Научная статья на тему 'Sino-Uralic Etymology for 'Jupiter, Year' Supported by Rhyme Correspondence'

Sino-Uralic Etymology for 'Jupiter, Year' Supported by Rhyme Correspondence Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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etymology / rhyme correspondence / Sinitic / Uralic / Sino-Uralic / Indo-European / Jupiter / year / wether / wet / water / mead

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Jingyi Gao

Using etymological methods, the present study has identified seven Sinitic and Uralic shared etymologies (etyma). Three of them form a rhyme correspondence. Two of them form an onset correspondence. Four of them form another rhyme correspondence. These regular sound changes validate the genetic connection between Sinitic and Uralic. The Sino-Uralic etymology (etymon) for 'Jupiter, year' is among these etyma. It is demonstrated that this term should be aboriginal in Sino-Uralic languages.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Sino-Uralic Etymology for 'Jupiter, Year' Supported by Rhyme Correspondence»

Archaeoastronomy and Ancient Technologies

www.aaatec.org ISSN 2310-2144

Sino-Uralic Etymology for 'Jupiter, Year' Supported by Rhyme Correspondence

Jingyi Gao

Beijing International Studies University, China; E-mail: gao.jingyi@bisu.edu.cn Institute of the Estonian Language, Tallinn, Estonia; E-mail: jingyi.gao@eki.ee University of Tartu, Estonia; E-mail: jingyi.gao@ut.ee

Abstract

Using etymological methods, the present study has identified seven Sinitic and Uralic shared etymologies (etyma). Three of them form a rhyme correspondence. Two of them form an onset correspondence. Four of them form another rhyme correspondence. These regular sound changes validate the genetic connection between Sinitic and Uralic. The Sino-Uralic etymology (etymon) for 'Jupiter, year' is among these etyma. It is demonstrated that this term should be aboriginal in Sino-Uralic languages.

Keywords: etymology, rhyme correspondence, Sinitic, Uralic, Sino-Uralic, Indo-European, Jupiter, year, wether, wet, water, mead.

Introduction

The "Finno-Ugric" term for 'year' (equivalents e.g. Finnish vuosi\vuote- 'year'; Estonian voos\vooe 'annual harvest'; Livonian uozri'gz 'spring rye'; Veps voz 'year'; Votic vosi 'year'; North Sami -vuohta '-hood'; Komi\Zyrian vo 'year'; Khanty\Ostyak al/ot/on 'year') has no cognate in Samoyedic languages, therefore it has been previously claimed a loanword from Indo-European (e.g. Sammallahti, 1998, p. 127; Koivulehto, 1999, p. 218). The present study finds that this "Finno-Ugric" term has cognates in Sinitic languages (which mean 'Jupiter, year') supported by a rhyme correspondence consisting of three etyma and an onset correspondence consisting of two etyma; therefore this term must be aboriginal in Sino-Uralic languages.

Gao (e.g. 2005, 2014b, 2019; Gao, 2008) detected and identified Sinitic and Uralic shared etyma, and has solely researched Sinitic and Uralic shared etyma for more than a decade. We could infer a general skepticism about this approach. Several unsound language comparisons, e.g. Finnish with Basque, Finnish with Dravidian, Proto-Uralic with Proto-Indo-European, have become tedious. It was difficult to clarify how the Sino-Uralic comparison is extraordinarily significant. Gao (2014b) turned the focus to a solid demonstration of regular sound correspondences (rhyme and onset correspondences) between Sinitic and Uralic, and included long discussions on the methodology. In light of this, one can realize that the Sino-Uralic etymological studies are distinguished from those unsound language comparisons. The general direction of Sino-Uralic affinity studies should be acknowledged.

A rhyme correspondence is a strict and composite rule of interlinguistic sound correlations. A rhyme correspondence achieves that not only a single phoneme but also a composite rhyme (the -VCv part of a CVCv morpheme) is consistently correlated among related language varieties. The first rhyme correspondences between the Sinitic and Uralic languages have been demonstrated on the example of the Finnish -ala and -aja rhymes with ten etyma (Gao, 2014b). A total of ten rhyme correspondences with 32 etyma has been published (Gao, 2019a). Another rhyme correspondence with five etyma has been added (Gao, 2019b). The present study adds two rhyme correspondences with seven etyma.

Materials and methods

The Sinitic language family is compared to Uralic language family.

The Sinitic etyma are guided by Chinese etyma (DOMs) which are historically attested glyphs. Their historical glosses are cited from the first two Chinese classical dictionaries (121-SW; 543-YP). Their historical phonological features are cited from the work 1161-YJ. Their attested equivalents including contemporary forms and glosses are represented by Beijing Yan (Mandarin) (written in Hanyu Pinyin including non-simplified forms), Guangzhou Yue (Cantonese) (written in Jyutping), Taipei Min (Minnan) (written in Tai-lo), Japanese Go-on and Kan-on (written in Hepburn). English glosses are made in the present study. Historically attested Old Chinese (OC) rhymes of the etyma are given according to Wang (1980). Reconstructed phonetic values of the rhymes are made in the present study.

The Uralic etyma are based on the relevant etymological dictionaries 1988-UEW and 2001-SSA. Their attested equivalents including contemporary forms and glosses are represented by Estonian, Finnish, Sami\Lappish North/Lule/Inari/Skolt/Kildin (equivalents up to 1989-YSaS; North Sami forms are adjusted according to 1989-SSS), Mordvin, Mari\Cheremis, Udmurt\ Votyak, Komi\Zyrian, Khanty\Ostyak, Mansi\Vogul, Hungarian, Nenets\Yurak, Enets\Yen, Nganasan\Tawgi, Selkup and Kamass. Non-English glosses are translated to English in the present study. Some modifications within Uralic etyma (adding or deleting equivalents) are made and remarked in the present study. Refutations of previously suggested etymological equivalents are given in footnotes.

Etymological equivalents in some other languages (mainly Indo-European, Tibeto-Burman, Manchu-Tungus suggested by other scholars) are checked according to the relevant works 1959-IEW, 1988-UEW, 1996-CV5ST, 2001-SSA, 2007-EDOC and 2008-NIL.

Reconstructed forms are added only for reference reasons. All the attested forms are compared instead of trusting the phonetic and semantic details of reconstructions, because the reconstructions are subject to changes depending on (newly compared) attested linguistic data. Two Old Chinese reconstructions, OC-W according to Wang (1980) and OC-Z according to Zheng-zhang (2013), are listed. Other reconstructions are cited from the direct references. Double quotation marks ("") are added when a notion or a reconstruction is not agreed.

Proto-Sinitic, also known as Proto-Chinese, cannot be compared because it is only a theoretical notion without reconstructed results. "Proto-Sino-Tibetan" cannot be compared because it is a hypothetical notion without a sufficient amount of etyma representing a sufficient number of languages. Moreover, the Sino-Tibetan hypothesis has been successively criticized (Miller, 1974; Beckwith, 2002, 2006, 2008; He, 2004; Guo, 2010, p. 21; Zhang, 2012). Besides, there are hypotheses for the multiple origins of Sinitic (Li, 1990; Schuessler, 2003).

Etymological equivalents are given in orthographies or transcriptions (for Uralic, mainly the Uralic Phonetic Alphabets). Equivalents in Western alphabets are given in boldface if they are found in official languages covered by ISO 639-1. Equivalents in Roman scripts are given in italic. If a given word is longer than one morpheme, the targeted morpheme is underlined (if certain). In Uralic, conditionally apocoped phonemes are given in uppercase. A cross sign (f) indicates that its target is archaic and outdated. Arrows indicate non-genetic diffusions

of terms (called loanwords by Western linguistics). In successive data, dialectal and authorial variants are separated by a slash (/); grammatical variants are separated by a backslash (\); while lexical variants are separated by a comma (,).

The methods follow traditional etymology (cf. Rask, 1818) and renewed etymology (cf. Gao, 2014a, 2014b, 2017, 2019a, 2019b). This study includes also methods of traditional Sino-grammatology (cf. 121-SW, 543-YP, 1978-1982-HJ, 1989-LZ) and Sino-phonology (cf. 1008-GY, 1161-YJ) which are ancient technologies.

Results and discussion

#1) [Ш £^£(121-SW): ЖМШ('Jupiter'); 5^(543-YP): l^('name of year'); ШЖ (1161-YJ): ^$$B+^0#i®^W[£]yi(outbound, 16th final, labialized+, 4th division, C tone, dental initial [fricative+] voiced-); Mandarin sui (suei) 'year-old', sui-xmg (suei-хщ) 'year-star (Jupiter)'; Cantonese seoi3 'year-old', seoi3-sing1 'year-star (Jupiter)'; Minnan sue/hue/he 'year-old', sue-sing 'year-star (Jupiter)'; Japanese Go-on sai; Kan-on sei;{OC rhyme ЛИ *-ta; OC-W *siuat; OC-Z "*sqhwads"}| is compared (Gao 2008, p. 206) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian voos\vooe 'annual harvest', tanavu 'this year'; Finnish vuosi\vuote- 'year'; Sami\Lappish -vuohta/-vuohta/--/--/-- '-hood/period'; Udmurt\Votyak va-рщ 'time, lifetime, age'; Komi\Zyrian vo 'year'; Khanty\Ostyak al/ot/эл 'year'; {"Proto-Finno-Ugric" *ode/*oSe 'year' (1988-UEW, p. 335)}. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *hwetaS 'Jupiter, year'}

This etymon has been identified (since Schrader, 1907, vol. 2, p. 525: only Finnish ~ Veps ~ Khanty\Ostyak ~ Proto-Indo-European *vet-, ut-, veto) in Indo-European languages: {Germanic: Danish vwdder 'ram'; Swedish vadur 'ram'; Norwegian vwr 'ram'; Icelandic vedur 'ram'; Old Norse vedr 'ram'; English wether; Old English weper 'wether'; Dutch weer 'wether'; Old Low German withar 'ram'; German Widder 'ram'; Old High German widar 'ram'; Gothic wiprus 'yearling lamb'}; {Baltic: Latvian vecs 'old'; Lithuanian vitusas 'fold'}; {Slavic: Czech vetchy 'decrepit'; Slovak vetchy 'decrepit'; Polish wiotki 'flabby'; Russian ветхий (vethij) 'fold'; Ukrainian ветхий (vethij) 'fold'; Bulgarian вехт (veht) 'old'; Serbo-Croatian ветах/vetah 'fold'; Old Church Slavonic ветъхъ (yetuxu) 'old'}; {Italic: Latin vetus 'old'; Italian vieto 'old'; Spanish viejo 'old'; Romanian biet 'poor'}; Albanian vit 'year', vjet 'last year'; Ancient Greek sxo^ (etos) 'year'; {Anatolian: Hittite witta 'year'; Luwian ussis 'year'}; {Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit Эс^ vatsa, 'calf, son, year'; Ossetian вжс (v^s) 'calf1}; {Proto-Indo-European *uet- 'year' (1959-IEW, p. 1175)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages.1 {?Proto-Sino-Uralo-Indo-European *hwetaS. See the overview section for this question.}

1 Refutation: Previously claimed (Mei, 1979, p. 117) etymological equivalents after Written Tibetan skyod 'to go, walk, go down, set' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (2007-EDOC, p. 485) etymological equivalents after Proto-Tai *xuap; Siamese khuap 'year' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies.

This etymon must be aboriginal in Sino-Uralic languages. There are two main reasons:

(1) The planet Jupiter was used to indicate years in ancient China, because it is located

between different stars by year. The expression of year in Old Chinese is ......] 'Jupiter

is at......(location of stars)'. This DOM is already attested in the Oracle Bone Script . (Figure 1)

(1989-LZ, p. 917: 1978-1982-HJ, #13475). The glyph shows a toolbar pointing between stars.

Figure 1. Attested form of in the Oracle Bone Script.

(2) It is a certain Sino-Uralic etymon supported by a rhyme correspondence consisting of three etyma (see Table 1 in the next section). The following etyma are studied in order to form a rhyme correspondence with the etymon #1.

#2) [ft]£^£(121-SW): M('explain'); 5M(543-YP): ^('explain'); fi$t(1161-YJ): [%]+ — (outbound, 16th final, labialized+, 1st division, C tone,

alveolar initial voiced+); Mandarin dui (duei) 'correspond'; Cantonese deoi3 'correspond'; Minnan tue/tui 'correspond'; Japanese Go-on dai; Kan-on tei; {OC rhyme H H *-ta; OC-W *duat; OC-Z "*l'o:ds"} 3 is compared (first publication) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian tdsi\toe- 'true, truth', tdde\tde- 'truth'; Finnish tosi\tote- 'truth'; Sami\Lappish duohta/tuohta/tuota/tuo3ttA/-- 'fact'; {"Proto-Finno-Lappic" *tote (Sammallahti, 1998, p. 239)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *dwotaS 'correspond'}

#3) [^]£^£(121-SW): 7KMMf^F^Aff('name of river'); 5M(543-YP): X7Km«('name of river, foam'); fi$t(1161-YJ):

(outbound, 24th final, labialized+, 1st division, D tone, labial initial voiced±); Mandarin md (mue) 'foam'; Cantonese mut3 'foam'; Minnan buat/buah 'foam'; Japanese Go-on machi/matsu; Kan-on batsu; {OC rhyme HH *-ta; OC-W *mat; OC-Z *ma:d}3 is compared (first publication) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Sami\Lappish muohta/muohta/myettid/miio'lt-1 /mu'tted 'snow'; {Proto-Lappic *motte (Sammallahti, 1998, p. 225)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages.4 {Proto-Sino-Uralic *mbwotaS 'foam, ice powder'}

2 Oracle Bone Script is the unearthed writing system of the Shang Empire (c.a. 1600-1046 B.C.E). It was recognized as being ancient Chinese writing by Wang Yi-rong iM^ in 1899. Liii E SJ^ compiled and published the first collection of 1,058 rubbings including some interpretations of some unearthed scripts in 1903. In English, it was introduced as "inscriptions upon bone and tortoise shell" by Frank H. Chalfant (1906, p. 30). The largest collection of 41,956 rubbings is 1978-1982-HJ. The primary academic reference book is 1989-LZ which sorts lexical terms and identifies their graphic-etymological equations to transmitted Chinese etyma (DOMs).

3 Refutation: Previously claimed (Koivulehto, 1983, p. 120; Sammallahti, 1998, p. 239) etymological equivalents after Proto-Indo-European *dmto-'tamed'; English tame are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies. It was already rejected (Katz, 1998, p. 90; Redei, 2002, p. 315). Previously claimed (Katz, 1998, p. 90) etymological equivalents after Proto-Germanic *stddia- 'stable'; Proto-Scandinavian *stddiR 'stable' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (Ritter, 1993, p. 86) etymological equivalents after Proto-Baltic *statiia-; Lithuanian stacias 'erect' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies.

4 Refutation: Previously claimed (Sammallahti, 1998, p. 127, 255; Koponen, 2005, p. 227; Koivulehto, 2006, p. 185) etymological equivalents after Proto-Balto-Slavic *mat-; Russian мотать (motat') 'to reel, to wind' are rejected due to semantic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (Koponen, 2005, p. 227; Koivulehto, 2006, p. 185) etymological equivalents after Estonian matma 'to bury' are rejected due to phonetic (according to the rhyme correspondence Rc#2020GaoAt1, its Estonian equivalent is expected to be mosi or mosi, but negative result) and semantic inconsistencies.

Since the etymon #1 involves compared onsets with different places of articulation in Sinitic and Uralic, the following etymon is studied in order to form an onset correspondence with the etymon #1.

#4) [Ж] H^(121-SW): M(543-YP):

('river'); fi$t(1161-YJ): 7th final, labialized+, 3rd division,

dental initial [fricative+] voiced-); Mandarin shui (suei) 'water'; Cantonese seoi2 'water'; Minnan sui/tsui 'water'; Japanese Go-on sui; Kan-on sui; {OC rhyme ШИ *-бэ; OC-W *eiei; OC-Z "*qhwljil?"}3 is compared (Gao, 2005, p. 73; Gao, 2008, p. 204) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian vesi\vee- 'water'; Finnish vesi\vete- 'water'; Mordvin ved/vad 'water'; Mari\Cheremis wst/wut 'water'; Udmurt\Votyak vu/vu 'water'; Komi\Zyrian va 'water'; Mansi\Vogul ut/wit/wut/wit 'water'; Hungarian viz 'water'; Nenets\Yurak ji?/wit 'water'; Enets\Yen bi? 'water'; Nganasan\Tawgi be? 'water'; Selkup yt/ut/Ut/ot 'water'; Kamass Ьш 'water'; {Proto-Uralic *wete 'water' (1988-UEW, p. 570)}. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *hwe6aX 'water'}

This etymon has also been identified (since Moller, 1756, p. 39, 164: only Estonian ~ Finnish ~ Swedish ~ German ~ Phrygian 'water') in Indo-European languages: {Germanic: Danish vwde 'wetness, to wet', vad 'wet', vand 'water'; Swedish vata 'wetness, to wet', vat 'wet', vatten 'water'; Norwegian vwte 'wetness, to wet', vat 'wet', vann 'water'; Icelandic vwta 'wetness, to wet', votur 'wet', vatn 'water'; Old Norse v&ta 'wetness, to wet', vatr 'wet'; vatn 'water'; English wet, water; Old English witan 'to wet', wit 'wet', w^ter 'water'; Dutch water 'water'; Old Low German watar 'water'; German Wasser 'water'; Old High German wazzar 'water'; Gothic wato 'river'}; {Baltic: Latvian udens 'water'; Lithuanian vanduo 'water'; Old Prussian wundan/wunda/undan 'water'}; {Slavic: Czech voda 'water'; Slovak voda 'water'; Polish woda 'water'; Russian вода (voda) 'water'; Belarusian вада (vada) 'water'; Ukrainian вода (voda) 'water'; Bulgarian вода (voda) 'water'; Serbo-Croatian вода/vdda 'water'; Slovene voda 'water'; Old Church Slavonic вода (voda) 'water'}; {Celtic: [Old] Irish uisce 'water'; Scottish Gaelic uisge 'water, rain, river'}; {Italic: Latin unda 'wave'; Italian onda 'wave'; French onde 'wave'; Spanish onda 'wave'; Portuguese onda 'wave'; Romanian unda 'wave'}; Albanian щё 'water'; Greek v5wp (ydor) 'water'; Ancient Greek ибюр (hudor) 'water'; Phrygian Ps5u (bedu) 'water'; {Anatolian: Hittite waatar 'water'; Luwian wida- 'wet'; warsa 'water'}; [Old] Armenian qbs (get) 'river'; Sanskrit (udra) 'water'; (udan) 'water, wave'; Tocharian-A war 'water'; Tocharian-B war

'water'; {Proto-Indo-European *ued- "'swell'" (2008-NIL, p. 707)}. {?Proto-Sino-Uralo-Indo-European *hwe6aX-n > hwen6aX. See the overview section for this question.}

This etymon has also been identified (Illich-Svitych, 1967, p. 334) in Manchu-Tungus languages: Orochi udu(n) 'rain'; Evenki udun 'rain'; Solon udu 'rain'; Even udbn 'rain'; {Proto-Manchu-Tungus *udun 'rain (with wind)' (1977-SSTA, p. 248)}.5 {= *hwe6aX-n}

The following etyma are studied in order to form a rhyme correspondence with the etymon #4.

#5) [Ш H^(121-SW): ^-&('finger'); 5M(543-YP): ^f^('finger'); !Ш(1161-YJ): 6th final, labialized-, 3rd division, B tone, dental

initial voiced-); Mandarin zhi (zt) 'finger, indicate'; Cantonese zi2 'finger, indicate'; Minnan tsi/ki 'finger, indicate'; Japanese Go-on shi; Kan-on shi; {OC rhyme ШИ *-бэ; OC-W *teiei; OC-Z

5 Refutation: Previously claimed (1996-CV5ST) etymological equivalents after Kachin m3di! 'be wet'; Lushai tui 'water' are rejected due to phonetic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (2007-ED0C, p. 475) etymological equivalents after Proto-Tibeto-Burman *lwi(y); Jingpho lui33 'to flow'; Lushai luiL < luih; Tiddim luuiF < luuih 'stream, river'; Old Mon Iwuy; Khmer luj 'float, drift'; Vietnamese loy 'swim' are rejected due to phonetic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (Illich-Svitych, 1967, с. 334) etymological equivalents after Proto-Dravidian *jed- 'water', Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan *jit- 'to drip'; Proto-Korean *oran- 'heavy rain' are rejected due to phonetic inconsistencies.

*kji?}3 is compared (Gao 2014b, p. 73) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian kasikae 'hand, arm'; Finnish kasikate- 'hand, arm'; Sami\Lappish giehta/kiehta/kieta/kie3ttA/kiDt 'hand'; Mordvin ked/kàd 'hand'; Mari\Cheremis kit 'hand'; Udmurt\Votyak ki 'hand'; Komi\Zyrian ki/ti 'hand'; Khanty\Ostyak kot/ket 'hand'; Mansi\Vogul kàt/kot/kât 'hand, forefoot'; Hungarian kéz 'hand'; {"Proto-Finno-Ugric" *kàte 'hand' (1988-UEW, p. 140)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *keôaX 'arm-hand-finger'}

#6) [Ig]m£(121-SW): ^#H&^##('grease'); ïM(543-YP): ^»^('grease'); f!it(1161-YJ): 6th final, labialized-, 3rd division, A tone,

dental initial voiced-); Mandarin zhï (zt) 'grease'; Cantonese zi1 'grease'; Minnan tsi 'grease'; Japanese Go-on shi; Kan-on shi; {OC rhyme ШШ *-ôs; OC-W *teiei; OC-Z *kji}3 is compared (first publication) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian kesi\kee 'bran, husk'; Finnish kesï\kete- 'cuticle'; Sami\Lappish --/--/-katt/-k§3tt/-- 'skin'; Mordvin ked/kàd 'skin, peel, husk'; {"Proto-Finno-Ugric" *keôe 'skin, leather, peel' (1988-UEW, p. 142)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages.6 {Proto-Sino-Uralic *keôa 'skin grease'}

#7) [Ш KfMl21-SW): [M]^Wni!î('sweet product of bee'); 5jI(543-YP): ^РШ ('product of bee'); fiÎt(1161-YJ): ^ШШ+^Ш И Щ\ШШ'ШШМ(outbound, 17th final, labialized-, 4th division, D tone, labial initial voiced±); Mandarin mi 'honey'; Cantonese mat6 'honey'; Minnan bit 'honey'; Japanese Go-on michi/mitsu; Kan-on bitsu; {OC rhyme МШ *-0э; OC-W *miet; OC-Z "*mlig"}3 is compared (Gao 208, p. 135) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalents: Estonian mesimee 'honey'; Finnish mesimete- 'honey'; Sami\Lappish miehta/mieta/ --/mie°ttA/miDt 'honey' (not loanword from Finnish, because of rhyme correspondence); Mordvin med/màd 'honey'; ?{Mari\Cheremis mu/muj 'honey'; Udmurt\Votyak mu/mù 'mead'; Komi\Zyrian ma 'honey'; ^ Nenets Sjoida ma 'honey'}(uncertain equivalents, out of rhyme correspondence); Hungarian méz 'honey'; {"Proto-Finno-Ugric" *mete 'honey, mead' (1988-UEW, p. 273)}. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *mbe0aS 'honey, mead'}

This etymon has also been identified (since Moller, 1756, p. 155: only Estonian ~ Finnish ~ some Germanic) in Indo-European languages: {Germanic: Danish mjed 'mead'; Swedish mjod 'mead'; Norwegian mjed 'mead'; Icelandic mjôdur 'mead'; Old Norse mjçôr 'mead'; English mead; Old English medu 'mead'; Dutch mede 'mead'; Old Low German medu 'mead'; German Met 'mead'; Old High German metu 'mead'}; {Baltic: Latvian medus 'honey, mead'; Lithuanian medùs 'honey'; Old Prussian meddo 'honey'}; {Slavic: Czech med 'honey'; Slovak med 'honey'; Polish miod 'honey'; Russian мёд/мед (mjod/med) 'honey, mead'; Belarusian мёд (mjod) 'honey'; Ukrainian мед (med) 'honey'; Bulgarian мед (med) 'honey'; Serbo-Croatian мед/mêd 'honey'; Slovene med 'honey'; Old Church Slavonic медъ (medu) 'honey'}; {Celtic: Irish miodh 'mead'; Old Irish mid 'mead'; Welsh medd 'mead'; Cornish medh 'mead'; Breton mez 'mead'; Gaulish medu 'mead'}; Greek (méthi) 'drunkenness'; Ancient Greek цеби (méthù) 'wine (Epic)'; {Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit (mâdhù) 'sweet thing, honey, milk'; Avestan maôù 'wine'; Ossetian мыд/муд (myd/mud) 'honey'; Northern Kurdish mot 'molasses'; Classical Persian ps (mey) 'alcoholic beverage'; Tajik май (may) 'wine'; (1989-CLI, p. 460)}; Tocharian-B mit 'honey';

6 Refutation: Previously claimed (Koivulehto, 1983, p. 119) etymological equivalents after Proto-Indo-European *skento; Proto-Germanic *skenpa; Old Norse skinn 'skin' are rejected due to phonetic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (Aikio, 2006, p. 17) etymological equivalents after Proto-Samoyedic *ket 'shape, appearance, figure'; Nenets syiq 'shape, figure'; Enets si' 'resemblance, similarity, likeness; omen, sign'; Nganasan сыты 'he, she' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (1996-CV5ST) etymological equivalents after Tibetan akhja(s)-pa 'to freeze, congeal', ska 'thick (of fluids)'; Burmese kja? 'strong (of tea)'; Kachin bgji3 'be frozen, be stiff, numb' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies.

{Proto-Indo-European *medhu- 'honey, mead' (2008-NIL, p. 467)}. This etymon has not been identified in other languages as inherited equivalents. {?Proto-Sino-Uralo-Indo-European *mbe0aS. See the overview section for this question.}

#7) [ft] H^^(121-SW): ('close, dense'); 5M(543-YP): H^^^M^('alike, collate, side by side'); fi$t(1161-YJ): [ rt$$BA^0#±®M^f(inbound, 4th final, labialized-, 4th division, B tone, labial initial voiced-); Mandarin bi 'contrast'; Cantonese bei2 'contrast'; Minnanpi 'contrast'; Japanese Go-on bi/hi; Kan-on hi; {OC rhyme IbH *-8a; OC-W *piei; OC-Z *pi?}3 is compared (first publication) to the Uralic etymon after the equivalent:

r . ... "7

Hungarian biz- 'entrust'. This etymon has not been identified in other languages. {Proto-Sino-Uralic *pe8aX 'side by side'}

Overview

The etyma #1 , #2 and #3 form a rhyme correspondence (Table 1).

Table 1. Rhyme correspondence (Rc#2020GaoAt1): Old Chinese rhyme H H *-ta : Mandarin -uei : Cantonese -eoi : Minnan -ue : Estonian -ose\-oe : Finnish -osi\-ote- : North Sami -uohta

DOM Mandarin Cantonese Minnan Estonian Finnish North Sami

tai > -(sui) suer J seoi3 suelhuelhe voos\vooe vuosivuote- -vuohta

'year old' 'year old' 'year old' 'annual harvest' 'year' '-hood'

m 7 > ■(dui) duel ' deoi3 tueltui tösi\\töe tositote- duohta

'correspond' 'correspond' 'correspond' 'true, truth' 'true, truth' 'tact'

mo mut3 b uátlb uáh -- -- muohta

'loam' 'loam' 'loam' 'snow'

This is a regular rhyme correspondence with three etyma. It is evidential. Its coincidental probability is as low as 1/53,824. The first etymon with a certain rhyme (1) * the first etymon with comparable onsets (1/4 [There are four sorts of onsets: labial, coronal, dorsal and laryngeal.]) * the second etymon falls into the same Old Chinese rhyme group (1/29 [There are 29 rhyme groups in Old Chinese.]) * the second etymon with comparable onsets (1/4) * the third etymon falls into the same Old Chinese rhyme group (1/29) * the third etymon with comparable onsets (1/4) = 1 * 1/4 * 1/29 * 1/4 * 1/29 * 1/4 = 1/53,824.

The etyma #1 and #4 etyma form an onset correspondence (Table 2).

Table 2. Onset correspondence (Oc#2020GaoAt2): Mandarin/Minnan su- : Cantonese s- : Estonian/Finnish v-

DOM Mandarin Cantonese Minnan Estonian Finnish North Sami

tai > ■(sui) suei ' seoi3 suelhuelhe voos\vooe vuosi\vuote- -vuohta

'year old' ' year old' ' year old' ' annual harvest' ' year' ' -hood'

suer ' seoi2 suiltsui vesi\vee vesi\vete- --

'water' ' water' ' water' ' water' ' water'

The etyma #4 [;K] , #5 [fé] , #6 [g] and #7 [tk] form a rhyme correspondence (Table 3).

7 Refutation: Previously claimed (1996-CV5ST) etymological equivalent Written Tibetan dpe 'pattern, model, symmetry' is rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies. Previously claimed (2007-EDOC, p. 162) etymological equivalents after Written Tibetan phyi 'behind, after'; Lepcha bin 'follow closely, belong to, be with, be next to' are rejected due to phonetic and semantic inconsistencies.

8 It is comparable to a lottery probability for 2 matching numbers chosen from 29 and 3 matching numbers chosen from 4 options, repeatedly.

Table 3. Rhyme correspondence (Rc#2020GaoAt3): Old Chinese rhyme Itt *-8a9: Mandarin/Minnan -i : Estonian/Finnish -esi\e : North Sami -iehta : Erzya -ed : Hungarian -izl-ez

DOM Mandarin Cantonese Minnan Estonian Finnish North Sami Erzya Hungarian

[*] ^ w. (shui) s u e i ' 7 seoi2 sui vesi\vee vesi\vete- -- ved viz

'water' 'water' ' water' ' water' ' water' ' water' ' water'

[fê] zfhi) zi2 tsi/ki kasikae kasi\kate- giehta ked kez

'imger' 'imger' ' imger' ' hand, arm' ' hand, arm' ' hand, arm' ' hand' ' hand'

[g] mi mat6 b it mesi\mee mesi\mete- miehta med mez

'honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey'

[t] bi bei2 pi -- -- -- -- biz-

'contrast' ' contrast' ' contrast' ' entrust'

The etyma #1 , #4 [;K1 and #6 [§] form a coda distinction covering both Sino-Uralic and Indo-European (Table 4). Old Chinese codas *-t-, *-S-, *-0- (while merged to a single coda -5-, -ht-, -d- or -z- in Uralic) are corresponding to Old English codas -p-, -t-, -d-; Ancient Greek codas -t-, -d-, -th- and Sanskrit codas -t-, -d-, -dh-, respectively. Although it is still only a table of distinction (more etyma with the same codas are required in order to form tables of correspondences), its coincidental probability is already low.

There is currently no evidence to claim the etyma #1 , #4 [;K1 and #6 [§] non-genetic diffusions (loanwords) from Sino-Uralic or Indo-European, because their semantic realizations are evenly original in both Sino-Uralic and Indo-European. Their greater genetic connection will be confirmed, if rhyme correspondences covering both Sino-Uralic and Indo-European are found in further studies. I must now apply the same caveat to the etymon #1 [m] in the publication of Gao (2019b).

Table 4. Coda distinction (Cd#2020GaoAt4) in Sino-Uralic and Indo-European

DOM Old Chinese Estonian Finnish North Sami Erzya Hungarian Old English A. Greek Sanskrit

[a] ^ tl *-ta v^sW^e vuosivuote- -vuohta -- -- weper etos vatsá

' Jupiter' ' annual harvest' ' year' ' -hood' ' wether' ' year' ' cali'

[*] It *-da vesi\vee vesi\vete- -- ved viz wat hudor udr á

' water' ' water' ' water' ' water' ' water' ' wet' ' water' ' water'

m Ht *-03 mesi\mee mesimete- miehta med mez medu methu mádhu

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'honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' honey' ' mead' ' honey' ' honey'

Conclusions

Using etymological methods, the present study has identified seven Sinitic and Uralic shared etymologies (etyma). Three of them form a rhyme correspondence. Two of them form an onset correspondence. Four of them form another rhyme correspondence. These regular sound changes validate the genetic connection between Sinitic and Uralic. The Sino-Finnic term for 'Jupiter, year' is among these seven etyma. It is demonstrated that this term should be aboriginal in Sino-Uralic languages.

9 There is an exception in this rhyme correspondence. The third etymon belongs to Old Chinese rhyme HtM *-0s.

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