METHODOLOGY FOR TEACHING OUTDOOR GAMES IN PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
activity / aesthetic education / individual / education of preschool children / pedagogical and psychological research.

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Nosirova Rano Khudoiberganovna

Game has been an integral part of a person's life for a long time, it takes leisure time, educates, satisfies the needs for communication, obtaining external information, and gives a pleasant physical activity. Teachers of all times have noted that play has a beneficial effect on the formation of a child's soul, the development of physical strength and abilities. In play, a growing person learns life.

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Rano Khudoiberganovna Nosirova

Lecturer of the Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan


Game has been an integral part of a person's life for a long time, it takes leisure time, educates, satisfies the needs for communication, obtaining external information, and gives a pleasant physical activity. Teachers of all times have noted that play has a beneficial effect on the formation of a child's soul, the development of physical strength and abilities. In play, a growing person learns life.

Keywords: activity, aesthetic education, individual, education of preschool children, pedagogical and psychological research.


The acceleration of modern life poses the task of pedagogy to use play more actively to educate preschoolers. Now it is obvious that outdoor games are necessary to ensure a harmonious state of mental, physical and emotional stress. Researchers of play activity emphasize its unique capabilities in the physical and labor education of children, especially in the development of cognitive interests, in the development of will and character in the surrounding reality. There are many outdoor games, they are diverse, and they are also good because the participant himself regulates the load in accordance with his capabilities. And this is very important for health [1].

The teacher should remember that his main task is the need to teach children to play actively and independently, the formation of a wide range of and play actions, the upbringing of moral and volitional personality traits, strengthening the health of children, hardening the body, as well as the need to ensure the comprehensive physical fitness of each child, help to acquire a stock of solid skills and motor skills for work and outdoor activities [4].

Outdoor games in combination with other educational means represent the basis of the initial stage of the formation of an active personality, combining spiritual wealth and physical perfection [3].

In outdoor games, children do not just run, but catch up with someone or escape from the catch; do not just jump, but depict bunnies or sparrows, etc. They play, and in the process of playing they train, strengthen certain muscle groups. This property of the game was highly appreciated by PF Lesgaft. He pointed to the

advantage of games over exercises, considering them the most accessible, understandable for preschool children due to the proximity of play images and plots to children's imagination, as well as due to the social principle inherent in them. At the same time, he saw in play a great educational and educational power, considered it to be a complex action of a higher order than individual gymnastic exercises, the best means of educating a child's personality. He especially emphasized the fact that play puts the child in a position where his mind works vividly, energetically, feelings are tense, actions are organized.

This close connection between physical and mental development is reflected in modern scientific research and confirmed by practice.

Outdoor games contribute to the education of intelligence, observation, attention, imagination, the development of positive feelings.

The child should feel in the society of his peers as an equal among equals. Active actions in the game help children to eliminate self-doubt, shyness, and shyness. Accurate execution of movements, courage, dexterity, resourcefulness enhance the feeling of confidence and help to take the right place in the team. [6]

Outdoor games, like other types of games, are a form of organizing the life of children, are of great importance in fostering relationships. A group of children with common interests most often participates in these games.

A large role in the upbringing of children's organized behavior and volitional qualities belongs to rules.


The first condition for the successful use of outdoor games in the upbringing of children is knowledge of program tasks defined for a specific age group with which the educator works.

Having mastered the general tasks of education, it is necessary to apply them taking into account the individual characteristics of each child. To do this, you must, first of all, have data from a medical examination for all indicators, to know which of the children has a deviation from the norm of physical development.

It is necessary for the first days of work to analyze the state of children's motor skills, as well as the general level of their development. And in the event that the educator has been working with a group of children for several years, he will again check the data of each child, note the successes of some, the shortcomings of others, in order to further conduct targeted work taking into account these data. Plus, in every age group, there are always new kids that need special attention. So, for example, in the younger groups, children who came from a family, as a rule, lag

behind in the development of movements from children who have moved from creches. Therefore, in a group of children of 3 years old, it is sometimes advisable to give games recommended for the previous group at the beginning of the year.

The teacher should outline specific tasks in relation to each child. Children who are timid, unsure of movement need help in overcoming difficulties: lower the rope lower while jumping, put the basket closer when throwing the ball, support it while walking on balance, etc. But this should be done imperceptibly so that the child's pride does not suffer. Children who are easily excitable, overly mobile also require the attention of a teacher: they should be more often attracted to games that contribute to the development of inhibitory processes. [8]

The teacher must know the outdoor games that will be used in working with children in order to clearly tell the content, rules, be able to correctly, and clearly execute the movements included in the game.

An unfamiliar game must be carefully disassembled, mentally played and only after that offered to children. It is also necessary to think over in advance where it is more expedient to hold this or that game: indoors or on the site.

In the methodological literature, it is usually recommended to learn new games in the classroom. But this can also be done during game hours, for example, during a morning walk, when the children and the teacher have enough time at their disposal.

The educational impact of outdoor games largely depends on the feasibility of the game task and the degree of physical activity. Despite the fact that games require a lot of energy and encourage the child's body to work hard, they are usually accompanied by a joyful mood. However, joyful excitement will contribute to the correct development of the child only when he is faced with a task that requires a certain amount of stress, but is quite accessible to him. Overexcitement is a sign of both physical and mental overload.

- develop thinking, imagination, a sense of rhythm;

- teach to follow the rules, awareness to act in changing game situations;

- teach to obey common requirements, be sincere, empathize, help each other;

- activate breathing, blood circulation, metabolic processes, memory, imagination;

- to form speed, strength, endurance, agility;

- help to master spatial terminology;

- help to get used to the team;

- replenish the vocabulary of children.

Academician I.P. Pavlov established the presence in the cerebral cortex of two processes: excitation and inhibition. The younger the child, the more excitement prevails over inhibition. [3]

It is important to establish a balance between these processes and make them mobile. In a number of games, there are rules that develop inhibition in children. So, in the game "Owl" when the "owl" appears, all the "birds" freeze in place. Children who have poorly developed inhibition processes move and make various movements. In the game "Change the flag" children who have little endurance run, without waiting for the teacher to say "run." Only after systematic games requiring endurance and inhibition do children stop breaking the rules, begin to show restraint and self-control; they develop inhibitory processes.

It should be remembered that failure creates a sense of insecurity. "Organize your upbringing work in such a way," said E. A. Akin, "so that the child would win more often than suffer defeat, so that he would more often be convinced of the reliability of his strength than of his powerlessness. Success and victory are invigorating and strengthening, they are health conditions. "

Any activity of children should bring them joy, both from the process itself and from its result, from joint actions and experiences. This is especially true of outdoor games, since the movement itself gives children pleasure. The emotional saturation of the game also increases physical activity, therefore it is necessary that the game arouses interest in children. The teacher's indifference, a sluggish, indifferent tone, a formal attitude to play are one of the reasons for the decline in children's interest in outdoor games. Where educators organize games lively, cheerfully, so that children do not feel that the adult is "playing the game," but where he really plays with them, rejoices at their successes, gets upset in the place with them in case of failure, children already have of the younger group, favorite games appear, in which they ask the teacher to play more and more, and in the older group they play independently. For games to live in each group, to arise and are carried out on the initiative of the children themselves, it is necessary to think over their organization well, use a variety of means that make children want to play [7].

Games contribute to the mental development of the child. With the help of games, children expand and deepen their ideas about the surrounding reality, develop attention, memory, observation.

With the help of outdoor games, you can bring up in children such moral qualities as courage, determination, honesty, a sense of camaraderie, collectivism.

The teacher teaches children to play amicably, not to quarrel, to subordinate their desires to the general rules of the game; fosters the skills of cultural, disciplined

behavior in a team. So, when the "trap" touches one of the runners, no matter how much the latter wants to continue the game, he must step aside. In the game "Whose link is more likely to gather" children quickly, but not pushing others, must take a place in their column, and so on.

Many games help the teacher educate children with aesthetic feelings. Rhythm, accuracy, smoothness of movements, clear structures (pairs, columns, circle, various figures, images transmitted by children) - everything that makes children feel pleasure, contributes to the understanding of beauty. Play is one of the important means of all-round development of a preschooler.

PF Lesgaft wrote: "Play is an exercise by means of which a child prepares for life. Play is the most profitable activity for a child, through which he usually gets used to those actions that form the basis of his habits and customs, and these activities are usually associated with an uplifting sense of pleasure. However, only with the guidance of a teacher can play have a positive impact on the child. Therefore, the teacher must know the educational tasks in each group, the characteristics of the age, the content of the games and the methodology for their conduct. [5]


As a result of the educational work carried out in the previous groups, the movements of the children become more coordinated. In games recommended for children of middle and senior groups, the distance for running, throwing, height for jumping and climbing increases; selected a number of games that train in agility, courage, endurance.

Children 5 years old are already interested in the result of the actions performed, the efforts expended. They always strive to run away from the catching person, climb higher, jump further, etc. At the same time, they still love story games: "A Bear in the Forest", "Geese-Swans", "Airplanes", etc., with pleasure in fulfilling certain roles (geese try to escape from the wolf, bees - to chase away the bear, the cat - to catch the mouse, etc.).

In the course of the game, the teacher's attention should be directed to improving running, jumping, climbing, therefore, games are given with a gradual complication of movement. So, in the game "Mice in the Pantry" children run in one direction, and in such as "Carousel" - in a circle; in the games "Airplanes", "At the Bear's Forest" children practice fast running and catching, and in the game "Bears and Bees" they practice fast climbing, etc.

But it should be remembered that you should not give climbing in the game if the children have not yet learned how to do it well: you need to teach children this or that movement in class, and then use the game that includes this movement. Likewise, before you introduce obstacle jumping into the game, you need to track how each child is jumping. Only those children who jump freely are involved in the game, with the rest you must first practice in high jumps, through a rope. [11]

In the middle and in the group, the teacher or physical education leader first tells the children how to play, who should do what, and then the roles are assigned. In a group of 4-year-old children, at the beginning of the year, the teacher himself appoints who will be who. At the same time, he takes into account the degree of activity of children, the ability to run quickly, climb. The role of the leader should first be entrusted to children who will knowingly cope with it, otherwise the child may lose faith in himself and it will be difficult to attract him to active action.

In the course of the game, the teacher notes the children's successes, draws the attention of their comrades to them, instills a sense of confidence! "That was how clever the bear was, he caught many guys!"

The teacher uses active play to educate children for goodwill, mutual assistance and other moral qualities. "Well done, guys," he says, "all together defended the mouse from the cat, without you she would not have been saved!". [8]

In the process of daily work, the leader makes sure that all children are able to perform different roles in outdoor games. In the second half of the year, in the distribution of roles, a counting rule should be used: first, in those games that the teacher conducts with the children, later - when they organize the game independently. The counting room gives all children the opportunity to experience different roles, excludes manifestations of injustice and other negative qualities.

In addition to story games, these groups use games based on a specific task: "Find yourself a mate", "Find your color", "Run quietly", "Ball school", etc. These games can be played with the whole group, and with several children [1].

There are games that cannot be organized with a large number of children, but they are very useful. These are mainly games with objects and toys (balls, jump ropes, hoops, flags, etc.).

While children are outdoors, it is necessary to involve children in outdoor games several times, choosing the right moments for them.

Often, having finished playing a board or building game, the child does not know what to do, starts to play naughty, interfere with others. This is where you need to invite him to play with the ball, roll the hoop, jump over the rope, depending on what kind of movements he needs to exercise, what muscle groups to train.

In the middle group, the child's mental and physical development continues. The development of all types of children's activities, their complication, begins to be strongly influenced by the child's own plans. But their full implementation is still possible only with the help of an adult.

The play motives of children's activities retain their significance. Now they are being implemented in creative role-playing games, which children play together in small groups. The child has a need to coordinate his actions with the actions of others, to perform them in order to achieve a common goal. Conditions are created for the formation of friendly relations between children, the manifestation of mutual assistance, etc. [2]

The child of the 5th life is master of all types of basic movements in general terms. He strives for new combinations of movements, wants to try his hand at complex types of movements and physical exercise. Children have a need for motor improvisations. They undertake the fulfillment of any motor task, but they still do not know how to measure their strengths, to take into account their real capabilities. Convinced of the impossibility of performing a motor action, the child does it only in general terms, without achieving completion. But at the same time, he is sincerely convinced that he completed the movement completely. The growing motor imagination at this age becomes one of the stimuli for the enrichment of children's motor skills with a variety of ways of action.

The attention of a child of middle preschool age is becoming more and more stable; visual, auditory and tactile perceptions are improved, deliberate memorization and recollection are developing. Children distinguish well the types of movements, partially master the ability to highlight some of their elements. The ability to perceive, imagine, analyze and evaluate the sequence and quality of one's actions develops.

All this determines the completely deliberate and arbitrary nature of the movements of children. Interest arises in the results of the movement, the correctness of its implementation, and compliance with the model.

Further improvement of motor skills and abilities is conditioned by the level of development of those physical qualities, without which they cannot manifest themselves sufficiently correctly and effectively. The leading elements of the technique of different ways of running, jumping, throwing, actions with the ball, skiing, skating, etc. cannot be mastered by a child and applied productively if his dexterity, coordination and accuracy of movements, speed, strength, endurance are insufficiently developed, flexibility, as well as the ability to maintain a stable body position in a variety of conditions.

The development of physical qualities occurs under the influence of constant exercise. As a result, the motor capabilities of children are expanded and enriched, their physical strengths increase. There is a psychological readiness to perform complex motional actions and the manifestation of certain volitional efforts. Along with the game, the motive of motor activity is the motive of mastering new skills and abilities, consolidating them. As a result, solid foundations are laid for the school of movements, for increasing efficiency and physical fitness.

The task of modern preschool institutions is to provide a comprehensive education for children. This task is carried out by various means, among which play plays an important role.

Outdoor play is of great importance, primarily as a means of physical education. Outdoor games include the basic movements: walking, running, throwing, climbing, balance, as well as some special movements to strengthen and develop certain muscle groups. The movements included in the game, if given by the teacher in the correct dosage, develop and strengthen the body, improve the metabolism, the functional activity of all organs and systems (contribute to more active breathing, increased blood circulation).


In games, movement skills are consolidated, which become more accurate, coordinated; children learn to perform movements in various changing conditions, to navigate in the environment.

The most important thing in outdoor games is that children acquire specific relationships between the players. They determine not only the general character, forms of competitive struggle and mutual friendship, but also the peculiarities of the performance of many game actions, the severity of some experiences. Playing, moving, the child becomes stronger, dexterous, enduring, confident in his abilities, his independence increases.

Outdoor games are one of the most favorite and useful activities for children. This is not surprising, but after all, collectivism is brought up in games, such valuable qualities as strength, endurance, agility, and ingenuity are manifested.

Fairly popular wisdom asserts that "A person is known in trouble, and a child is in play." As we have already noted above, in the process of play activity, the individual characteristics of children are clearly manifested. Because the restraining centers are liberated, mental and physical skills are more naturally manifested.

Outdoor games strengthen, educate people, promote the harmonious development of the individual.


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