Научная статья на тему 'Psychological anti-aging'

Psychological anti-aging Текст научной статьи по специальности «Философия, этика, религиоведение»

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Аннотация научной статьи по философии, этике, религиоведению, автор научной работы — Mishchykha Larysa Petrovna

The article focuses on the problem of a personality’s creative longevity. It is concluded that creative activity in the period of late ontogenesis should facilitate improvement of (a personality’s) life quality in the final period and, consequently, should become one of the significant factors of productive old age.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Psychological anti-aging»

Секция 9. Психология

принципами. Прежде всего это признание равноправия сторон. Каждая из сторон диалога должна обладать той мерой свободы, которая исключает возможность диктата, отношений господства и подчинения [2, 36].

Следовательно, обвинительная речь прокурора и защитительная речь адвоката служат одной цели — выяснению истины, постановлению справедливого решения.

Таким образом, ораторские способности в судебной речи следует понимать как комплекс знаний и умений юриста по подготовке и произнесению публичной речи сообразно с требованиями уголовно-процессуального закона; как умение построить объективно аргументированное рассуждение, формирующее научно-правовые убеждения; как умение воздействовать на правосознание людей.

Список литературы:

1. Ивакина Н. Н. Основы судебного красноречия (риторика для юристов): Учебное пособие - М.: Юристъ, -2002 - 384 с.

2. Зубарева В. А., Шевченко С. В., Апурина О. Д. Языковые и культурные закономерности переводческого процесса//Материалы международной научной конференции «Современные направления теоретических и прикладных исследований». - Том 24. - Выпуск 1. - Одесса, - 2013, - с. 36.

Mishchykha Larysa Petrovna, Precarpathian National University named after V. Stefanyk, Associate Professor, Department of General and Experimental Psychology

E-mail: Kreativ-L@mail.ru

Psychological anti-aging

Abstract: The article focuses on the problem of a personality’s creative longevity. It is concluded that creative activity in the period of late ontogenesis should facilitate improvement of (a personality’s) life quality in the final period and, consequently, should become one of the significant factors of productive old age.

Keywords: late ontogeny, creativity, creative longevity, creative activity, creative personality, anti-aging.

Nowadays highly developed countries observe increase in human lifespan, prolongation of old age, which covers about three decades. As for Ukraine, one in five is an elderly person (after 60), and the percentage of 80-year-old people is increasing. Hence, one of the main research directions for psychogerontologists is the problem of ensuring the quality of life for a personality in the late period of ontogenesis.

Wellbeing of an elderly person is identified by a number of factors determined by their physiological state of existence (physical ability to “exist”), mental state (adequate world perception, activity of cognitive and emotional processes), social state (social demand, communication), personal maturity (willingness to develop), mode of life, mental model of old age, active creative activity, which assimilates in itself all existential states in life dimension “I am” or “I want to be”. According to the realities of late adulthood, it should be mentioned that the possibility of further personality development in this period of life is ambiguous and does not apply to all age-related population. It is determined by regressive evolution of physical and mental existence of a personality,

gradual loss of their vitality, various potentials of their lifetime achievements. Consequently, we consider the category of mentally stable elderly people who are physically and mentally able to realize their creative potential in their final period of life, and whose “sense of life is developing” (I. Mechnikov) more and more at an old age. Among these people, the following three groups are singled out:

1. People whose creative potential has not been gained (or it is low) during ontogenesis. Hence, they have a nihilistic attitude to creative activity in the late period of life as creativity has not become a motivational and rational component of their personality.

2. People whose creative potential ceased to develop either at previous stages of ontogenesis or in the post-retirement period.

3. People (artists, scholars, high-ranking employees, politicians) who developed and gained high creative potential during the previous age-related stages of life and for whom creative activity has become a component of their personality. They continue working fruitfully in the late period of ontogenesis [4, 320].


Section 9. Psychology

The peculiarity of a person’s subjectness at the late stages of ontogenesis consists in the perspective of special age-related development to the level of dignity and the wisdom of age.

One of the main factors of a personality’s progressive development during the period of gerontogenesis is creative nature of their mode of life. V. Frankl states: “A person leading a fruitful life does not become senile; on the contrary, their mental and emotional qualities developed in the process of life remain though their physical strength weakens" [8, 256]. It is a personality’s ability to see life from different points; to detect latent possibilities of different situation; to perceive ambiguity of life circumstances as an opportunity to develop; to experiment with new social roles.

At an old age, the value of human life often does not decrease, but increases as much as an elderly person continues participating in society’s life. The level of preservation, degradation or senility is the function not only of the age, but also of the social and labor activity;

i. e. it is the product not only of ontogenetic evolution, but also of a person’s life journey as a personality and an actor.

Life experience, individual qualities, and level oftalent, which are inherent to a person, form own mechanism of compensation and adaptation to age-related changes and determine the level of their creative activity. The physical state ofelderly people depends a lot on their psychological wellbeing: elderly people, optimistically minded and involved in their affairs, feel much better than those focusing on their own misery only. Creative personalities go through their ageing more easily — they have their favorite pursuit and gained wisdom. Physical weakness makes the spirit rise. The factor of “life quality” at an old age is meant here. It can be reached only in case of wise attitude to own temporality where, in the first place, the state of existence “here and now” is actualized when the past does not arouse regret, and the future — despair. The productive old age is always acceptance of this age without dramatic “clinging” to the model of “eternal youth” [5, 237].

Based on the regulatory possibilities of brain, N. Bekhtereva remarks that “two extremes in the brain activity — strive for world perception and automation — form a person’s functional brain.” She continues: “The main mechanism of preserving the brain in the history of species and individual is the generalized reaction of the brain to any changes, to any novelty... As a consequence, organs atrophy without any activity.” [2]. That is why, it is necessary for retired people to have an opportunity to deal with the matter

important for them as “passive existence turns them into slow death” [6].

B. Ananyev shows that reflections on the issues connected with the sense of life have an essential impact on the description of the final stages of life. In the author’s opinion, the paradox of the end of life lies in the fact that “dying” of forms of human existence occurs before “physical deterioration” at an old age, which leads to a personality’s degradation under conditions of narrowing the sense of life. Thus, in terms of duration of life fruitful stages, it is most favorable for individuals to have some program, purposes in life. It is essential for an elderly person to be aware of life, which is more typical of highly educated people. Besides, special attention should be devoted to general positive personal and social identity and competence of a personality,

i. e. their ability to cope with life tasks and to accept their role, as well as the nature of relations with other significant people. Psychological attitude to old age is no doubt crucial. Old age syndrome or ageism is an aging “social program”. A person entering their 70s may fail to cope with this age boundary.

The stage of late adulthood makes an elderly person face the task of structuring and sharing experience. Positive evolution at an old age is possible only when an elderly person realizes their gained creative experience in significant work where they would introduce part of their own individuality. Replication of creative experience as well as own wisdom makes an elderly person important for community where they live, provides connection with society at the generation level (transfer of experience).

One of the best books in the history of culture is Cicero’s “On Old Age”, which he wrote being 84. Arguing with people who are afraid of old age, he states, “Any age is difficult for people who have nothing to promote their happy life, but old age, as an inevitable law of nature, is not evil for those searching for blessings in themselves” [9, 136]. Hence, his advice to people who entered the late period of life is to support mind and spirit, to struggle against laziness as well as to take care of own health. Cicero recommends wise old people to communicate with the young, and there should be reverse desire among the young to cooperate in order to support their old age.

Despite the fact that with age motivation decreases, which is connected with the change of direction (strengthening of family roles), it is different (or less noticeable) with creative personalities (scholars, artists, etc.), for whom intrinsic motivation (interest in work) is typical. The whole motivational structure of


Секция 9. Психология

a creative personality stabilizes in adolescence or early adulthood; it becomes tolerant of ageing. Concerning a creative personality, the growth and expansion do not weaken during whole life time due to a wide circle of interests, high social status and anticonformism in many cases [3, 235]. Consequently, representatives of scientific and artistic creativity who defend progressive views often keep a high potential up to the end of life. “Any creative activity," according to V. Frankle, “has a great intrinsic value filling elderly people with the sense of own existence despite their age” [7, 240].

A retired person faces possibilities of active pastime: reading favorite books, studying foreign languages, gardening, mastering some kind of art (choreography, fine art, handicraft, needlework, etc.), implementing creative plans, which were not carried out or completed at the previous stages of ontogenesis. Increase in creative potential is also caused by shifting to a related sphere if this sphere, which a person becomes involved in, has passed its culmination point before.

A personality’s realization of their creative potential is closely connected with individual psychological peculiarities (temperament, character) as well as such social factors as social experience (including creative experience) and direction, which will largely determine their abilities, realization area and efficiency.

One of the determinants of the development of a personality’s creative potential during gerontogenesis is optimum relationship between their possibilities and desires. If possibilities mainly represent individual and personal characteristics, which comprise cognitive achievements during ontogenesis, creative abilities (gifts), creative abilities, etc., as well as physical and mental ability allowing a personality’s development at the final stage of life, then desires form a socio-cultural layer of needs and claims of social nature, in which an elderly person exists. Hence a person considers themselves as an active and required member of society or vice versa (society is not interested). On the other part, many elderly people have no need for creative self-actualization, which is evidence of failure to gain creative potential or extinct need for this in the late ontogenesis.

The factors influencing the decrease in motivation for creativity in late ontogenesis include:

1. Mental and physical decay. It is a question of a personality’s energy potential when their stamina is exhausted and an elderly person concentrates on main vital needs, which fall within the competence of medical and social services.

2. Dominance of agitation and uneasiness (typical of late adulthood) over expansion and development (typical of young and middle age).

An elderly person is unable to reconstruct, reorganize their life; their purpose is to maintain the previous status.

3. Change in the dominant structure of motivation.

The decrease in productivity of creative work at

an old age is explained by the change in direction and leading motivation in this period. The need for family relations, close relationship where the focus on family prevails deepens.

4. Motivational stagnation, reduction of creative (or play) reasons for activity.

In the process of a personality’s individual development, play components (prevailing at a young age) are reduced giving way to labor components, which leads to a reduction in creative components of activity [3, 235].

Consequently, realization of a personality’s creative potential in the period of late adulthood depends on a number of factors including:

1. Developed subjectness. It is a question of the development of a personality as a subject of creative activity where its creative element initiates the process of a personality’s self-actualization during gerontogenesis;

2. A personality’s creative activity, which manifests itself in their readiness for creative activity in late ontogenesis, for realization of the need for creative work;

3. Creative experience as lifetime creative achievements during ontogenesis;

4. Developed personal qualities, which are integration of abilities, character, and orientation;

5. Developed cognitive qualities, which enable rational, mnemic, perceptual, emotional-volitional and other psychical processes;

6. Energy potential as energy reserve of body (physical ability) and psyche (mental ability), which enables creative self-actualization in late ontogenesis;

7. Personal relevance, which is expressed in a social demand for creative work (creative product) of an elderly person;

8. Appropriate social life conditions as a personality’s “comfort zone” where relevant conditions of creative work (provided everyday life, financial security) are satisfied;

9. Family environment, which could realize the need for love, protection and facilitate creative activity of an elderly person;

10. Cooperation of an elderly person with rising generation.


Section 9. Psychology

11. Continuing education enabling productivity of cognitive processes as well as ability to live and move in time, which will secure duration of an elderly person’s ability to work and vitality.

Developing the problem of a personality’s life and activity efficiency, A. Bandura singles out a number of abilities based, on self-reflective processes, in the structure of “self-efficacy”. If during lifetime a personality developed the integral of such abilities as positive self-appraisal, conviction about own efficacy and effectiveness, a personality has a “positive self-effective thinking”, which is a prerequisite for a person’s effective activity during their whole life. It results in formation of a “producer of one’s own life”, where self-belief makes it possible to shape own future. Accordingly, in order to allow a personality to be a subject of their own life creative activity, to withstand misfortunes while developing creative activity and survival, it is necessary, firstly, to apply the principle of a person’s development as a subject; secondly, to raise the problem of “psychological provision” of a personality’s possibility to be an effective, successful actor [1, 428]. A significant motivational and cognitively oriented role in constructing a new lifestyle on a pension is given to transformation of a personality’s inner world, the core of which is consciousness and reflexive processes. Thus, to lead a fruitful life in late ontogenesis, a personality must have faith in themselves and self-belief. Finally, as V. Frankl states, “A person is not free of conditions, no matter whether their nature is biological, psychological, or

sociological. But a person is free and will be always free to take up an appropriate position on these conditions; one is always free to change one’s attitude to them. A person is free to rise over somatic and psychic determinants of their existence. In that way a person discovers a new dimension, enters the noetic sphere, which denies separation of somatic and psychic phenomena. One is able to take up a position on the attitude not only to the world, but also to oneself” [6].

In the developed democratic society, elderly people must find their own place and new possibilities. Activity aimed at achieving life goals — social or political activity, intellectual or creative search, communication with friends or young people — can make old age meaningful.

At an old age, creative activity in late ontogenesis will guarantee internal integrity, new social relations; increase vitality at the cost of spurt, sense of own ability and productivity; optimize psychophysiological, emotional, intellectual, and personal reserves; help to sustain a personality in the final stage of life. Here the specific tasks of psychotherapy are to overcome social isolation, to raise a person’s self-esteem, to create conditions for further actualization of their life experience; to realize their creative potential in the late period of ontogenesis. A personal approach to realization of creative potential in the period of late ontogenesis makes it possible to actualize an elderly person’s subjective activity by stimulating their self-determination, self-appraisal concerning their attitude to the past as well as to the present.


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