Научная статья на тему 'Patches characteristics'

Patches characteristics Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE'S IMMUNE SYSTEM / LABELED NUCLEI INDEX / LYMPH NODULES / PAYER'S PATCH / IMMUNE REGULATION IS AN URGENT AND FUNDAMENTAL CLINICAL PROBLEM

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Yuldashev Akram Yu., Akhmedova Dilshoda R.

Based on the analysis Labeled Nuclei Index (LNI) after two-fold injections 3H-T should be noted it is also non-uniform growth and decrease in various structural-functional zones of lymph nodules (LN) of Payer’s patch. On the one part, it reflects the constant and irregular migration of Tand B-lymphoid cells from blood into the area. On the other hand, heterochronous changes of LNI in Tand B-dependent and mixed areas of lymphoid nodules should be considered as a measure of the optimum adaptation of the small intestine by reacting of mucous membrane’s immune system (MMIS) afferent and efferent units, peripheral and central parts of the immune system in the regulation of immune homeostasis.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Patches characteristics»

Patches characteristics

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Yuldashev Akram Yu.,

Akhmedova Dilshoda R., Research Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent E-mail: saodat.us@mail.ru

Patches characteristics

Abstract: based on the analysis Labeled Nuclei Index (LNI) after two-fold injections 3H-T should be noted it is also nonuniform growth and decrease in various structural-functional zones of lymph nodules (LN) of Payer's patch. On the one part, it reflects the constant and irregular migration of T- and B-lymphoid cells from blood into the area. On the other hand, heter-ochronous changes of LNI in T- and B-dependent and mixed areas of lymphoid nodules should be considered as a measure of the optimum adaptation of the small intestine by reacting of mucous membrane's immune system (MMIS) afferent and efferent units, peripheral and central parts of the immune system in the regulation of immune homeostasis.

Keywords: of mucous membrane's immune system, Labeled Nuclei Index, lymph nodules, Payer's patch, immune regulation is an urgent and fundamental clinical problem

Introduction

The mucous membrane of the small intestine along with the implementation of the digestive-absorptive function also performs endocrine, immune and other functions. Due to the complex mechanisms of integration of the epithelium, the afferent and efferent parts of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract immune system provides perfect processes of digestion and absorption, the homeostasis of the internal environment, despite the unpredictability of the quality and quantity of food, microorganisms in their structure. One of the components of this complex mechanism of regulation ofhomeostasis are the structure and function of single or grouped lymph nodules (LN) and Payer's patches (PP), the spacetime organization proliferation, integration and adaptation of its structural-functional zones and epithelium. As is generally known in the crypt system studied in detail such processes as proliferation and differentiation of intestinal mucosa, extrusion operation (death) of the epithelium at different endoecology, dietary habits and exposure to adverse factors [5; 6]. However, the role and importance of the epithelium, the individual structural functional areas LN and PP, their concern and significance between themselves and circulating blood, blood-forming organs, involved in immune regulation is an urgent and fundamental clinical problem, the subject of attention of studies in recent years [1; 2; 4; 7; 9; 10].

Purpose of the study

To explore the features of the epithelial proliferation and migration and structural-functional zones of lymphatic nodules Payer's patch on the basis of the dynamics of the Labeled Nuclei Index (LNI) after multiple injections of labeled DNA precursor of thymidine (3H-T).

Material and methods

Outbred white-male rats weighing 120-140 g. have been made intra-abdominal introduction of 3H-T (Ci/kg) with 6 hours intervals: one-fold (I group), two-fold (II group) and threefold (III group). Between multiple injections of 3H-T is less than the length of the synthetic (S) period of the mitotic cycle of proliferating cells of hematopoietic organs and LN of PP. This allows you to explore the relationship between the pool of proliferating cells in a variety of structural and functional areas LN. Removing animals from the experiment carried out under Nembutal anesthesia and in compliance with the European Convention for the Protection of Animals used in research and development (1984): after 1, 2, 3, 7 and 24 hours (I group); in 1, 2, 3 and 24 hours (II, III groups.). Pieces of tissue PP irom the middle jejunum after fixation in Carnua's fluid. Oriented sections of 5-6 mm. thickness, obtained through the middle LN of PP and longitudinally in the crypt-villus system after dewaxing covered with fine-grained photographic emulsion type M. The exposure time was 20-22 days. After development, the emulsion and fixing the obtained marks above the body-core sections stained with hematoxylin Karachi. After dehydration, enlightenment and conclusion sections of crypts surrounding PP in each structural and functional area LN of PP (germinal (embryonic) center, follicular, pair-follicular zone and dome) separately, the dynamics of the experiment was determined LNI (0/00; ratio oflabeled and unlabeled nuclei of epithelial and lymphoid cells by 1000 their total number). Statistical analysis of the results of the LNI count was carried out according to Statistics 2008 program.

Results

After a one-fold injection of 3H-T in 1 hour there were the lowest LNI lymphoid cells in the follicular area LN. In comparison, the

Section 6. Medical science

germinal center, the dome epithelium and para-follicular zones were named, on average, respectively, 6, 11, 38 and 69 times higher (see Table.). The cylindrical shape of the crypt located at the periphery of the dome-shaped protrusion grouped LN into the lumen of the gut; labeled epithelial cells that line the surface were detected in the lower half. After 2 hours after inj ection of 3H-T LNI from baseline in the germinal centers, follicular and para-follicular zones, the dome LN respectively increased to 9, 93, 23 and 4.5 times on average. This significant increase of labeled lymphoid cells can labeled with the migration of labeled lymphoid blast cells of the blood capillaries, forming anastomosing network in each of the test zones (1, 4, and 8). After injection the tags circulating in the blood of 30 to 60 min., engaged in virtually all cells, including hematopoietic and in circulating blood that were in a synthetic phase of the mitotic cycle. LNI crypt epithelium increases only 1.75 times, which is natural for a stationary system crypt-villus, which from the outside do not come labeled cells. Theoretically, the end of the second hour after injection of the labeled DNA precursor they can complete mitosis that diluting the density of labels LNI increases almost 2-fold. As compared with the epithelial cells in lymphoid LNI structural-functional zones LN of PP has increased very significantly in comparison with its initial value. This expression, distinguished by the intensity of migration of T and

B-blasts in appropriate area, causing uneven growth in their name. Each subpopulation of immune cells, differing to participate in immunological reactions, under the influence of regulatory systems that improves the immune response to antigens of microorganisms and digestible food, provides intense immune potential of the organism. Three hours later after a single injection of 3H-T LNI germinal center was almost unchanged compared with the previous term of experience. However, in the follicular and para-follicular zones and dome LN of PP it is declined an average of 5, 2 and 2 times respectively compared to the previous study period (Table 1). 7 hours after labeling LNI lymphoid cells from baseline is relatively high: in the germinal center, follicular and para-follicular zones and dome it is more an average of 5.3; 7.8; 2 and 12.5 times, respectively. However, in the dynamics, in comparison with the previous term experience LNI in the embryonic heart, follicular, para-follicular zones is reduced by an average of 1.8; 2.2; 1.3 times, respectively. In the dome LN of PP, on the contrary, LNI tends to increase. At 24 hours after a single administration of 3H-T in all the structural-functional zones LN of PP, except dome, labeled rare kernel. Only a fraction of labeled nuclei dome, although 2-fold lower compared with the previous period experience 7 times larger than its initial value, one hour after administration of the precursor DNA.

Table 1. - LNI of lymphoid cells the structural and functional areas of the lymph nodules and Payer's patch epithelium of the small intestine after the injection of H3-T (M ± m, %)

Time after injection The multiplicity of injections Germinal center Follicular area Para-follicular area Dome Epithelium

1 1 0.290 ± 0.0012 0.052 ± 0.001 2.02 ± 0.026 0.566 ± 0.012 3.60 ± 0.207

(n = 9) 2 4.64 ± 0.18 3.31 ± 0.24 12.5 ± 0.81 24.9 ± 1.7 5.87 ± 0.30

3 10.14 ± 0.49 8.18 ± 0.35 19.77 ± 0.45 84.8 ± 1.5 5.96 ± 0.25

2 1 2.61 ± 0.18 4.86 ± 0.36 9.33 ± 0.20 13.1 ± 0.82 6.29 ± 0.26

(n = 9) 2 6.71 ± 0.27 5.45 ± 0.35 21.4 ± 0.75 34.3 ± 0.47 8.78 ± 0.31

3 22.3 ± 0.72 9.77 ± 0.56 29.5 ± 0.63 129.4 ± 3.6 8.68 ± 0.87

3 1 2.75 ± 0.32 0.93 ± 0.017 4.92 ± 0.29 6.79 ± 0.25 6.14 ± 0.41

(n = 9) 2 5.35 ± 0.26 1.87 ± 0.16 10.74 ± 0.61 43.7 ± 0.67 9.62 ± 0.63

3 19.18 ± 0.43 2.11 ± 0.18 21.3 ± 0.81 152.6 ± 2.7 9.29 ± 0.62

7 1 1.55 ± 0.16 0.403 ± 0.026 3.95 ± 0.28 7.13 ± 0.28 6.07 ± 0.31

(n = 9) 1 0.145 ± 0.015 0.105 ± 0.001 0.315 ± 0.043 3.96 ± 0.11 6.08 ± 0.15

24 2 0.116 ± 0.010 0.259 ± 0.023 1.32 ± 0.12 4.32 ± 0.38 11.7 ± 0.56

(n = 9) 3 0.145 ± 0.006 0.155 ± 0.020 1.14 ± 0.012 8.58 ± 0.75 12.9 ± 0.70

Epithelium of LNI crypt in every 2, 3, 7 and 24 hours experience in dynamics had not varied significantly, that was in a closed stationary system crypt-villus labeled cells migrated along the crypt only gradually differentiated when moving upwards.

Based on the analysis LNI of lymphoid cells LN of PP and epithelium covering its surface, we can conclude the following:

1. The proportion of cells of lymphoid tissue structural and functional areas LN and crypt epithelium of jejunum, in the DNA synthesis phase, varies considerably;

2. LNI crypt epithelium by 2 hours after a single administration of 3H-T increases almost 2-fold in the dynamics subsequently not change significantly during the 24 hours; Proliferative pool of epithelial crypt cells under physiological conditions varied slightly and almost remains constant throughout the experiment;

3. LNI oflymphoid cells in the structural and functional areas of lymphoid noodles for 1-3 hours, and unevenly increases significantly due to intensive migration from the blood and blood-forming organs;

4. Relatively intense (dozens of times) in the follicular germinal center zone (B-dependent zone) indicates that they are phy-logenetically and developmentally both afferent link of mucous membrane's immune system (MMIS) small intestine primary

locus interaction and stimulation of B-blasts. T blasts and differentiated subpopulation of T lymphocytes as constituting single functional LN of PP systems integrated with B-population and it seems to regulate processes antigen substrates and stimulate differentiation of B-lymphocytes (4, 8, 9, 10, and 11).

After two-fold injection of 3H-T (II group) in 1, 2, 3 hours the LNI lymphoid cells in structural and functional areas of the epithelium and LN of Payer's patches significantly larger than an appropriate time after a single injection experience DNA precursor. By the end of the first hour in the follicular, para-follicular zones, germinal center of the dome and it increased to respectively 63, 6, 64 and 16 times the average. After 2 hours in the respective zones LNI of lymphoid nodules rose respectively 1.6; 1.7; 1.4; 1.4 times on the average. LNI epithelium increased only 1.5 times. Therefore, within 2 hours after introduction of DNA precursor of a two-fold (the interval between injections 6 hours) LNI of epithelial and lymphoid cells in appropriate structural-functional zones lymphoid nodules increased almost identical — in average 1.5 times. However, the value of LNI after two injections, compared with a single more in the germinal centers, follicular and para-follicular zones and dome respectively 2.6; 1.1; 2.3; 26 times on average. LNI of crypt epithelium differs by 1.4 times.

The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among people with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Three hours later after two-fold injections of 3H-T LNI dynamics in all areas LN decreased, though in varying degrees: in the germinal center — 1.25; follicularr — to 2.9; parafollicular areas — 2.0 times on average compared with the previous term experience. Only in the dome LN, it increases 1.3 times. After 24 hours, after a two-fold administration of 3H-T the LNI of lymphoid cells in the germinal centers, follicular area and a small dome, located at the level of such after one-fold injection marks. Only in parafollicular zone LNI almost 4 times higher than after a single injection of 3H-T.

Thus, based on the analysis LNI after two-fold injections 3H-T should be noted it is also non-uniform growth and decrease in various structural-functional zones of LN of Payer's patch. On the one part, it reflects the constant and irregular migration of T- and B-lymphoid cells from blood into the area. On the other hand, het-erochronous changes of LNI in T- and B-dependent and mixed areas of lymphoid nodules should be considered as a measure of the optimum adaptation of the small intestine by reacting MMIS afferent and efferent units, peripheral and central parts of the immune system in the regulation of immune homeostasis.

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Ismailov Saydiganikhoja Ibragimavich, Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Centre of Endocrinology, Director, Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences

E-mail: ismailov.said@list.ru Akbarov Zairkhoja Sabirovich, Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Centre of Endocrinology, Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences

Yusupova Madina bonu, Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Endocrinology, Research Assistant, ophthalmologist, the department of diabetology E-mail: madina.yusupova81@mail.ru

The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among people with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Tashkent city and Tashkent region

Abstract: The article contains information about the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in people with pre-diabetes in Tashkent city and Tashkent region of Uzbekistan. In patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) detected was found in 14.3 % of cases. The defeat of the retina is observed before manifestation of diabetes in some surveyed patients with violation glucose metabolism (VGM).

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, Uzbek Republic, Tashkent, prevalence.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been and remains the most According to the data of regional endocrinology dispensaries

serious complication of diabetes mellitus, occupying one of of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2014 over 68,158 patients with the first places among the causes of blindness in people of diabetic retinopathy have been registered and 847 patients are suf-working age [2; 7]. fering ofblindness due to diabetes complications. Prevalence of DR

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