Научная статья на тему 'PROFESSIONAL USE OF ENGLISH IN SCIENTIFIC SPHERE'

PROFESSIONAL USE OF ENGLISH IN SCIENTIFIC SPHERE Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
interdisciplinary relations / communicative character / communicative competence / annotation / multilingual environment / междисциплинарная связь / коммуникативные навыки / компетенция / полиязычная среда / научная статья / резюме / аннотация / пәнаралық байланыс / коммуникативті түр / коммуникативті құзыреттілік / реферат түрінде берілген аударма / аннотация

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Zakura Sh. Makazhanova

The article under review discusses some problems relating to teaching young investigators to use foreign language in their professional area. It provides information on main points of teaching foreign language for post graduates and emphasizes that they should develop the knowledge they gained before and improve further their abilities and master the new ones. A great deal of attention is given to studying different aspects of the language, such as phonetics, grammar, vocabulary. One of the most important things in teaching master students is considered to be further development of their communicative abilities. Another ability student should master is the ability to write summaries and annotations. In teaching this discipline for master students it is also significant to work on developing their skills of reading original literature in specialty using various types of reading; using text material when communicating on professional topics, as well as a basis for annotating, abstracting, composing various kinds of written messages; translating texts from English into Russian (as a method of developing communicative competence in reading). The article stresses out that teaching English for master students has specific features in terms of vocabulary, grammar and developed skills. The purpose of this paper is to outline the stages of teaching English to university post graduate students. As the curriculum presupposes studying English for both general and specific purposes, as well as mastering skills essential for corresponding professional communication sphere, it influences the content of the studied material and the structure of the academic process. The description of the highlighted stages enables specialists to apply the results for experimental purposes.

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ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В НАУЧНОЙ СФЕРЕ

В настоящей статье обсуждаются некоторые проблемы, связанные с обучением молодых исследователей использованию иностранного языка в своей профессиональной сфере. Автор предоставляет информацию об основных методах преподавания иностранного языка для магистрантов, подчеркивает необходимость дальнейшего совершенствования знаний, приобретенных ранее на уровне бакалавриата и освоение новых. Большое внимание уделяется изучению различных аспектов языка, таких как фонетика, грамматика, пополнение словарного запаса. Одной из наиболее важных задач в обучении магистрантов иностранному языку является дальнейшее развитие их коммуникативных способностей, а также навыков написания научных статей, аннотаций и резюме. При обучении данной дисциплине магистрантов также важно развивать навыки чтения оригинальной литературы по специальности с использованием различных типов чтения; использовать аутентичные текстовые материалы на профессиональные темы с последующим аннотированием, составление различных видов письменных сообщений; перевод текстов с английского на русский (как метод развития коммуникативной компетенции в чтении).

Текст научной работы на тему «PROFESSIONAL USE OF ENGLISH IN SCIENTIFIC SPHERE»

PROFESSIONAL USE OF ENGLISH IN SCIENTIFIC SPHERE

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Z. Makazhanova 1

'T. K. Zhurgenov Kazakh National Academy of Arts

(Almaty, Kazakhstan)

PROFESSIONAL USE OF ENGLISH IN SCIENTIFIC SPHERE

Abstract

The article under review discusses some problems relating to teaching young investigators to use foreign language in their professional area. It provides information on main points of teaching foreign language for post graduates and emphasizes that they should develop the knowledge they gained before and improve further their abilities and master the new ones. A great deal of attention is given to studying different aspects of the language, such as phonetics, grammar, vocabulary. One of the most important things in teaching master students is considered to be further development of their communicative abilities. Another ability student should master is the ability to write summaries and annotations. In teaching this discipline for master students it is also significant to work on developing their skills of reading original literature in specialty using various types of reading; using text material when communicating on professional topics, as well as a basis for annotating, abstracting, composing various kinds of written messages; translating texts from English into Russian (as a method of developing communicative competence in reading).

The article stresses out that teaching English for master students has specific features in terms of vocabulary, grammar and developed skills. The purpose of this paper is to outline the stages of teaching English to university post graduate students. As the curriculum presupposes studying English for both

general and specific purposes, as well as mastering skills essential for corresponding professional communication sphere, it influences the content of the studied material and the structure of the academic process. The description of the highlighted stages enables specialists to apply the results for experimental purposes.

Key words: interdisciplinary relations, communicative character, communicative competence, annotation, multilingual environment.

Introduction

One of the principles of modern education is the principle of development interdisciplinary ties. This helps to prepare young researchers for professional use of foreign language in various fields of scientific activity. Interdisciplinary communications are implemented in the use of:

• Foreign language as a means of obtaining professional information from foreign sources;

• Scientific and practical professional knowledge as a situational basis for modeling the organization of professional communication in the classroom;

• Foreign language in order to improve the general humanitarian training of undergraduates.

Teaching foreign language in MA course of a non-linguistic university is based on the following provisions:

1. Proficiency in a foreign language is a mandatory component of professional training of a modern specialist;

2. University foreign language course is communicatively oriented and professionally oriented. Its tasks are determined by communicative and cognitive needs of specialists of the corresponding profile;

3. Along with practical goal, training in professional communication, foreign language course in MA course pursues educational goals. Their achievement contributes to broadening students' horizons, raising their cultural and education level.

Methods

The main aim of teaching English for professional use is to create conditions to develop foreign language professional communicative competence and a number of individual qualities which help to advance educational and scientific process. It provides psychologically appropriate interaction in professional scientific communication in a foreign language as well as improvement of skills to use this competence in scientific research.

Theoretical and empirical methods. To achieve the goal a series of mutually reinforcing methods was used:

- Theoretical methods - surveying publications on research problem; studying and summarizing innovative pedagogical experience;

- Empirical methods - observation, testing, questioning, studying the results of learning activity of post graduate students.

Results

In the process of teaching a foreign language to post graduate students special program was developed and implemented in the education process. The main task of the program was to improve basic professionally significant knowledge of a foreign language and motivatet master students to acquire such knowledge. The syllabus of the course is close to practice and implements principle of professional foreign language motivation.

The following competence technologies were used in the process of foreign

language teaching: project-based learning; development of critical thinking by reading specialty literature and writing, method of debate. The competence approach requires from the learner not to acquire knowledge but to be able to solve problems, so technologies used in development of the foreign language professional communicative competence were practice-based which made it possible to train the learner's ability to act and solve professional tasks.

English language course for postgraduates includes further deepening their knowledge in various aspects of the language. So, in phonetics, it is supposed to continue work on improving pronunciation skills when reading aloud and in the process of speaking. The skill of intonation design of speech has to be improved using verbal, phrasal and logical stress.

By the end of the course, postgraduate vocabulary should be at least 3,000 lexical units (including about 300 terms of a majoring specialty), taking into account university minimum (2,500 units) and a potential dictionary, approximately 1000 lexical units of these to develop students' oral speech skills [1].

Work on improving lexical skills of students goes on. There is a development of linguistic and contextual conjecture in receptive types of speech activity (reading and listening). Work is underway to compile a glossary and use terminological vocabulary in speech, as well as its understanding in the process of reading and listening.).

For professional communication, the course also involves the training:

• means of filling in narrative, description, reasoning, clarification, correction of what was heard or read, identification of the message subject,

report, etc .;

• Means of expressing approval / disapproval, surprise, exclamation, preference, etc.;

• Means of consent / disagreement, ability / inability to do something, finding out the possibility (impossibility) of doing something, fidelity / uncertainty in the reported facts;

• Tools that allow you to enter into communication and develop the topic, summarize the message, initiate and end the conversation.

Grammar is one of the important language aspects. The master's program suggests further work on more complex grammatical phenomena, such as the rules of tenses coordination, transforming direct speech into indirect, non-personal forms of the verb: Infinitive, Present Participle, Past Participle, Perfect participle, Gerund; infinitive and participial constructions, subjunctive mood, modal verbs [2].When deepening and systematizing knowledge of grammatical material necessary for reading and translating scientific literature in specialty, main attention is paid to the syntactic division of sentences; complex syntactic constructions typical of the style of scientific speech: turns based on non-personal verb forms, passive constructions, multi-element definitions (attributive complexes), truncated grammatical constructions (non-conjunctive clauses, etc.); emphatic and inversion structures; means of expressing semantic (logical) center of the sentence and modality. Of primary importance is the mastery of phenomena translation features and methods.

In teaching this discipline so, reading instruction includes developing skills of reading original literature in specialty using various types of reading; using text material when communicating on

professional topics, as well as a basis for annotating, abstracting, composing various kinds of written messages; translating texts from English into Russian (as a method of developing communicative competence in reading).

One of the central tasks in learning a language at any stage is teaching oral speech (speaking). By the end of the course, postgraduate must master all types of monologic speech (informing, explaining, clarifying, illustrating); dialogical speech (the ability to conduct a conversation on professional topics, to reasonably express one's opinion and attitude to the problem under discussion, to express communicative intention (advice, regret, surprise, perplexity, etc.).

Listening is one of the activities students must master; developing listening skills allows postgraduates to understand what they have heard, express their opinion, and also extract necessary details from the contents of an authentic text in specialty [3].

One of another important task in teaching English to postgraduate students is to contribute to the development of writing essays, abstracts (summaries), and reports on the topic of research. Experience in this area shows that by the end of the course, postgraduates have some skills in writing scientific articles, abstracts, etc. in English, but objectively, the number of credits does not allow them to master these skills to the full.

The purpose of the essay is to replace the original source so that the reader has the opportunity to save time when familiarizing the object of description, as well as a summary of some scientific information contained in several books, articles, website publications, for the student to acquire professional training and develop professionally significant

scientific search skills. In the process of work on the abstract, postgraduate, improving his knowledge of a foreign language, at the same time, more deeply comprehends the questions of the studied subject, since he analyzes various points of view, phenomena, facts and events. These skills are extremely essential for postgraduates, since a specialist with a master's degree should be widely erudite, master methodology of scientific creativity, modern information technologies, methods of obtaining, processing and fixing scientific information. At present stage of world science development, all skills of processing scientific information without fail include the ability to work with literature in various languages [4].

Discussions

The necessity to develop foreign language professional competence is one of the most significant objectives in teaching English for researchers. In any sphere of professional activity one may have a compelling need to establish professional contacts with colleagues from other countries. This will allow them to get to a new professional level, develop their ideas in accordance with the world experience, as well as to present their ideas on a foreign market. Analysis of different points of view on the professional communicative competence has shown that it is defined as "the ability and willingness to implement foreign language communication according to the requirements of the program, which, in their turn, depend on a set of language-specific knowledge and skills such as linguistic means and processes of speech production and recognition; grammar skills and knowledge; lexical knowledge and skills (taking into account socio-cultural vocabulary minimum); orthographic

knowledge and skills; pronunciation skills and listening comprehension skills.

Relevant translation of professionally-oriented articles for preparing graduate students to write their dissertations is also relevant for this level of education. An abstract translation is an abbreviated translation of texts, built on the semantic compression of the material presented. Proper collapse of factual information while maintaining the most significant substantive aspects is the main goal of this type of translation, which has now become very common. Since the training of non-core postgraduates in full-text translation, unfortunately, is not possible due to lack of time, it is the abstract translation, which is less time-consuming, but no less useful for students, it is most advisable to practice in groups of postgraduates. Such translations, in particular, I practice in my master groups, because the number of hours does not allow me to make full complete translations.

Cliches needed to write an abstract: The object (purpose) of the text (paper) is

- to discuss

- to describe

- to show

- to determine

The present paper discusses some problems relating to ...

... deals with some aspects of ...

... provides information on ...

... is devoted to ...

... is concerned with ... Introduction: The paper begins with a short discussion ...

To begin with, the author ...

The body of a summary: Then follows a

discussion on ...

Next the author tries to ...

It must be noted that ...

Then comes the problem of ...

Conclusion: The conclusion is that ...

To sum up ...

Finally the author admits ... The final paragraph states ...

An abstract cannot replace the text of the original, it only enables the reader to form an opinion on the advisability of a more detailed acquaintance with the material. The size of the annotation can be from 50 to 60 words. [5]. Additional cliches: In my opinion ... To my mind ...

It is possible to understand that ... This tells us almost for certain ... In spite of all these differences ... In conclusion I would like to state the main problem ...

The study of the discipline ends with an exam.

Sample exam structure:

1. Read and translate a special text in writing with a dictionary (45 minutes)

2. Viewing reading of the text on a specialty

3. Make a message on the topics:

- About myself and my scientific work Autobiography

- Study in a magistracy: pluses and minuses

- The book I read (in the original by profession)

-Scientific Conference -Scientific Library. -United Kingdom.

- Kazakhstan.

Criteria for evaluating translation.

• 5 points - 100% translation completed.

• 4 points - 90% of the translation is completed, 1-2 lexical or grammatical errors are made, 1 ambiguity.

• 3 points - completed from 60% to 90% of the translation, 2-3 lexical or grammatical errors were made, 1 inaccuracy.

• 2 points - less than 60% of the

translation completed. There are lexical and grammatical errors.

• Sentences that are distorted are considered untranslated.

• A transfer is not credited if less than 60% is completed [6].

Criteria for evaluating an oral response.

Mark "excellent' is given to postgraduate if he is able to conduct a conversation, giving both factual information and his comments on this issue, knows the technique of conducting a conversation (he can start and end a conversation, ask questions, give information, draw conclusions, etc.). Moreover, if student makes a mistake, but can correct it immediately. Uses the correct intonation design of questions and answers, requests and exclamations. Uses a wide range of vocabulary. There are phonetic errors, but they do not interfere with communication in a foreign language.

The rating is "good" if postgraduate shows a good understanding of the tasks, but sometimes you have to repeat the question. Confidently conducts a conversation, expounding not only the facts, but also his attitude to them, but he does not always spontaneously react to a change in the partner's speech behavior. There are grammatical errors, but this does not interfere with communication. Sufficient fluency is observed. Uses variety of vocabulary. There are phonetic errors that do not interfere with communicative tasks.

Rating of "satisfactory" is given if postgraduate shows a general understanding of the issues, but he needs explanations and clarifications of some issues; his answers are simple and he is indecisive. Sometimes there is no logic in the statements. The student easily stumbles on a memorized text.

The mistakes made in speech make conversation difficult. Extremely simplified grammatical structures and elementary vocabulary are used. The pronunciation is noticeable interference of the native language.

Evaluation of "unsatisfactory" is given if postgraduate answered several questions or gave some information on very simple topics, often asks again and asks to rephrase or translate the questions into Russian. Uses memorized pieces of topics in answer. He does not know how to adequately respond to initiative replicas of the interlocutor. There are a large number of grammatical errors (including syntax). Errors are found in almost every utterance. A student cannot conduct a conversation in a foreign language with an examiner. The student's pronouncing mistakes greatly complicate the understanding of his statements.

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Current control of knowledge is carried out at each class lesson in the course of work on the assimilation of educational material, as well as by checking the completion of individual tasks of postgraduate students. The intermediate control of knowledge is carried out during the control tests, as well as during the midterm control (after 7.14 weeks). The final control of knowledge is implemented during the final certification (exam) after 15 weeks.

At the midterm control, postgraduates have to:

1) Translate in writing an original text in the specialty using a dictionary (1800 printed signs in 45 minutes);

2) Discuss proposed problem of professional orientation.

At the exam, undergraduates have to:

1) Translate in writing an original text in the specialty using a dictionary (1800 printed characters in 35 minutes);

2) Read a text on a specialty of 2000 printed signs in 10 minutes and transmit

in English its main provisions in the form of an annotation;

3) Take part in discussion of professionally oriented problem

Conclusion:

Radical changes in our society in the last decade, namely, opening the state borders, increased mobility, development of modern information technologies are reflected in the system of higher education and, in particular, in foreign language training of master students. Foreign language training not only equips the learners with knowledge and develops skills and abilities, but also contributes to the formation of a new type of the language identity, the qualities of which are determined by the requirements of the society, these qualities are a priority objective of the educational process and

are taken into account when drafting higher education standards, providing for the increased level of professionally oriented foreign language communicative training of post graduate students. They take an active part in international conferences and make scientific reports in English; actively publish their research results in English in international scientific journals.

A system of foreign culturological tasks, principles of their selection and their implementation in practice can be effectively used to develop foreign language professional competence of specialists in any field; to develop programs and study guides in a foreign language. The materials of this article may be of use to higher school lecturers and researchers who are interested in consistent mastering their foreign language skills to develop their foreign language competence.

References:

1. Kozharskaya E., McNicholas, K., Bandis, A. Macmillan Guide to Science. Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 2008. - 127 p.

2. Vyborova G. E., Makhmuryan K. S., Melchina O. K. Easy English: Basic course: extbook for students of non-linguistic universities. - Moscow: AST-PRESS BOOK, 2002. - 384 p.

3. Golitsyn Yu. B. Collection of exercises on the grammar of the English language. - St. Petersburg, 2010. - 543 p.

4. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. - New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. - 326 p.

5. Koshmanova I. I., Sidorova N. A. Oral topics in English. - St. Petersburg: Soyuz Publishing House, 2001. - 272 p.

6. Oshchepkova V. V., Shustilova I .I. About Britain in a nutshell. - Moscow: Enlightenment, 1993. - 157 p.

7. Khairi Izwan, Abdullah. "English for specific purposes in Malaysia: international influence, local flavour"// Journal of Southeast Asian Education 2/2, 2001. - P. 345 - 361.

8. Belcher, Diana. "English for specific purposes: teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in worlds of work, study, and everyday life" // TESOL Quarterly 40, 2006. - P. 133 - 156.

9. Brunton, Michael William Cameron. "An evaluation of students' attitudes to the general English and specific components of their course: a case study of hotel employees in Chiang Mai, Thailand // ESP World Issue 4/25. - Volume 8, 2009. - P. 1 - 82. [Internet resurces] // <http://www.esp-world.info/Articles_25/ESP%20world%20study.pdf>. (Last accessed 16 June 2014)

10 González Ardeo, Joseba. "(In) compatibility of CLIL and ESP courses at university" // Language Value 5/1, 2013. - P. 24 - 47.

11. Gotti, Maurizio. "Reformulation and recontextualization in popularization discourse"// Ibérica 27, 2014. - P. 15 - 34.

12. Fahrutdinova, R. A., Yarmakeev, I. E. & Fakhrutdinov, R. R. The formation of students' foreign language communicative competence during the learning process of the English language through interactive learning technologies (The study on the basis of Kazan Federal University) // English Language Teaching, 7 (12), 2014. - P. 36 - 46.

13. Geihman, L. K. Interactive communication training (general pedagogic approach): Doctor of Pedagogics Dissertation. - Yekaterinburg, 2003. - P. 56 - 67.

14. Goihman O. Y. Professional communicative competency: components of effective communication. - Moscow: INFRA-M, 2006. - P. 102 - 112.

15 Gurie, L. I., Gazizova A. I. Problems of training academic teachers in Turkey in the conditions of current reforms. - Moscow: Higher Education in Russia, 2008. - P. 95 - 120.

16. Gurie, L.I. Post-graduate education of university teachers under the conditions of innovative processes. - Kazan: RITs "Shkola», 2008. - P. 224 - 235.

17. Mukhametzyanova, L. & Shayakhmetova, L. Application of associative experiment in forming the foreign communicative competence // English Language Teaching, 7 (12), 2014. - P. 60 - 64.

18. Panfilova, V. M., Panfilov, A. N. & Merzon, E. E. Organizational-pedagogical conditions to form the foreign competence in students with the features of linguistic giftedness // International Education Studies, 8 (2), 2015. - P. 176 -

185.

З. Ш. Макажанова

Т. H¡. ЖYргенов атындагы Казан; улттын; внер академиясы 2

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колдану га дайындау мэселелерш карастырган. Магистратурада шетел ттш окытудагы непзп %

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карай дамыту,жэне баска бiлiмдердi менгерY туралы айтыяган.Макалада студенттердiн бiлiмiн дамытудагы мацызды болып саналатын тiл аспектiлерiне кеп кецш аударылган, оньщ iшiнде тт салаларына (фонетика, грамматика,лексикага) автор ерекше токталган. Автордын ойы бойынша мацызы зор каблеттiлiктiн бiрi ол реферат жаза бту жэне аннотация жасау болып табылады. Магистранттарга бул пэндi окытуда эр ТYрлi оку турлерш колдана отырып, мамандык бойынша тупнуска эдебиеттi оку дагдыларын дамыту бойынша жумыс жасаудьщ мацызы зор; кэаби такырыптарда сейлесу кезiнде мэтiндiк материалдарды, сонымен катар эр ТYрлi жазбаша хабарламаларды аннотациялау, рефераттау, жазу ушш негiз; мэтiндердi агылшын тiлiнен орыс тiлiне аудару (окудагы коммуникативтiк кузiреттiлiктi дамыту эдiсi ретiнде).

Ирек сездер: пэнаралык байланыс, коммуникативтi тур, коммуникативтi кузыреттiлiк, реферат ТYрiнде берiлген аударма, аннотация.

З. Ш. Макажанова

Казахская национальная академия искусств им. Т.К. Жургенова

(Алматы, Казахстан)

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В НАУЧНОЙ СФЕРЕ

Аннотация

В настоящей статье обсуждаются некоторые проблемы, связанные с обучением молодых исследователей использованию иностранного языка в своей профессиональной сфере. Автор предоставляет информацию об основных методах преподавания иностранного языка для магистрантов, подчеркивает необходимость дальнейшего совершенствования знаний, приобретенных ранее на уровне бакалавриата и освоение новых. Большое внимание уделяется изучению различных аспектов языка, таких как фонетика, грамматика, пополнение словарного запаса. Одной из наиболее важных задач в обучении магистрантов иностранному языку является дальнейшее развитие их коммуникативных способностей, а также навыков написания научных статей, аннотаций и резюме. При обучении данной дисциплине магистрантов также важно развивать навыки чтения оригинальной литературы по специальности с использованием различных типов чтения; использовать аутентичные текстовые материалы на профессиональные темы с последующим аннотированием, составление различных видов письменных сообщений; перевод текстов с английского на русский (как метод развития коммуникативной компетенции в чтении).

Ключевые слова: междисциплинарная связь, коммуникативные навыки, компетенция, полиязычная среда, научная статья, резюме, аннотация

Author's bio:

Zakura Sh. Makazhanova — Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and KPA at Т. Zhurgenov Kazakh National Academy of Arts, Candidate of Historical sciences, Associate Professor. e-mail: zakura.makazhanova@mail.com

Автор туралы мэл1мет:

Закура Шапиевна Макажанова — Т. К. Жургенов атындагы Казак, улттык, онер академиясыньщ шет тiлдерi жэне Казакстан халык,тарыныц Ассамблеясы кафедрасыныц доцентi, тарих гылымдарыныц кандидаты. e-mail: zakura.makazhanova@mail.com

Сведения об авторе:

Закура Шапиевна Макажанова — доцент кафедры иностранных языков и АНК Казахской национальной академии искусств им. Т.К. Жургенова, кандидат исторических наук. e-mail: zakura.makazhanova@mail.com

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