Научная статья на тему 'Оперативное распределение поездопотоков по участкам железнодорожного полигона'

Оперативное распределение поездопотоков по участкам железнодорожного полигона Текст научной статьи по специальности «Строительство и архитектура»

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Аннотация научной статьи по строительству и архитектуре, автор научной работы — Мозолевич Г. Я.

Цель. Задача оперативного распределения поездопотоков по участкам разветвленного железнодорожного полигона является оптимизационной, решаемой в оперативных условиях диспетчерским аппаратом. Цель статьи формализация и поиск новых путей решения этой актуальной задачи. Методика. Предложен новый подход к решению задачи оперативного распределения поездопотоков по звеньям железнодорожной сети с выбором маршрутов для всех единиц поездопотоков. Результаты. Проведено исследование возможных маршрутов пропуска поездопотоков по железнодорожному полигону, используемому для массовых перевозок грузов между Криворожьем и Донбассом. Применение предложенной методики позволило получить рациональное распределение поездов по участкам сети. Научная новизна. Усовершенствован метод распределения потоков поездов на сети в оперативных условиях, который в отличие от существующих позволяет выбрать маршрут пропуска отдельных единиц потока по критерию средневзвешенной стоимости 1 т груза в составе. Практическая значимость. Использование предлагаемой технологии оперативного распределения поездопотоков повысит эффективность функционирования железных дорог в целом, обеспечит конкурентоспособность железнодорожных перевозок. Реализация методики предполагает использование диспетчерским аппаратом железных дорог автоматизированных рабочих мест с соответствующим информационным обеспечением.

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OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo). Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

Текст научной работы на тему «Оперативное распределение поездопотоков по участкам железнодорожного полигона»

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

UDC 656.222

G. YA. MOZOLEVICH1*

1 Dep. «Stations and Junctions», Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan, Lazaryan St., 2, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, 49010, tel. +38 (056) 373 15 12, e-mail MrMozG81@mail.ru

OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo). Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

Keywords: train traffic volume distribution; train traffic volume; profit of railways; route selection; optimization task; operating domain

Introduction

Formation of profitable mechanism in the field of freight transportation in the conditions of transport market functioning involves minimizing of their costs. This requires the development of both new technologies and new approaches to the organization of the train traffic volume, operational management improvement [2, 7]. Selection problem of the rational traffic volume distribution over the network sections is the optimization one. A considerable number of scientific papers is devoted to its solution. [1, 5, 6, 9, 10]. The scientists solved this problem in the conditions of motion in the network of indivisible elements (liquid, gas, etc.) and separate units of the traffic volume (trains, cars). Other papers propose the solution of this problem in the conditions of owner interest of separate network sections.

General distribution of train traffic volume over railway domain can be implemented according to the criterion of total profits of railways and it can be directed to the railway profitability increase. But in the conditions of constant change of train situations in the domain sections the obtained distribution may be ineffective. That is why train dispatchers have to correct it in conditions of

operational change of train situation and to determine the rational routes for train handling according to additional selection criteria.

Purpose

The purpose of the article is the search for new approach concerning solution of the urgent problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume over the sections of railway network with a choice of routes for all traffic units.

Methodology

The weighted average cost of 1 ton of cargo in the freight train set is proposed to use as the selection criterion. This criterion can ensure handle of more valuable cargo weight on the fastest routes. This allows the increase of cargo turnover at the sections and speed up the movement of circulating assets of cargo owners.

Each cargo owner tends to accelerate the turnover of their funds by the reduction of procurement time, manufacturing of cargo transportation and sales, so the delivery speed of cargo is very important in the period of its life cycle.

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

Fig. 1. General structure of operating domain and amount of freight train traffic according to directions

Fig. 2. Cost dependency of the cargo owners on train routes

Customer costs, which are used in cargo motion can be determined by the formula:

CB = AqcT dj

т ст дост '

(1)

loading of the car on the direction, tn; cT - is a weighted average cost for the one ton of cargo, grn; dCT - is a discount rate; tg0CT - is the average

time of cargo when moving from the dispatch where A - is a daify tram traffk m °ne irertirn °f station to the destination one. the given cargo type, weight; q - is the average

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вюник Дншропетровського нащонального унiверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

The weighted average cost of one ton of cargo is determined using the formula [5]:

Q =1

j=1

a /'Свант/' ,

(2)

where j - is a cargo type; a j - is a cargo share of

the j type from the total cargo volume in the train; ^Bamj - is an average cost of the j cargo.

Findings

The operating domain connecting the industrial regions of Kryvyi Rih and Donbas is the research object. The Fig. 1 shows the network sections that can be used for train handling. Each section is described by the length parameters and the number of trains running in the doubled and nonpaired directions.

For the operating domain the structure of cargo volume was analyzed, the costs for each cargo type and the general traffic volumes with the distribution according to the cargo type was determined [3]. On the basis of the obtained data the weighted average cost for 1 tn of cargo in the particular train was determined. It is equal Cb = 3 020 grn/tn. In addition to solve the problem the daily cargo volume according to the cargo type and the term of train running in the particular route were determined. Results of expense calculations for customers of cargo in motion depending on handle routes are shown in

Fig. 2.

Analysis of the calculations shows that the cargo cost has quite a significant impact on costs of cargo owners. Reduce in transportation term by 1-3 hours may cost cargo owners several thousand UAH excluding the expenses for rolling stock. For the railway, in turn, it is more profitable to retain customers, transporting cargo of great cost because the rates for transporting are proportional to the cost. So it is recommended to pass the trains with more expensive cargo by the shortest routes.

Originality and Practical Value

The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network in operational conditions was improved. As opposed to the existing ones it allows choosing a route for handle of separate units of traffic volume according to the criterion of 1 ton of weighted average cost of the cargo in train set.

Fig. 3. Comparison of the possible routes for traffic volume handle in the domain: a - total lengthes of routes in the domain; b - time histograms of the freight trains depending on the routes of running; c - histogram of operating costs for one train handle depending on the routes of running

Taking into account the multiple circuit of railways and a large number of variants for handle of the particular train, the train and road dispatchers should cope with the task of determining the optimal route for a separate train and improvement of general operation performance of the domain sections. Most often,

а

b

c

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

when the problem arises, dispatchers are governed by regulatory documents (Plan for Train Formation, Schedule of train movement, etc.), which can not account all the changes of the train situation on the handle routes. First of all this affects the reduction of operation performance and the level of railway profitability. When the problem of distribution can not be solved by recommendations of regulatory documents, dispatcher takes operational decision on train distribution based on his own experience, but not always it gives maximal results.

As for the rationalization of freight trains handle it is proposed to take into account such criterion as the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo in the train and the load capacity of handle route sections. That is, when the problem of the separate train handling arises, the possible routes of the train running between stations of departure and destination are determined. The period of train running for each route is estimated using a model of railway domain or its separate directions [4, 8, 11, 12 13], load capacity of the section and weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo in the train. This should provide the appropriate software equipment for AWM (automated work place) of dispatcher. According to these criteria, trains with more expensive cargo are departed by the shortest routes considering the load capacity of route sections. Research shows that with the load

capacity of the shortest route section of 85% and up, it is excluded from the priority variants and can be used in accordance with appropriate load capacity of all other routes only.

For the railway domain between the stations Kryvyi Rih Sortuvalnyi - Yasynuvata the main routes of freight trains running and the total period of running for a separate train with standard loading of sections, as well as the total operating costs for one train handle on the routes of running were determined.

Graphical comparison of routes is presented in Fig. 3.

Based on the obtained dependencies, one can conclude that it is reasonable to handle the trains with more expensive cargo on routes 2 and 3. Although they are not the shortest and the fastest the total operating costs are much lower than the faster routes 6 and 7. The train handle on routes 1, 4 and 5, which differ by significant cost and long period of transportation is not reasonable at all. First of all it is caused by the fact that the sections with diesel locomotive traction are included into the route. Therefore, one should handle the trains with relatively low weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo in the train on these routes. These routes should only be used when the other ones are loaded. The general distribution of train traffic volume on the domain sections is presented on Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Rational distribution of train traffic volume on domain. a/c - distributed number of freight trains / maximum number of freight trains, which can be handled on the section including technical equipment and volumes of passenger trains traffic

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

Conclusions

The article determines and analyzes additional expenses of cargo owners related to the use of funds to purchase the cargoes that are in the process of transportation. It was determined the connection between increase of the cargo delivery speed and decrease of these costs by the rational distribution of train traffic volume between the routes according to the criterion of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo in the train. First of all, the technology will help the dispatch service of railways and the directions to carry out operational distribution of train traffic volume between the separate stations of the operating domain.

For the Ukrzaliznytsia in general the technology of operational distribution can serve as additional "lever" of competitive growth during cooperation with the cargo owners.

LIST OF REFERENCE LINKS

1. Босов, А. А. Визначення рацюнальних маршрута руху по1ЗДв на мереж1 дор^ /

A. А. Босов, Ю. В. Чибюов // Вюн. Дншропетр. нац. ун-ту залiзн. трансп. iM. акад. В. Лазаряна. - Д., 2010. - Вип. 34. - С. 180-188.

2. Бутько, Т. В. Методолопчний пвдхщ до формування лопстичних технологш на залiзничному транспорта / Т. В. Бутько, Д. В. Ломотько // Залiзн. трансп. Украши. -2010. - № 4. - С. 47-49.

3. Державний комиет статистики. [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua. - Назва з екрану.

4. Козаченко, Д. М. Моделювання роботи затзничного напрямку / Д. М. Козаченко, Г. Я. Мозолевич, О. В. Власюк // Вюн. Дншропетр. нац. ун-ту залiзн. трансп. iм. акад.

B. Лазаряна. - Д., 2009. - Вип. 28. - C. 143-148.

5. Мозолевич, Г. Я. Шдвищення ефективносп вантажних перевезень на залiзничнiй мереж1 / Г. Я. Мозолевич, Ю. В. Чибюов. - Д. : Вид-во Маковецький Ю. В., 2013. - 172 с.

6. Поттгофф, Г. Теория транспортных потоков / Г. Поттгофф ; под ред. Е. П. Нестерова. - М. : Транспорт, 1975. - 342 с.

7. Практичний поабник з упровадження технолого-економiчноi моделi перевiзного процесу. - К. : Голов. упр. перевезень, 2009. -270 с.

8. Скалозуб, В. В. О приближенной декомпозиции NP-полных задач управления сложными процессами / В. В. Скалозуб, А. А. Бардась, М. В. Скалозуб // Системш технологи. Репональний мiжвузiвський зб. наук. пр. - 2011. - № 4 (75). - С. 174-184.

9. Чибюов, Ю. В. Вибiр рацюнальних варiантiв пропуску поiздопотоку по паралельних затзничних лшгях за економiчним критерieм / Ю. В. Чибюов // Вюн. НТУ «ХПИ». - Х., 2012. - Вип. 68. - С. 151-155.

10. Чибюов, Ю. В. Математична модель вибору рацюнальних варiантiв пропуску по].'здопотошв по залiзничнiй мереж1 / Ю. В. Чибiсов, Г. Я. Мозолевич // Восточно-европ. журн. передовых технологий. - 2012. - № 3/11 (57). -С. 37-41.

11. Campbell, S. Modeling and Simulation in Scilab/Scicos / S. Campbell. - New York : Springer, 2006. - 313 p.

12. Nesterenko, G. I. Optimal route selection when distributing the freight trainflow in the railway junction with the consideration of the level of the traffic capacity saturation / G. I. Nesterenko, Yu. V. Chibisov // Вюн. Схвдноукр. нац. ун-ту iм. В. Даля. - 2012. - № 3 (174) - С. 138-143.

13. Newman, M. The structure and function of complex networks / M. Newman // SIAM Rev. -2003. - № 45. - Р. 167-256.

Г. Я. МОЗОЛЕВИЧ1*

1 Каф. «Станции и узлы», Днепропетровский национальный университет железнодорожного транспорта имени академика В. Лазаряна, ул. Лазаряна, 2, Днепропетровск, Украина, 49010, тел. +38 (056) 373 15 12, эл. почта MrMozG81@mail.ru

ОПЕРАТИВНОЕ РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ПОЕЗДОПОТОКОВ ПО УЧАСТКАМ ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНОГО ПОЛИГОНА

Цель. Задача оперативного распределения поездопотоков по участкам разветвленного железнодорожного полигона является оптимизационной, решаемой в оперативных условиях диспетчерским аппаратом. Цель статьи - формализация и поиск новых путей решения этой актуальной задачи. Методика. Предложен новый подход к решению задачи оперативного распределения поездопотоков по звеньям железнодорожной сети

Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

с выбором маршрутов для всех единиц поездопотоков. Результаты. Проведено исследование возможных маршрутов пропуска поездопотоков по железнодорожному полигону, используемому для массовых перевозок грузов между Криворожьем и Донбассом. Применение предложенной методики позволило получить рациональное распределение поездов по участкам сети. Научная новизна. Усовершенствован метод распределения потоков поездов на сети в оперативных условиях, который в отличие от существующих позволяет выбрать маршрут пропуска отдельных единиц потока по критерию средневзвешенной стоимости 1 т груза в составе. Практическая значимость. Использование предлагаемой технологии оперативного распределения поездопотоков повысит эффективность функционирования железных дорог в целом, обеспечит конкурентоспособность железнодорожных перевозок. Реализация методики предполагает использование диспетчерским аппаратом железных дорог автоматизированных рабочих мест с соответствующим информационным обеспечением.

Ключевые слова: распределение потоков; поездопоток; прибыль железных дорог; выбор маршрутов; задача оптимизации; железнодорожный полигон

Г. Я. МОЗОЛЕВИЧ1*

1 Каф. «Станцп та вузли», Дтпропетровський нацюнальний ушверситет з^зничного транспорту iменi академжа В. Лазаряна, вул. Лазаряна, 2, Дтпропетровськ, Украша, 49010, тел. +38 (056) 373 15 12, ел. пошта MrMozG81@mail.ru

ОПЕРАТИВНИЙ РОЗПОД1Л ПО1ЗДОПОТОКШ ПО ЛАНКАХ ЗАЛ1ЗНИЧНОГО ПОЛ1ГОНУ

Мета. Задача оперативного розпод^ по!здопотошв по ланках розгалуженого залiзничного пол^ону е ошгашзацшною, що виршуеться в оперативних умовах диспетчерським апаратом. Метою статп е формалiзацiя та пошук нових шляхiв розв'язання ще! актуально! задачi. Методика. Запропоновано новий пiдхiд щодо розв'язання задачi оперативного розподiлу по!здопотошв по ланках залiзнично! мереж1 з вибором маршрупв для всiх одиниць по!здопотоку. Результати. Виконано дослщження можливих маршрутiв пропуску пойдопотошв по залiзничному полiгону, який використовуеться для масових перевезень вантаж1в м1ж Кривор1жжям та Донбасом. Застосування запропоновано! методики дозволило отримати рацюнальний розподiл по!здiв по ланках мережа Наукова новизна. Удосконалено метод розпод^ потоков по!здiв на мереж1 в оперативних умовах, що на вщм1ну ввд iснуючих дозволяе обрати маршрут пропуску окремих одиниць потоку за критерiем середньозважено! вартостi 1 т вантажу в составi. Практична значимкть. Використання запропоновано! технологi! оперативного розпод^ по!здопотокiв пiдвищить ефективнiсть функцiонування залiзниць в цiлому, забезпечить конкурентоспроможнiсть залiзничних перевезень. Реалiзацiя методики передбачае використання диспетчерським апаратом залiзниць автоматизованих робочих мiсць з ввдповвдним iнформацiйним забезпеченням.

Ключовi слова: розподiл потоков; по!здопопк; прибуток залiзниць; вибiр маршрутiв; завдання оптимiзацi!; залiзничний полiгон

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Наука та прогрес транспорту. Вкник Дншропетровського нацюнального ушверситету залiзничного транспорту, 2013, вип. 5 (47)

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Prof. V. I. Bobrovskiy, D. Sc. (Tech); Prof. Ye. S. Aleshynskiy, D. Sc. (Tech) recommended this article

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to be published

Received: August 20, 2013

Accepted: September 10, 2013

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