid soft matrix, they can widely use in food applications. Some correlated phenomenon is affecting emulsifier properties of Gums

For citation

Farnoush Hassanpour.Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review. Vestnik VSUET [Proceedings of VSUET]. 2016. no. 4.pp. 148-150. (in Russian). doi:10.20914/2310-1202-2016-4-148-150

which include retarding of precipitation, diminishing of oil droplet and so forth. It must be noted that Gums will adsorb very slowly onto liquid surface.

Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1) easily soluble in cold water, 2) the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3) having maximum level of emulsi-fier amount, 4) no creation of gelling.

Introduce of some Gums

1.1 Guar

Guar Gum and Locust Bean Gum: they are galactomanam extracted from endosperm of Cy-amopsistertragonobola and Ceratoniasiliqua respectively. Endosperm parts degrade to fine particles. Both Gums compose of glycoside bonds (P 1,4) and a bond on branch which connects Galactose.

1.2 Arabic Gum

Acacia Gum or so-called Arabic Gum is used since thousand years ago is an exudate Gum and today known as an additive (Imenson, 2010). The structure of Gum Arabic is relatively complex. The main chain of this polysaccharide is built from (1—3) and (1—6) -linked P-D-galactopyranosyl.

Summary of the recent finding on

Figure 1. Arabic Gum 1.3 Tragacanth Gum

This kind of Gum exudate from Astragalus Gummifer Labillardiere and other special species of Astragalus from western Asia (mostly in Iran, some in Turkey). This type includes a water soluble part which is contained30-40% of Gum Structure which is a highly branched neutral poly-saccharide composed of 1—6-linked D-galactosyl backbones with L-arabinose side chains joined by 1—2, 1—>3 - and/or 1—5-linkages.

Table 1.

ic, Guar and Tragacanth Gums

Reference The type of Gum studied Results

Hu et al, 2016 Gum Arabic purpose of present work was to develop eugenol oil nanoemul-sions using Gumarabic and lecithin as food grade natural emulsifiers, and study their antimicrobial activity. Results showed that nanoemusions with aparticle size of 103.6 ± 7.5 nm were obtained by mixing aqueous phase (0.5% Gum arabic, 0.5% lecithin, w/v) and eugenol oil (1.25%, w/v), which was pre-mixed with ethanol(as a co-surfactant), followed by high speed homogenization process

Chivero et al, 2016 Gum Arabic & Xanthan Gum Assessment of soy soluble polysaccharide, Gum arabic and OSA-Starch as emulsifiers for mayonnaise-like emulsions It was concluded that it is possible to employ hy-drocolloid emulsifiers to produce mayonnaise.

Dodi et al, 2016 guar Gum Carboxymethyl guar Gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymeth-ylated guar Gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysac-charide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers.

Mudgil et al, 2016 guar Gum Development of functional yoghurt via soluble fiber fortification utilizing enzymatically hydrolyzed guar Gum Results revealed that partially hydrolyzed guar Gum could be potentially used for soluble fiber enrichment of yoghurt with acceptable functional and sensory quality.

Jayabrata Maity, Samit Kumar Ray, 2016 guar Gum Enhanced adsorption of Cr(VI) from water The structure of the hydrogels was characterized and the hydrogels showing the best results in mechanical and swelling properties were used for the removal of low (5-50 mg/L) and high (100-800 mg/L) concentration of Cr (VI) ions from water. The composite hydrogel showed a high removal of 97.8% (4.89 mg/g gel) and 91.4%(182.4 mg/g gel) at an initial feed metal ion concentration of 5 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively

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Chung et al., 2016 Gum Arabic Enhancement of colour stability of anthocyanins in model beverages this study provides valuable information about enhancing the stability of anthocyanins in beverage systems using natural ingredients

Ranjbar-Mohammadi et al., 2016 Tragacanth Gum nanofibrous scaffolds for application in regeneration of peripheral nerve damage Results of 8 days of in vitro culture of PC12cells on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers, showed 20% increase in cell proliferation compared to PLLA/GT 75:25 random nanofibers. PLLA/GT 75:25 aligned nanofibersacted as a favorable cue to support neurite outgrowth and nerve cell elongation compared with PLLA nanofibers. Our results showed that aligned PLLA/GT 75:25.

Razavi et al., 2016 guar Gum, sage seed Gum Investigation of the interaction between sage seed Gum and guar Gum With increasing SSG fraction, the extent of viscosity reduction in the range of 0.01-316s-1 increased from 58.68 for GG to 832.73 times for SSG which-was not the same at different ranges of shear rate.

Conclusion

Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives

REFERENCES

1 Chiveroa P., Gohtanib S., Yoshiib H., Naka-murac A. Assessment of soy soluble polysaccharide, Gum Arabic and OSA-Starch as emulsifiers for mayonnaise-like emulsions. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2016, no. 69, pp. 59-66.

2 Chunga C., Rojanasasitharab T., Mutilangib W., Julian McClementsa D. Enhancement of colour stability of anthocyanin in model beverages by Gum Arabic addition. Food Chemistry, 2016, no. 201, pp. 14-22.

3 Dodia G. A., Palac E., Barbud D., Peptanariue D. et al. Carboxymethyl guar Gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitroinvestigations. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2016, no. 63, pp. 628-636.

4 Glicksman M. Functional properties of hydro-colloids, in Food Hydrocolloids Vol I, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press Inc., 59, 614-hoefler ac, Practical Guides for Food Industry, Hydrocoloids, Eagan PressHandbook Series, 2004, pp. 33-34.

5 Hua Q., Gerharda H., Upadhyayab I., Venkitana-rayananb K., et al. Antimicrobial eugenol Nano emulsion prepared by Gum Arabic and lecithin and evaluation of drying technologies. International Journal of Biological Macro-molecules, 2016, no.87, pp. 130-140.

6 Maity J., Ray Samit K. Enhanced adsorption of Cr(VI) from water by guar Gum based Composite hydrogels. International Journal of Biological Macromole-cules Available online 13 April In Press, Accepted Manuscript - Note to users, 2016.

in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

7 Mudgila D, Baraka S., Khatkarb B.S. Development of functional yoghurt via soluble fiber fortification utilizing enzymatically hydrolyzed guar Gum. Food Bioscience, 2016, no. 14, pp. 28-33.

8 Pimenov N., Laishevtcev A., Pimenova V. The identification of salmonella infection in hatching eggs and products of turkey-keeping. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 2015, no. 10, pp. 9-17.

9 Pimenov N., Laishevtcev A., Lenev S., Se-mykin V. et al. Improvement of allocation and identification of salmonella enterica bacteria of arizonae subspecies. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 2016, no. 5(2), pp. 342-348

10 Pimenov N. Specific control of salmonella in poultry. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 2013, no. 11, pp. 16-23.

11 Phillips G., Williams P. Gum arabic, in Phillips GO and Williams PAHandbook of Hydrocolloids, Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2000, no. 164, pp. 167.

12 Ranjbar-Mohammadia M. P., Prabhakaranb M., Bahramic S.H., Ramakrishnab S. Gum tragacanth/poly (_-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds for application in regeneration of peripheral nerve damage. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, no. 140, pp. 104-112.

13 Razavia S. M. A., Alghooneha A., Behrouziana F. W., Cuib S. Investigation of the interaction between sage seed Gum and Guar Gum: Steady and dynamic shear rheology. Food Hydrocolloids2016, no. 60, pp. 67-76.

INFORMATION ABOUT AUTHORS Farnoush Hassanpour, food science and technology department, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Islamic azad university, Isfahan, Iran

CONTRIBUTION

Farnoush Hassanpourwrote the manuscript, correct it before filing in editing and is responsible for plagiarism

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declare no conflict of interest.

RECEIVED 10.22.2016

ACCEPTED 11.27.2016

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