Научная статья на тему 'Pharmaceutical terminology of mythological origin'

Pharmaceutical terminology of mythological origin Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
mythologism / myths / pharmaceutical terminology / Latin language / antiquity / plant names / мифологизм / мифы / фармацевтическая терминология / латинский язык / античность / названия растений

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Dmitrieva O. N., Kolesova A. N.

The article presents a study of mythologisms in pharmaceutical terminology. Mythologisms are terms whose etymology is connected with myths of antiquity. It is known that they entered the medical terminology in the Renaissance, the period of the cult of antiquity and classical Latin. The work analyzes a number of classical pharmaceutical mythologism studied their mythological sources, the subjects of the relevant myths. The article will be of interest to students of medical profile and can be used in practical classes on the course “Latin and the basics of medical terminology”.

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ФАРМАЦЕВТИЧЕСКИЕ ТЕРМИНЫ МИФОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ

Данная статья посвящена изучению мифологизмов в фармацевтической терминологии. Мифологизмы являются терминами, этимология которых связана с мифами античности. Известно, что они вошли в медицинскую терминологию в эпоху Возрождения – период культа античности и классической латыни. В исследовании подробно проанализированы ряд классических фармацевтических мифологизмов, изучены их мифологические источники, приведены сюжеты соответствующих мифов. Статья будет представлять интерес для студентов медицинского профиля и может быть использована на практических занятиях по курсу «Латинский язык и основы медицинской терминологии».

Текст научной работы на тему «Pharmaceutical terminology of mythological origin»

Библиографический список

1. Алгунова Ю.В., Сафонова А.С., Ашырова Г Методологические подходы в обучении языку специальности иностранных студентов медицинских вузов. Актуальные проблемы изучения и преподавания РКИ в вузе: современные тенденции билингвального образования: материалы Международной научно-практической конференции, 1 - 2 июня, Тверь: ТГУ 2018: 130 - 136.

2. Андрюшина Н.П. и др. Государственный образовательный стандарт по русскому как иностранному. Первый уровень. Второй уровень. Профессиональные модули. Санкт-Петербург, 2000.

3. Федеральный государственный образовательный стандарт высшего профессионального образования по направлению подготовки (специальности) 060101 лечебное дело (квалификация (степень) «специалист»). Available at http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_108943

4. Требования по русскому языку как иностранному. Второй уровень владения иностранным языком в учебных и специально-профессиональных макросферах. Для учащихся естественно-научного, медико-биологического и инженерно-технического профилей. Москва, 2005.

5. Галиев Т.Т. Системный подход к интенсификации учебного процесса. Алматы: Гылым, 1998.

References

1. Algunova Yu.V., Safonova A.S., Ashyrova G. Metodologicheskie podhody v obuchenii yazyku special'nosti inostrannyh studentov medicinskih vuzov. Aktual'nye problemy izucheniya i prepodavaniya RKI v vuze: sovremennye tendencii bilingval'nogo obrazovaniya: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, 1 - 2 iyunya, Tver': TGU, 2018: 130 - 136.

2. Andryushina N.P. i dr. Gosudarstvennyj obrazovatel'nyj standart po russkomu kak inostrannomu. Pervyj uroven'. Vtoroj uroven'. Professional'nye moduli. Sankt-Peterburg, 2000.

3. Federal'nyj gosudarstvennyj obrazovatel'nyj standart vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya po napravleniyu podgotovki (special'nosti) 060101 lechebnoe delo (kvalifikaciya (stepen) "specialist"). Available at http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_108943

4. Trebovaniya po russkomu yazyku kak inostrannomu. Vtoroj uroven' vladeniya inostrannym yazykom v uchebnyh i special'no-professional'nyh makrosferah. Dlya uchaschihsya estestvenno-nauchnogo, mediko-biologicheskogo i inzhenerno-tehnicheskogo profilej. Moskva, 2005.

5. Galiev T.T. Sistemnyj podhod k intensifikacii uchebnogo processa. Almaty: Fylym, 1998.

Статья поступила в редакцию 19.11.19

УДК 82-394: 811.124 DOI: 10.24411/1991-5497-2019-10223

Dmitrieva O.N., Cand.of Sciences (Philology), senior lecturer, North-Eastern Federal University n.a. M.K. Ammosov (Yakutsk, Russia), E-mail: oksanadm2006@mail.ru

Kolesova A.N., student of Medical Institute, North-Eastern Federal University n.a. M.K. Ammosov (Yakutsk, Russia), E-mail: kolesova.aytaluuna@mail.ru

PHARMACEUTICAL TERMINOLOGY OF MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGIN. The article presents a study of mythologisms in pharmaceutical terminology. Mythologisms are terms whose etymology is connected with myths of antiquity. It is known that they entered the medical terminology in the Renaissance, the period of the cult of antiquity and classical Latin. The work analyzes a number of classical pharmaceutical mythologism studied their mythological sources, the subjects of the relevant myths. The article will be of interest to students of medical profile and can be used in practical classes on the course "Latin and the basics of medical terminology". Key words: mythologism, myths, pharmaceutical terminology, Latin language, antiquity, plant names.

О.Н. Дмитриева, канд. фил. наук, доц., Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени М.К. Аммосова, г. Якутск, E-mail: oksanadm2006@mail.ru

А.Н. Колесова, студентка, Медицинский институт Северо-Восточного федерального университета имени М.К. Аммосова, г. Якутск, E-mail: kolesova.aytaluuna@mail.ru

ФАРМАЦЕВТИЧЕСКИЕ ТЕРМИНЫ МИФОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ

Данная статья посвящена изучению мифологизмов в фармацевтической терминологии. Мифологизмы являются терминами, этимология которых связана с мифами античности. Известно, что они вошли в медицинскую терминологию в эпоху Возрождения - период культа античности и классической латыни. В исследовании подробно проанализированы ряд классических фармацевтических мифологизмов, изучены их мифологические источники, приведены сюжеты соответствующих мифов. Статья будет представлять интерес для студентов медицинского профиля и может быть использована на практических занятиях по курсу «Латинский язык и основы медицинской терминологии».

Ключевые слова: мифологизм, мифы, фармацевтическая терминология, латинский язык, античность, названия растений.

It is known that a large part of mythologisms began to be used actively in the medical terminology of the Renaissance. The source of pharmaceutical mythologisms is the mythology of Antiquity. As well as the biblical and the astrological terms, mythologisms are the evidence of past times, but are still preserved in medicine and are actively used. The purpose of this article is to identify mythologisms in pharmaceutical terminology, to study their mythological sources and their modern significance in the modern medicine [1].

The term mythologism refers to the plot-motivational construction of artistic reality on the model of a mythological stereotype. Mythologism assumes the attitude to the myths as to symbolic situations, motivations and characters. Pharmaceutical terminology is one of the layers of medical terminology. The most initial stage in its development was the attachment of names for certain plants in the Renaissance.

The study of pharmaceutical terminology, which reflected mythological images, is of interest, firstly, as an imprint of ancient culture, of which mythology is a part, and secondly, as a story about the language itself and its nature.

The important place that mythology occupied in the life of ancient man was reflected in the language, where mythological metaphors became widespread. The appearance of such metaphors among the pharmaceutical names of drugs and plants can be regarded as an attempt to fix some of their properties, which most of all and so impressed the imagination of ancient people that they explained them as the signs of the divine origin.

Materials and methods of research

The materials for this study were the names of plants and medicines, in the origin for which myths served as the basiswith translation into Latin [2]. Their mythological sources, history of the introduction into pharmaceutical terminology and the modern meaning are revealed and studied.

Aconite (Akonis vernalis) got its name from the name of the town of Acon. According to legend, not far from this town was the entrance to the underworld of hades, the realm of the dead. The entrance to the underworld was guarded by the dog named Cerberus, one of the children of Echidna, the grandson of Medusa. Hercules, performing his eleventh feat, was to bring from Hades Cerberus this dog sitting on a goal at the gate of Acheron, on the neck of which grew three heads, and instead of wool coiling snakes. Hercules brought Cerberus into the sun. And when the ferocious dog first saw the sun, his all three months were watering with poisonous saliva because of horror. Drops of saliva, falling, touched the ground and turned into beautiful flowers, called Aconite.

Poppy (Papaver). There is a lot of mysterious in the history of the "birth" of poppy. The most famous story that reveals its essence is the myth of the abduction of Persephone by Hades. The poppy was created by Zeus himself and was presented to Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and cereals, from whom her daughter Persephone was abducted. It had a special property-temporary memory loss, whish relieved the suffering caused by the loss of her daughter Persephone. According to another legend, the poppy was created by the sleep God Morpheus and was considered the flower of sleep and oblivion. Hence the main alkaloid contained in the milky juice of the poppy, was named morphine.

Water Lily (Nymphaea). The white water Lily, which lives in stagnant and slowly flowing waters, holds many secrets. With this beautiful flower the Greek legend, which tells of a beautiful nymph who fell in love with young Hercules is associated. The hero did not respond to the feelings of the nymph, and she died of anguish, turning into a water Lily.

Peony (Paeonia). The flower got its name from the name of Peon (a disciple of the ancient Greek physician Asclepius), who produced with its help amazing healings

and cured with them even Hades the God of hell from the wound inflicted to him by Hercules. This medical success aroused the strongest envy in Asclepius, and he ordered the killing of the Peon, but the recovered God turned the healer into a flower, which was carefully guarded by the variegated woodpecker. He tried to peck out the eyes of anyone who tried to rip it off. And because of that, it was sought after not otherwise as at night, when the woodpecker slept.

Rosa (Rosa). The story of the rose "Queen of all flowers" begins, almost with the birth of a man. According to an ancient legend, the rose was created by the gods. According to Greek myth, the goddess Chloris accidentally stumbled upon a dead nymph and turned it into a flower, Aphrodite added beauty, brightness and charm. Dionysus filled it with fragrant nectar, and the West wind Zephyr fanned the clouds so that Apollo could shower the rose with sunlight. Then the flower was called the "Queen of flowers" and given to the God of love Eros, who in turn gave it to people.

Carnation (Dianthus). Bright crimson, pleasantly caressing the eyes with the color of carnation has in itself at the same time as if, something sinister, something resembling blood. And in fact, in many cases, the story of this flower, as it turns out, is associated with a bloody event.

It is said that once the goddess Diana, returning very annoyed after an unsuccessful hunt, met with a beautiful shepherd boy. Beside herself with anger, she reproaches the poor shepherd boy for having dispersed all her game with his music. The goddess, beside herself with rage, pounces on him and tears his eyes out.

Only then she comes to herself and comprehends the full horror of the atrocities she committed. She begins to be tormented by remorse, the image of the meek, begging for mercy, the eyes of the shepherd pursue her everywhere and do not give her a moment of peace. To perpetuate these eyes, which look so piteously at her, she throws them on the path, and at the same moment two red carnations grow out of them, resembling in their painting this committed crime, and in their color this innocent blood.

Lily of the valley (Convallaria). The Greek mythology mentions how once Diana, the goddess of hunting, fell into a forest unfamiliar to her, where fauns lived. They fell in love with the proud Diana and began to pursue her. The girl ran away from the fauns. But too long and too quickly she had to run, and the whole body of the goddess was covered with beads of sweat, which fell pearly around and turned into fragrant magical flowers. They were lilies of the valley.

Adonis spring (Adonis vernalis). There is a legend explaining this name. Venus, the goddess of love, was very much in love with the young Adonis, the son of the king of Cyprus. Adonis answered her affection. And everything would have been fine, if not for a little infatuation of Adonis. He was very fond of hunting. Venus did not like it, and she strongly discouraged him from going hunting, because she considered it to be a very dangerous occupation. Once Adonis as usual came to the forest and began carefully look around. Suddenly he heard a rustle in the bushes and began to creep slowly towards them, but before he could reach the bushes, a wild boar jumped out. Adonis did not have enough time to do anything, and the boar pierced him with his fangs. Adonis bled to death. Venus to hear about the death of her beloved was inconsolable. Zeus took pity on the goddess, and ordered to release Adonis to earth in the form of a beautiful Golden flower. So, like that Adonis spring, flower appeared. And at the first rays of the spring sun, all nature celebrates the meeting of Venus and Adonis [3, p.153].

Ginseng. The legend tells that in ancient times there lived in China a good and powerful knight Gin-seng. He had a beautiful sister Liao. One day, protecting ordinary people, Gin-seng has captured the cruel and beautiful leader of hunghutzs Son Shiho. Saw his Liao, fell in love and decided free from conclusions. Together they flee to the mountains. Upon learning of this, Gin-seng gave chase. Having overtaken the fugitives, he enters into a duel with Son Shiho. Fierce was the battle, but finally, Gin-seng manages to deliver a strong blow to the enemy. Liao, who had taken refuge in the bushes, screamed. Gin-seng turned to the voice of his sister and taking advantage of this Son Shiho he who was already mortally wounded, thrust the sword into the back of the enemy. Bitterly mourned Gin-seng sister Liao and where her tears fell grew wonderfull plant that had wonderful properties [3, p.167].

Achillea millefolium is yarrow. The generic name is associated with the name of Achilles - the hero of ancient Greek myths, a student of the centaur Chiron who allegedly taught Achilles first to use yarrow to treat wounds. The greatest of the warriors Achilles, the fruit of the love of the immortal goddess Thetis and the earthly ruler Peleus, under the leadership of king Agamemnon went to the Trojan War. During the campaign, he unintentionally wounded Heracles son Telephus. Despite the fact that the wound was not severe, he could not recover. The wound would not heal. The Oracle foretold Telephus that his wounds could only be healed by the one who inflicted them. Telephus found Achilles, told him about the prophecy, and asked for help. In return, the desperate young man promised that he would show the Hellenes the way to Troy by sea. Achilles was a warrior, not a healer. The task ahead seemed almost impossible, but the reward promised by Telephus looked tempting. Then Achilles went to the wise centaur Chiron, who told him about the healing herb that saves from many ailments-yarrow. With this herb Achilles healed the wounds of the Telephus. And the plant was called Achillea.

Библиографический список / References

Atropa belladonna. The great Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus attributed belladonna to the genus atropa, named after the Greek goddess of fate Atropa. According to the myth, Atropa breaks the thread of human life (Greek. atropos - "inexorable", "irrevocable"). The scientific name of the genus atropa is given after Atropa, one of the three moires, goddesses of human destinies. Fates - Clotho, Lachesis, Atropa -were the daughters of Zeus and goddess of justice Themis (option: goddess of the night Nicta). Clotho (the Spinner) spun the thread of human life, Lachesis (the Giver of lots) led her through all the vicissitudes of fate, untangling the knots, and Atropa (the Inevitable) cut the thread of human life, without looking at the age, condition and sex of a person, that is, cut off life.

Cornflower. The Latin name of this plant is associated with the centaur Chiron -the ancient Greek mythological hero who is half-horse and half-man. He brought up in a remote forest a young hero, hidden from a bloodthirsty ruler. The old centaur had the gift of healing, treated byointments, infusions of herbs, and one of his favorite plants just was centaura-cornflower blue. He found that cornflower juice had the precious property of healing wounds. With knowledge of the healing properties of many plants, with the help of cornflower he was able to recover from the wound inflicted on him by the poisoned arrow of Hercules. This was the reason to call the plant centaurea, which literally means "centaur".

Paris - crow's eye. The Latin name of the plant goes back to the name of Paris-the son of Priam, king of Troy, who stole from Menelaus his wife, the beautiful Helen [4].

A special way and history of origin that have medicinal remedy of mythological origins. For example:

1. Ammonium - ammonia. The name goes back to the name Ammon-Egyptian and a Libyan God similar to Zeus or Jupiter. According to another version, near the oasis Ammonium (named after the God Ammon) in the Libyan desert people mined natural ammonia.

2. Aether - ether. In Greek mythology, Ether is the son of Erebus (eternal darkness) and Nikta (goddess of night).

3. Morphium - morphine. The name comes from the name of Morpheus-Greek the God of sleep and dreams. The name of another God of sleep - Hypnosis included in the names of the hypnotic drugs or hypnotics: Hypnovalum, Hypnoferum.

4. Afrodorum-Aphrodite, a drug that stimulates potency, is named after Aphrodite - the goddess of love and beauty.

5. Antares is a sedative, the name of which is derived from the name of the God of war Ares and literally means "against war".

6. Artemida - biologically active food Supplement for women is named after Artemis-the Greek goddess, the patroness of girls and women, who treated women's diseases .

7. Aurorix is an antidepressant. The title contains the name of the goddess of the dawn Aurora.

8. Calypsolum - a means for anesthesia is called "in honor" of nymphs Calypso, who held Odysseus captive for seven years by means of enchantment.

9. Cyclobarbitalum-indicates cyclic structure in the names of drugs and is related to the Greek noun cyclos-circle. The basis of this noun is part of the adjective cyclops-round-eyed, which became the name of the half-monster-half-man Cyclops in Homer's poem "Odyssey".

10. Diane is an antiandrogenic agent. It is named after Diana, the virgin goddess who shunned men.

11. Daedalonum-antiemetic agent in marine and air diseases. Named after Daedalus, who made for himself and his son Icarus wings to fly from Crete.

12. Ikaronum-the tool is used for hypotension arising from a sudden vertical movement, just as Icarus, rising too high to the sun, sun-scorched his wings, the wax binding that the melted, and Icarus fell into the sea.

13. Lethe and Lethidronum-hypnotic and analgesic drugs, the names of which are associated with the mythological river of oblivion, Leta, flowing in the underworld (in Greek mythology).

14. Neptusanum - a remedy for motion sickness (seasickness) is named after the name of the sea God Neptune [3, p. 156].

Conclusion

In accordance with to the results of the study the following conclusions were

made:

1. Unlike clinical terminology, classical ancient mythologisms constitute a small group of pharmaceutical terms and their derivatives.

2. Knowledge of mythological sources, events and characters allows us to perceive mythologisms as the most vivid in their semantics and interesting in their form terms.

These examples show that the mythological thinking of ancient people was based on an intuitive, emotional insight into the mysteries of the world. Early forms of human interaction with the outside world were characterized by the fact that nature impressed humans with its power, which caused a very emotional attitude to such forces [5]. And to find an explanation for them, man populated nature with deities, spirits and various living beings, which is reflected in the language of pharmaceutical terminology.

1. Latin language and basics of medical terminology: Textbook. - M.: Medicine, 1997. - 336 pp.

2. Russian-Latin dictionary / comp. A.V. Podosinov et al. - M. flint: Nauka, 2004. - 744 p.

3. Tikhonova L.M. et al. Olympiad on the Latin language and the basics of medical terminology - an important component of the quality of education in the XXI century. - Ulyanovsk: USU, 2009. - 198 pp.

4. Ivanova G.N. Words and expressions of ancient origin in the Russian language and medical terminology: textbook / G. N. Ivanova; ed. by I.K. Smirnova. - St. Petersburg: Spbgma. I. I. Mechnikova, 2008. - 84 p.

5. Nemirovsky A.I. Myths and legends of the peoples of the world. Volume 2: Early Italy and Rome. - M.: Literature, World books, 2004. - 432 pp.

Статья поступила в редакцию 17.11.19

УДК 811.221.323 DOI: 10.24411/1991-5497-2019-10224

Ivanov V.B., Professor, Head of Department of Iranian Philology, IAAS, Moscow State University n.a. M.V. Lomonosov (Moscow, Russia),

E-mail: iranorus@mail.ru

Silantyeva L.G., student, IAAS, Moscow State University n.a. M.V. Lomonosov (Moscow, Russia), E-mail: lyubovsilantieva@yandex.ru

ACOUSTIC-GLOTTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE WAKHI STRESS. For the instrumental-phonetic study of the Wakhi word stress two experiments have been conducted. The first one concerns recording of speech of four native speakers of the Wakhi language from Tajikistan and implied the recording only in the acoustic channel. In the second experiment, the speech of three native speakers of the Wakhi language is recorded using hardware and software complex Real-Time EGG in two-channel mode: the microphone signal is recorded in the first channel, and the glottographic signal - in the second one. All the channels are processed by Praat speech analysis software. The parameters obtained are calculated by the SPSS statistical package using a multidimensional model. The most significant parameters (p<0.001) for marking a stressed syllable appeared pitch (F0) and duration. Intensity also rises in the stressed syllable, but, this occurs less regularly. Statistically significant connection between laryngeal movements and prosody is not discovered. Thus, the stress in the Wakhi language can be defined as a quantitative-tonic one.

Key words: Wakhi, acoustic analysis, glottographic analysis, prosody, stress, stressed syllable, vowel, pitch frequency, duration, intensity, larynx.

В.Б. Иванов, проф., зав. каф. иранской филологии ИСАА МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, г. Москва, E-mail: iranorus@mail.ru

Л.Г. Силантьева, студентка, ИСАА МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, г. Москва, E-mail: lyubovsilantieva@yandex.ru

АКУСТИКО-ГЛОТТОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ ВАХАНСКОГО УДАРЕНИЯ

Для инструментально-фонетического обследования ваханского словесного ударения было проведено два эксперимента. В первом была проведена запись речи четырёх носителей ваханского языка из Таджикистана. Их речь записывалась только по акустическому каналу. Во втором эксперименте речь трёх носителей ваханского языка была записана с помощью программно-аппаратного комплекса Real-TimeEGG в двухканальном режиме: в первый канал записывался микрофонный сигнал, а во второй - сигнал с глоттографа. Все каналы были обработаны программой речевого анализа Praat. Полученные параметры обсчитывались статистическим пакетом SPSS по многомерной модели. Наиболее значимыми параметрами (p < 0,001) для маркирования ударного слога оказались частота основного тона (F0) и длительность. Интенсивность также повышается в ударном слоге, однако это происходит менее регулярно. Статистически значимую связь работы ларинкса с просодией обнаружить не удалось. Таким образом, ударение в ваханском языке можно определить как квантитативно-тоническое.

Ключевые слова: ваханский, акустический анализ, топографический анализ, просодия, ударение, ударный слог, гласный, частота основного тона, длительность, интенсивность, ларинкс.

Ваханский язык является одним из памирских языков, которые входят в восточную группу иранских языков. Носители ваханского языка в основном проживают в исторической провинции Вахан, частично охватывающей территории Таджикистана и Афганистана, отдельные ваханские поселения имеются в предгорьях северного Пакистана и на территории КНР Язык является бесписьменным, не имеет единой литературной нормы и учебно-педагогического статуса, но как разговорный занимает доминирующее положение во всем Вахане. Большинство ваханцев Таджикистана двуязычны (второй язык - таджикский), в меньшей степени трёхъязычны (третий язык - русский). Большое количество ваханцев Афганистана владеют языками дари и пашто. Для ваханцев северного Пакистана, где государственными являются два языка - английский и урду, в зависимости от окружения вторым языком может быть шина или бурушаски. Для ваханцев КНР вторым является уйгурский язык, третьим — китайский. Язык ваханцев Таджикистана делится на два основных говора: верхний и нижний; иногда как промежуточный выделяют также центральный говор.

В течение последних десятилетий различия в говорах стали прослеживаться наиболее чётко и проявляться в лексических заимствованиях: вафганском Вахане из пашто, в правобережном из русского и таджикского литературного языков. На территории КНР ваханский язык имеет черты верхнего говора с отличиями также в основном в лексическом аспекте. Судя по имеющимся данным, из-за отдалённого расположения и предположительно большого количества заимствований из неиранских языков язык синьцзянских ваханцев представляет собой особый диалект ваханского языка, однако из-за отсутствия надёжных обширных материалов невозможно составить себе ясного представления о степени их расхождения.

С точки зрения фонетического строя ваханский язык характеризуется позиционными изменениями гласных в количественном отношении и наличием ряда церебральных согласных. Выделяют следующие 6 гласных фонем: i, э, а, о, и, I, из которых I отличается повышенной вариативностью и может реализоваться также в виде звуков и, о. Кроме того, в таджикских заимствованиях встречается гласный е. Гласные характеризуются собственной, присущей им длительностью, которая ранее изучалась в работах Соколовой В.С. (1953 г) [1], Пахалиной Т.Н. (1975 г) [2], Грюнберга А.Л., Стеблин-Каменского И.М. (1976 г.) [3], Пахалиной Т.Н. (1987 г.) [4], Стеблин-Каменского И.М. (1999 г.) [5], Пахалиной Т.Н., Лашкарбекова Б.Б. (2000 г) [6]. Доверительные интервалы для длительностей ваханских гласных были построены в работе 2019 г. [7].

Все эти гласные выступали в качестве слогоносителей в наших экспериментах, в которых сопоставлялись параметры слогоносителей в ударном и безударном слогах. Ранее экспериментально ваханское ударение не изучалось. По слуховым оценкам его считали экспираторным (динамическим) [6], т.е. маркерам ударного слога полагалась интенсивность. Фонетическое окружение слогоносителей может быть как звонким (сонорным), так и глухим, различаться в плане работы голосовых связок. Поскольку при поиске акустического коррелята важно иметь одинаковый набор параметров для каждой исследуемой языковой единицы, фонетическое окружение не рассматривалось, и мы занимались только самими слогоносителями.

Проведённое исследование соответствует специальности 10.02.22 - Языки народов зарубежных стран Европы, Азии, Африки, аборигенов Америки и Австралии.

Эксперимент 1

В первом эксперименте анализировались записи речи четырёх студентов-носителей ваханского языка (двух юношей и двух девушек), полученные15 октября 2008 в Хороге. На этом этапе проводился исключительно акустический анализ микрофонного сигнала, глоттограф не использовался. В качестве исследуемого лексического материала были взяты двух- и трёхсложные числительные.

Сегментация речевого сигнала и акустический анализ записанных реализаций проводился с помощью программы Praat в ЛЭФ ИСАА МГУ. В каждом слогоносителе была измерена длительность (T), которая была независимым параметром. Параметры интенсивности (I) и частоты основного тона (F0) в нормальной речи связаны между собой через подглоточное давление (subglottal pressure), т.е. при повышении подглоточного давления одновременно (но в разной степени) возрастает как то, так и другое [8]. В вокальной речи эти параметры обособлены, поскольку вокалисты умеют их контролировать независимо друг от друга. Мы исходим из того, что взаимодействие этих трёх основных параметров зависит от просодической системы языка и в каждом языке происходит отличным образом.

Кроме этих основных показателей проверялись производные интегрированные параметры. Параметр F0area представляет собой площадь фигуры, ограниченной кривой F0 и осью времени. Этот параметр связан как с частотой основного тона (F0), так0 и длительностью (T), поэтому в большой степени коррелирует с ними. Аналогична структура параметра Iarea - площади фигуры под кривой интенсивности. Параметр V (Volume) является трёхмерной фигурой, кото-

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