Научная статья на тему 'Methodical peculiarities of using of game techniques at the lessons of natural science in elementary school'

Methodical peculiarities of using of game techniques at the lessons of natural science in elementary school Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Vysochan Lesya Mikhailovna, Condur Oksana Sozontovna

In this article we consider the peculiarities of the use of game techniques in the lessons of natural science, their examples are presented and methods of their conducting are analyzed.

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В данной статье рассматриваются особенности использования игровых методик на уроках естествознания, приводятся их примеры и анализируются методы их проведения.

Текст научной работы на тему «Methodical peculiarities of using of game techniques at the lessons of natural science in elementary school»


УДК 372.8

кандидат педагогических наук Высочан Леся Михайловна

ГВУЗ «Прикарпатский национальный университет имени Василия Стефаника» (г. Ивано- Франковск); кандидат физико-математических наук, доцент Кондур Оксана Созонтовна

ГВУЗ "Прикарпатский национальный университет имени Василия Стефаника"(г. Ивано- Франковск)


Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются особенности использования игровых методик на уроках естествознания, приводятся их примеры и анализируются методы их проведения.

Ключевые слова: игровые приемы, интересные материалы, обучение.

Annotation. In this article we consider the peculiarities of the use of game techniques in the lessons of natural science, their examples are presented and methods of their conducting are analyzed.

Keywords: game receptions, interesting materials, education.

Problem formulation. Public changes in the country give new trends in the development of education. The coming era - the era of change, innovation, intelligence dictates its living conditions, introduces new requirements to each individual. Society needs people creative, active, capable of non-standard thinking, solving complex sociopolitical and economic problems. Qualitatively new changes in society convince that the greatest value is a unique personality - creative, active, bright. This leads to a responsible and creative attitude towards the tasks of the elementary school teacher. A modern teacher should awaken cognitive interest in schoolchildren, help students develop their individual qualities, inclinations, abilities, promote their creativity, encourage diligence, initiative, and creative search. Primary school as a basis for the formation of personality is of particular importance to provide the child with a comprehensive development - intellectual, physical, creative. The basis of the education of a person seeking self-improvement and self-development is a positive motivation for learning, the presence of cognitive interest. It is known that the revival of cognitive interest of junior pupils is carried out gradually through an individual approach, didactic game, theatricalization. It is the cognitive interest that underlies the development of cognitive activity and the positive motivation of learning. Both the active search and the lively interest in the intellectual direction of the subject greatly increase when the teacher uses a good joke, warm, cheering word, playing elements.

Actuality of recent researches and publications. Since ancient times the elementary school has been an important link in the education and upbringing of the younger generation. A child of the junior school age is supportive of the upbringing action from the outside. Psychologists (L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, L.V. Zankov, V.V. Davydov, G.I. Shchukin, etc.) found that the junior pupil is characterized by a desire for action, for contacts with people , which made it possible to conclude that the most important developing ways are activity and communication. However, the school that developed in Ukraine in the XX century, hindered these factors, it simply did not allow them to child. The student was the subject of study. His predominant activity was model-based (do as I do, think like me, speak like me). Independence of the child, her creative potential was suppressed. So far, this approach comes from school. Therefore, it is very important now to give the teacher a "tool" in which he will return the child to study its natural need for independent activity and communication. In preschool children, the main kind of activity of children was a game that gave them great opportunities for communication. With the advent of a school, their activities change: the teacher becomes a teacher. However, there should not be a sharp limit to the activities of the child in transition to school. Educational activity should "grow up" from the game. Therefore, at the stage of school learning, the game must occupy a certain place. V.A. Sukhomlinsky advocated that the strange world of nature, game, music, fairy tales, which surrounded the child to school, did not close the door of the classroom [57, c. 72]. Only then will the child love the school, the class, when the teacher will keep for her the joys that she had before. One of the means to save this joy is a game that does not cease to influence the development of the child and in the school's educational process. The use of games in the educational process helps to intensify the activity of the child, develops cognitive activity, observation, attention, memory, thinking, maintains interest in , being studied, develops creative imagination, imaginative thinking, removes fatigue in children, because the game makes the learning process interesting to the child. In this connection, we set the goal to develop educational games and explore the technique of using games x receptions and interesting material at the lessons of natural science.

The purpose of the article. Consider the influence of the didactic game on the formation of a positive motivation for studying in elementary school.

Presentation of the main research material. Y.A. Komensky noted that education should stimulate "interest in knowledge and hunting for doctrine." Excite an interest in learning in a variety of ways. One of them, as believed, A.Y. Komensky, the brightness of books for children, the liveliness of the language. These ideas he outlined in the book for children "The World of Sensual Things in Pictures." The book is really made taking into account its curiosity for children [1, 32]. In the curriculum of public schools there was a study subject "Natural Sciences". For the initial stage of studying natural science in 1876, Zuev V.F. He prepared a textbook called "Image of Natural History". Methodological manual for the textbook was not developed, but the author in his introduction provided advice to teachers. There were also no guidelines for using games. Analyzing the texts of the textbook, it can be noted that they are written in a vibrant, colorful language. So, V.F. Zuyev, without introducing the term "curiosity" of the mind and practically applied it when writing a textbook. Textbook and ideas of V.F. Zuyev was used in the study and at the beginning of the XIX century. But in the middle of the XIX century. the reaction is changing in politics. Progressive ideas of V.F. Zuyev was eradicated from the educational process. Materials in textbooks on natural science for this period contained endless descriptions of plants and animals, so the students learned by heart these descriptions. Thus, in the middle of the XIX century. There was no curiosity and games in particular in the training. [3,12]. Such an approach to teaching did not satisfy the advanced teachers. Of great interest are the ideas of K.D. Ushinskogo He considered science as an educational subject that interests a child and arouses her interest in learning. He urged to provide direct contact with the student with nature, widely apply visibility in the lessons. "An object that faces the eyes of the student or vivid features embedded in his memory himself raises the question of the child," that is, he is interested in himself. "At that time, the most important ways of forming an interest in learning were the application in the educational process of visibility, acceptance of comparison, research approach to

knowledge formation. The question of natural science games was not specifically raised. In the post-revolutionary period, problems with using the game were of interest to N.K. Krupskaya She noticed that "the school takes too little place in the game, immediately impose the child's approach to any activity by adult methods. It underestimates the organizational role of the game. The transition from game to serious lessons is too harsh, between free play and regulated school activities is a gap not filled. Here you need transitional forms. " Such and advocateaddict games and other interesting materials. This peculiar form of educational activity appears already in the preschool age. The follower N.K. Krupskaya was A.S. Makarenko In his opinion, the game is an important educational factor in the process of becoming a person. The game is not only a fun, fun hangout. It always requires the activity of the child, and therefore is a kind of preparation for work, a school that produces communication skills, ingenuity, endurance, wit. Games only seem something unnecessary in the life of the future citizen, in reality, they require the maximum energy, intelligence, independence, sometimes becoming a relentlessly hard work, which leads to the pleasure of effort. "The game plays an important role in the life of the child," wrote A.S. Makarenko - What kind of child is in the game, it will be so much in work when it grows up. Therefore, the upbringing of the future figure occurs primarily in the game. "Based on the words of the great teacher, one can conclude that the game for the child is needed and at the same time the game is a very close and habitual activity for the child in which the child feels comfortable and relaxed Our contemporaries appreciated the unique possibilities of the game as an active participant in the educational process. Sh.A. Amonashvili defines "the exclusive role of the game is to increase the cognitive interest of children, to facilitate the complex process of learning, to accelerate development." [1, 32] The game of a junior student is "doomed" to success in advance because practically all children do not quite understand what it means to study, are ready good play for school and students. In the educational system T.V. Bashayeva offers samples of sensory standards of various properties (shapes, colors, sizes, etc.) that a child can learn in game lessons. For the development of each type of perception, a system of games is developed that gradually become more complex. Thanks to the gaming system it is allowed to develop a leading cognitive process in junior pupils in an accessible and interesting form. Therefore, during its formation and development, the game was a kind of evolution. Having emerged from the need for interest in learning, she drew the attention of psychologists, didactics, methodologists. To date, its significance is revealed in the study. A large number of educational games have been developed. In the methodology of natural science, they pay enough attention, but they are not systematized enough. Changing the priorities of the goals of education required the development of new games, updated approaches to their use in the educational process.

The significance of natural games in the development of students.

In theory and practice, the educational process attaches great importance to the use of games for the organization of children's activities. A game for the child - one of the important sources of information about the world around. In addition, the game as an activity by which the child tries to turn reality, change the world, helps shape and manifest the needs of the child to influence the surrounding world, become an entity, the main thing in their activities. Solving a certain task in the game involves mental stress, overcoming the difficulties that accustomed the child to mental work, simultaneously develops logical thinking. In the game, children learn to observe, compare, classify objects by one or another feature; train memory, attention; to show cleverness, ingenuity, and most importantly - they are interested in learning activities [2,8]. In conducting games, it should be noted:

• a child who has gone through games, prepared for creative activity;

• a form of the game should be accessible to children in terms of content, to match their level of development;

• vivid visibility facilitates the conduct of the game;

• Game and interesting material should be diverse, have a close connection with the material being studied, on the topic.

In educational and extra-curricular activities in the elementary school, effective games of developing character. The child reveals himself and makes the first steps to establishing relationships with a teacher and peers in the game; establishes the norms of communication in the team; playing, the child enters the world of human actions and relationships, acquires the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities.

A lesson game can perform certain functions:

• To educate the student about the ability to learn, and not only to develop specific learning skills;

• The student should be aware that classes are learning, not playing at school;

Teacher, knowing what functions should play in school education, can check whether he successfully used the game in a class in one particular or another particular case. The game should facilitate the free development of the child's individual as a whole, enrich her inner world, and determine the direction of her interests.

In the sensory development of students, the game plays an invaluable role. It contributes to the development of observation, creative abilities, ingenuity, self-affirmation, perseverance, desire for success. The game has a special role and is the possibility of painless transition of the child from the game to the educational activities, which is the main task of the initial stage of training.

Games and curiosity give the teacher the opportunity not only to renew scientific knowledge, but also to significantly expand the means for the formation and development of representations and concepts of students about certain natural phenomena, the development of interest among students in the study of natural science. Children in an exciting, bright, playful form are given the opportunity to learn new material, to enrich the previously acquired knowledge. Capture students, pushing for search activity, the attitude toward the goal of solving the problem situation, finding the independent solution is just the lessons of using games. The systematic inclusion of interesting material into lessons helps to not only enrich, diversify the educational process, but also forces children to take a different look at the world around them.

Improving the professional qualities of a teacher should be the development, organization and conduct of games. The teacher acquires an additional stock of new knowledge; Ability to plan foreseeable in the game of action; distribute in time the mental load associated with the plot of the game in the process of developing and conducting games at the lessons. Thus, the system of educational education, adopted by a particular teacher, enriched with their own ideas and tumors in various fields and, in particular, in the field of gaming, improve the person himself teacher.

Conclusion. Primary education is the first educational level that puts the foundation of general education for schoolchildren. Therefore, the priority task of studying at elementary school at the present stage is the formation of a certain amount of knowledge, general educational abilities and skills for students, ensuring the further development of the child's personality, development of his mental abilities, and also the ability to think independently, creatively. And this is possible with the intensification of cognitive interest, which is inseparable from the motivation of

learning, which affects the formation of key and subject competences in students. In a variety of forms of training, a significant place belongs to the educational game. The peculiarity of the educational game as a form of positive influence on the motivation of learning lies in the fact that it achieves its goal imperceptibly for the student, since it does not require any means of violence against a person. Therefore, the teacher's positive attitude towards gaming activity is highly effective.

Formation of motivation to study - the main problem that continues to worry educators, psychologists. The system of natural and personal factors that prompt for learning activities is influenced by a conscious need - a motive that is formed under the influence of pedagogical tools, among which the leading place belongs to the didactic game. Positive motivation of the study consists of such components as educational and cognitive interest, the motive of cooperation, the motive of creative search, novelty, self-affirmation, the desire for self-improvement.

The game helps:

- to discover the independent creative abilities of the child and give them an impetus for development;

- to identify positive features of the character;

- to encourage cooperation with peers;

- to develop memory, thinking, imagination, fantasy;

- to find a solution to non-standard situations;

- aims at opening.

Formation of motivation for students to study is one of the problems of a modern school. Educational motivation is the basis of school success or failure. The source of positive motivation for learning is, first of all, the interest in the material, and the awakening of interest is carried out with the help of various techniques and techniques, first of all in the didactic game, which is amazing and aims at the discovery.


1. Байбара Т.М. Методика навчання природознавства в початкових класах: Навчальний поабник. - 2-ге видання. - К.: Веселка, 1998. - с. 334

2. Балаева Н.1. Активiзацiя тзнавально! дiяльностi учшв на уроках у початкових класах // Педагопка i психолопя. - 2004. - №278. - С. 8-10.

3. Бiбiк Н.М. Формування тзнавальних штереЫв молодших школярiв: Навч.-метод. поаб. для вчителiв початкових клаав. - К.: 1ЗМН, 1997.


УДК: 378.2

магистрант Глушкова Елена Александровна

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Нижегородский государственный педагогический университет имени Козьмы Минина» (г. Нижний Новгород); кандидат психологических наук, доцент Медведева Елена Юрьевна Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Нижегородский государственный педагогический университет имени Козьмы Минина» (г. Нижний Новгород)



Аннотация. В статье рассмотрены особенности нарушения предметной лексики у дошкольников с ОНР, состояние активного и пассивного словаря. На конкретных примерах показаны ошибки при подборе синонимов и антонимов, замены их схожими по внешним признакам словами. Проанализированы проблемы, возникающие у дошкольников в процессе классификации предметов, такие как: неумение обобщать, выделять лишний предмет из предложенных, обозначенный далеким по смыслу словом. Дан анализ некоторым методическим программам по коррекции и развитию предметной лексики у дошкольников с общим недоразвитием речи.

Ключевые слова: общее недоразвитие речи, дошкольники, предметная лексика, активный словарь, синонимы, существительные, коррекция, дидактические игры.

Annotation. The article deals with the peculiarities of violation of subject vocabulary in preschool children with ONR, the state of active and passive vocabulary. Specific examples show errors in the selection of synonyms and antonyms, replacing them with similar words in appearance. The problems arising at preschool children in the process of classification of subjects, such as: inability to generalize, to allocate the excess subject from the offered, designated by the word far in sense are analyzed. The analysis of some methodical programs on correction and development of subject lexicon at preschool children with the General underdevelopment of the speech is given.

Keywords: General underdevelopment of speech, preschoolers, subject vocabulary, active vocabulary, synonyms, nouns, correction, didactic games.

Введение. Богатая и хорошо развитая речь служит средством адекватного и полноценного общения в развития личности. Лексика как важнейшая часть языкового кода языка имеет огромное общеобразовательное и практическое значение. Богатый словарь выступает признаком высокого развития речи ребенка. Нарушения формирования лексического кода языка обедняют речь детей, при этом ее нельзя считать достаточно развитой. Коррекция речевых нарушений вообще и в частности обогащение словарного запаса являются необходимым условием для развития коммуникативных компетенций ребенка.

Проблема развития предметной лексики занимает важнейшее место в современной логопедии, а вопрос о состоянии словаря при общем недоразвитии речи (ОНР) и о методике его развития является одним из актуальных вопросов.

Изучение детей с общим недоразвитием речи и накопленный опыт их воспитания и обучения убеждают в возможности успешной коррекционно-логопедической работы с ними, а также в необходимости дальнейшего изучения их, совершенствования и детализации специальных методик, так как в этом направлении до настоящего времени имеется ряд неразрешенных вопросов.

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