Научная статья на тему 'Латинизмы в английской юридической терминологии'

Латинизмы в английской юридической терминологии Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание»

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Ключевые слова
ТЕРМИН / TERM / ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ / TERMINOLOGY / ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЙ ТЕРМИН / LEGAL TERM / ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ / LEGAL TERMINOLOGY / ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК / LEGAL ENGLISH / ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЕ / BORROWING / ЗАИМСТВОВАННОЕ СЛОВО / BORROWED WORD (LOANWORD) / ЛАТИНИЗМЫ / LATINISMS / ЯЗЫКОВЫЕ ФАКТОРЫ / LANGUAGE FACTORS / НЕЯЗЫКОВЫЕ ФАКТОРЫ / КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ / CALQUE / ЭТИМОН / АФФИКСЫ / AFFIXES / СУФФИКСЫ / SUFFIXES / ПРЕФИКСЫ / PREFIXES / TS-LINGUISTS AND THIS FACT ALLOWS TO JUDGE THE FAIRNESS OF CONCLUSIONS PRESENTED IN THIS ARTICLE / NON-LANGUAGE FACTORS / ETYMON

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию, автор научной работы — Коларькова Оксана Геннадьевна, Ипатова Ирина Серафимовна, Савина Анна Анатольевна

Данная статья посвящена вопросу латинских заимствований в английской юридической терминологии, которые имеют огромное значение для развития современного английского юридического языка, поскольку как языковые единицы не утратили своих блестящих языковых качеств: краткости, содержательности, выразительности, свойственных латинскому языку, и по сей день употребляются в юридических и правовых актах, документах. Целью статьи авторы ставят выявление семантико-грамматической специфики латинских заимствований в английской юридической терминологии. Анализируются языковые и неязыковые факторы лексических заимствований; прямые и косвенные виды заимствования латинизмов; структурное заимствование, а именно калькирование; словообразовательные элементы суффиксы и префиксы. Авторы приводят в статье многочисленные примеры заимствований юридических терминов, взятых из этимологических словарей английского языка, что дает возможность не только выявить и проследить интерференционную судьбу языковых корней слов и выражений много веков мертвого для непрофессиональной коммуникации латинского языка, но и представить определенного рода масштабный ракурс социально-исторического развития общества. В статье подчеркивается значимость знаний латинского языка для будущих юристов работников судебной системы, что в совокупности с умениями студентов работать со словом создает целеполагающее формирование профессиональных практических навыков и культуры правового мышления в целом. В своем исследовании авторы статьи опираются на богатейший опыт как отечественных, так и зарубежных исследователей-лингвистов, этимологические словари, что позволяет судить об обоснованности представленных в статье выводов.

Похожие темы научных работ по языкознанию , автор научной работы — Коларькова Оксана Геннадьевна, Ипатова Ирина Серафимовна, Савина Анна Анатольевна,

LATINISMS IN ENGLISH LEGAL TERMINOLOGY

The article is devoted to the question of Latin borrowings which has great significance for the development of contemporary Legal English terminology because its language units haven’t lost their brilliant Latin language features: brevity, content, expressiveness, that are still used in legal acts and documents. The purpose of the article is to reveal semantic-grammar specific features of Latin borrowings in English Legal terminology. In the article the authors analyze both language and non-language factors of vocabulary borrowing; direct and indirect kinds of Latinisms borrowing; structural borrowing, namely, calque; word-building elements suffixes and prefixes. The authors offer numerous examples of legal terms borrowings, taken from etymological English dictionaries that give the possibility not only to reveal and to follow up interference destiny of language word and expressions roots of the Latin language which has been dead for non-professional community for centuries, but submit so-called extensive aspect of social-historical society development. The article highlights significance of Latin knowledge for future lawyers as workers in judicial system that creates in conjunction with students’ abilities to work with the word, goal-setting formation of their professional practical skills and culture of legal thinking as a whole. The authors of the article in their research work have drawn on the extensive experience of both Russian and foreign scientists-linguists and this fact allows to judge the fairness of conclusions presented in this article.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Латинизмы в английской юридической терминологии»

филологические науки

Коларькова Оксана Геннадьевна, Ипатова Ирина Серафимовна, Савина Анна Анатольевна

ЛАТИНИЗМЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКОЙ ...

УДК 811.111

ЛАТИНИЗМЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ

© 2018

Коларькова Оксана Геннадьевна, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры языкознания и иностранных языков Ипатова Ирина Серафимовна, кандидат педагогических наук, зав. кафедрой языкознания и иностранных языков Савина Анна Анатольевна, кандидат педагогических наук, старший преподаватель

кафедры языкознания и иностранных языков Российский государственный университет правосудия, филиал в Нижнем Новгороде (603022, Россия, Нижний Новгород, проспект Гагарина 17А, e-mail: rapfno@yandex.ru)

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена вопросу латинских заимствований в английской юридической терминологии, которые имеют огромное значение для развития современного английского юридического языка, поскольку как языковые единицы не утратили своих блестящих языковых качеств: краткости, содержательности, выразительности, свойственных латинскому языку, и по сей день употребляются в юридических и правовых актах, документах. Целью статьи авторы ставят выявление семантико-грамматической специфики латинских заимствований в английской юридической терминологии. Анализируются языковые и неязыковые факторы лексических заимствований; прямые и косвенные виды заимствования латинизмов; структурное заимствование, а именно калькирование; словообразовательные элементы - суффиксы и префиксы. Авторы приводят в статье многочисленные примеры заимствований юридических терминов, взятых из этимологических словарей английского языка, что дает возможность не только выявить и проследить интерференционную судьбу языковых корней слов и выражений много веков мертвого для непрофессиональной коммуникации латинского языка, но и представить определенного рода масштабный ракурс социально-исторического развития общества. В статье подчеркивается значимость знаний латинского языка для будущих юристов - работников судебной системы, что в совокупности с умениями студентов работать со словом создает целеполагающее формирование профессиональных практических навыков и культуры правового мышления в целом. В своем исследовании авторы статьи опираются на богатейший опыт как отечественных, так и зарубежных исследователей-лингвистов, этимологические словари, что позволяет судить об обоснованности представленных в статье выводов.

Ключевые слова: термин, терминология, юридический термин, юридическая терминология, юридический английский язык, заимствование, заимствованное слово, латинизмы, языковые факторы, неязыковые факторы, калькирование, этимон, аффиксы, суффиксы, префиксы.

LATINISMS IN ENGLISH LEGAL TERMINOLOGY

© 2018

Kolarkova Oxana Gennadievna, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor

of language study and foreign languages department Ipatova Irina Serafimovna, candidate of pedagogical sciences, the head of language study

and foreign languages department Savina Anna Anatolievna, candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior teacher of language study

and foreign languages department Russian State University of Justice, Privolzhsky branch (603022, Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 17A, e-mail: rapfno@yandex.ru)

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Abstract. The article is devoted to the question of Latin borrowings which has great significance for the development of contemporary Legal English terminology because its language units haven't lost their brilliant Latin language features: brevity, content, expressiveness, that are still used in legal acts and documents. The purpose of the article is to reveal semantic-grammar specific features of Latin borrowings in English Legal terminology. In the article the authors analyze both language and non-language factors of vocabulary borrowing; direct and indirect kinds of Latinisms borrowing; structural borrowing, namely, calque; word-building elements - suffixes and prefixes. The authors offer numerous examples of legal terms borrowings, taken from etymological English dictionaries that give the possibility not only to reveal and to follow up interference destiny of language word and expressions roots of the Latin language which has been dead for non-professional community for centuries, but submit so-called extensive aspect of social-historical society development. The article highlights significance of Latin knowledge for future lawyers as workers in judicial system that creates in conjunction with students' abilities to work with the word, goal-setting formation of their professional practical skills and culture of legal thinking as a whole. The authors of the article in their research work have drawn on the extensive experience of both Russian and foreign scientists-linguists and this fact allows to judge the fairness of conclusions presented in this article.

Keywords: term, terminology, legal term, legal terminology, Legal English, borrowing, borrowed word (loanword), latinisms, language factors, non-language factors, calque, etymon, affixes, suffixes, prefixes.

The role of Latin in the English language formation and development is very significant. On all stages the English language is replenished not only by new lexical units, but, undoubtedly, has an influence on the process of word formation in English. It is known that borrowing of Latin vocabulary is carried out by means of oral and writing speech, however, most words borrowed from Latin were taken from various documents and books. Latin terms in contemporary legal terminology also represent great significance for the English language as to this day Latin terms are used in legal acts, documents with such Latin stylistic features as: brevity, content, expressiveness. When analyzing modern English Legal terminology, Maksimenko E.S. claims that practically all internationalisms are covered, included into the termsystem of English. The scientist sums up that 20% of legal terms in English are of Latin origin [22]. Thus, we

consider that nowadays one of the conditions of successful professional legal activity is to master the foreign language, mainly its legal terminology. That's why the focus on the problem of Latin borrowing in English Legal terminology is sure to be topical and timely.

Despite the apparent research completeness of this question latinisms remain the subject of closely attention in both Russian and foreign scientific linguistic literature. The development of theoretical problems concerning both borrowing and adaptation of Latin vocabulary in contemporary English, Legal English in particular, has gone up on a new phase. A lot of scientists-linguists devote their research works to such problems: Aristova V.M., Bahurova E.P., Butt P., Bryson B., Castle R., Durkin Ph., Green T., Galahova A.A., Kaminskaya E.V., Kuthe D., Maksimenko E.S., Sekirin V.P. and others. In their scientific works

Балтийский гуманитарный журнал. 2018. Т. 7. № 1(22)

89

Kolarkova Oxana Gennadievna, Ipatova Irina Serafimovna, Savina Anna Anatolievna philological

LATINISMS IN ENGLISH LEGAL ... sciences

they discuss the questions about Latinisms influence on contemporary English; principles of Latin borrowings in English; Latin borrowing classification; Latin functioning in English; legal terms formation by means of Latin borrowings and others. The analysis of those research works in the sphere of linguistics has allowed us to conclude that specific features of Latin borrowings in Legal English, particularly semantic-grammar ones, are not fully represented.

In this connection, the purpose of our article is to reveal semantic-grammar specific features of Latin borrowings in English Legal terminology.

Both the notions «term» and «terminology» have various definitions in linguistic literature. In the dictionary of linguistic terms the notion term is defined as a word or a phrase of specific (scientific, technical e t.c.) language created (accepted, borrowed e .t.c.) for exact expression of specific notions and identification of specific objects while terminology is the set of terms in the definite industry, activity, knowledge that forms a special sector (layer) of vocabulary and much more easier succumbs to conscious regulation and streamline [1].

From the point of view of Reformatsky A.A., «terms are special words limited by their specific meanings; words which are mostly unambiguous like exact expressions of notions and names of things» [29, p. 110]. Superanskaya A.V. highlights the idea that «the term named as the notion at the same time named as the object. In a word, there is a predominant connection «name-notion». Behind the term there is always the object of thought, not of general thought but special one restricted by definite area» [32, p. 34].

Based on the analysis of some definitions to the notion «term» in research works of Vinokur G.O., Lantuhova N.N., Reformatsky A.A., Superanskaya A.V. and others, it can be concluded that a term is a word or word expression relating to a special notion, phenomenon or object in the system of any knowledge field, thus, it's a notion which has a professional meaning and is distinguished by its exactness, unambiguity and system. In our case we deal with legal terms which are word descriptions of notions used when the content of Act or other normative legal documents, words or word expressions with legal context are presented, which are generalized names of legal notions having an exact and definite meaning and are distinguished by their unambiguity and functional sustainability [28].

As for legal terminology, it represents the set of entrenched legal terms used by law-making practice; it's a system of generally accepted, structured, unified and formed properly legal terms [12].

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Legal terminology is considered to be one of the most important components of Legal English the interest to which is growing every year. Legal terminology is a "set of words and word combinations used in scientific apparatus to express special notions and to identify legal reality objects in this or that sphere of legal knowledge" [18, p. 109].

Some researchers (S.S. Alexeev, I.I. Lizikova, D. Melinkoff, D. Crystal, D. Davy, L.M. Solan, P.M. Tirsma and so on) highlight some specific features of Legal English caused by its history of development and specificity of law itself as a form of public consciousness.

As Russian integration into international community is impossible without training a wide range of specialists able to perceive the experience of legal regulation of common or precedential English and American law, the interest towards English legal terminology is not aimless, but it is caused by great practical relevance of learning Legal English as a language for special purposes [19,30].

The most important process having an influence on the development of English legal terminology, its enrichment and perfection, is the process of borrowing. Borrowing, having come into the English language from other languages, is one of the main ways to form terms, legal ones in particular.

Foreign borrowings are entirely penetrated into the English language. Jens Otto Harry Jespersen, a Danish linguist, underlined the idea that "English is the chain of 90

borrowing words" [15]. Philip Durkin notes, "Loanwords make up a huge proportion of the words in any large dictionary of English. They also figure largely in the language of everyday communication and some are found even among the most basic vocabulary of English" [9].

Linguistic scientists use different terms in their works: "loanword", "borrowed word". The analysis of their definitions allows us to make a conclusion that these terms can be regarded as synonyms having the same meaning [31]. In the free dictionary by Farlex a "loanword" is a word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized [34]. The professor S. Kemmer gives a similar definition to this term: "It is a word adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language...while the abstract noun "borrowing" refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language" [17]. Bates L. Hoffer interprets "borrowing" as the process of importing linguistic items from one linguistic system into another, a process that occurs any time two cultures are in contact over a period of time [14].

Legal English has a lot of borrowings in its terminology as well. There is a considerable amount of foreign words and phrases in Legal English, which are mainly of Latin origin, called as "latinisms" in linguistic science. The main features of vocabulary borrowings are led by various factors -language and non-language. Language factors are dependent on interaction of definite countries, people and languages. Non-language factors are concerned with economic, political and cultural relations between native speakers of this or that language. Bagiyan M.B. establishes the following background of Latin borrowings in English, Legal English particularly: cultural influence; countries contact: both orally or in writing; interest to study a language; language significance and prestige; historically entrenched interest to the culture of a foreign country; circumstances of social layers' language culture adapting a new word [2, p.36].

The formation source of English Legal terminology was Roman law. The Latin language is primarily a language of Roman law, distinguished by exactness, brevity and clarity. Latin was brought by Roman soldiers, administrative officers, settlers and traders into different parts of increasing Roman Empire. «Latin was the language of new ruling force, the language of government and governance, jurisprudence and legislation, trade and military actions» [33, p.191].

A great number of direct Latin borrowings were introduced into English law from Roman one. Nowadays the English language makes use of Latin legal terms nearly without changing their orthographic structure, but one can notice some changes in word semantics though they are not so significant. Let's compare some of them [6, 21, 34]: subpoena (Lat.: under penalty of; Eng.: a writ requiring someone to appear in court to give testimony); harbeas corpus (Lat.: you have the body; Eng.: a writ ordering a person to be brought before a court or judge); pro bono (Lat.: for the public good; Eng.: provided free or at low cost to certain legal clients in order to serve the public good); status quo (Lat.: state in which; Eng.: existing condition or state of affairs); bona fides Lat.: good faith; Eng.: undertaken in good faith; sincere, real); alibi (Lat.: somewhere else; at another place; Eng.: a form of defense whereby a defendant attempts to prove that he was elsewhere when the crime in question was committed); ad hoc (Lat.: to this; Eng.: for the specific purpose, case, or situation at hand and for no other); ultra vires (Lat.: beyond strength; Eng.: law beyond the legal power or authority of a person, corporation, agent, etc.). The given examples show that most of Latin terms are used in contemporary Legal English terminology with wider meanings than their original ones.

Some modern legal terms possess archaic coloring, their use creates coloration of elevated style. This emotional contrast is connected with its higher status in society and encourages citizens to possess law-abiding behavior. In this regard, Latin had primary meaning in the formation of legal terminology which was the language of culture and Baltic Humanitarian Journal. 2018. T. 7. № 1(22)

филологические Коларькова Оксана Геннадьевна, Ипатова Ирина Серафимовна, Савина Анна Анатольевна

науки ЛАТИНИЗМЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКОЙ ...

education up to V century CE [18].

Borrowing from Latin was often done in two stages: first from Latin to French, then from French to English. So, such terms were borrowed as [24, 25, 26]: constitution (from Old French "constitution", from Latin "constitution" - act of settling, settled condition, anything arranged or settled upon, regulation, order, ordinance); judge (from Old French "juge", from Latin "iudex" - one who declares the law); fraud (from Old French "'fraude", from Latin ""fraudem" - cheating, deceit); evidence (from Old French "evidence", from Latin "evidentia"" - proof); legal (from Old French "légal", from Latin "legalis"" - pertaining to the law); notary (from Old French "notarie", from Latin "notarius" - shorthand writer, clerk, secretary); "crime"" (from Old French "crimne"", from Latin "crimen"" - charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense) etc. Thus, Latin can be regarded here as "etymon" - the original form (or meaning) of a word, its source or the main type regarded as right, original and real [1].

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Apart from direct and indirect Latin borrowings, the English legal terminology contains a large number of Latin "calque" (from the French word for "copy"). "Calque" is a form of the borrowing that "literally translates a foreign expression, word for word" [23]. The reason for appearing that calque process was the fact that Edward III had published the order to conduct all the cases in English as the English language had been proclaimed as a state language, all the legal documents had to be translated from Latin into English. For example: legal aid - in forma pauperis; facts of crime -corpus delicti; donation gift - donatio mortis causa [8, 27] and so on.

It's important to highlight that in English Legal terminology there are some composite combined terms, one part of which is direct Latin borrowing, another one is English term or assimilated borrowing. For example: pro

forma letter, ad valorem duty, writ of habeas corpus, action in rem, guardian ad litem [8, 27].

Undoubtedly, the Latin language had a great influence not only on English updating vocabulary, Legal English one, in particular, but on its word-building process as well. This thought has been emphasized by such researchers as Bagiyan M.B., Dubenets E.M., Kotsubinskaya L.V., Write R. and others. Thus, by means of latinizms influence on modern English Legal terminology both Latin suffixes and prefixes are used. Affix borrowings were derived thanks to «wordbuilding elements that can be often met in borrowed words are highlighted and defined as affixes, and acquire more productivity being the way or the means of new words formation taken from English roots» [7, p. 23].

Suffix creates a new word, automatically defining its part of speech while prefix has the purpose of word meaning modification. In a word, affixation plays a significant role in modern Legal English and a great deal of legal terms in English formed by Latin word-building affixes proves it. Such Latin suffixes form legal terms in English as: - al (betrayal, loyal, dismissal); - ance (defeasance, insurance, inheritance) - ence (defence, pretence, reference); -ency (precedency, solvency, insolvency); -ancy (discrepancy,); -ent (deficient, agent, precedent); -ory (signatory, statutory); -ary (beneficiary, disciplinary, parcenary); -ant (declarant, participant, replicant); -tion (deception, distribution, decon-secration); ous (posthumous, slanderous, spurious); -ate (aggregate, estate, reciprocate) [8, 27] and others.

A great number of prefixes borrowed from Latin take part in the formation of English legal terms. Among them, for example: de- (decontrol, declassify, default, defalcate); under- (underinsurance, undersign); non- (non-corporate, non-leviable); counter- (counter-execution, counteraction); over- (overdraft, overrule); pre- (prevail, precede, prejudge); anti- (antigraphy, anticipatory); un- (unbailed, unadjusted, unauthorized); dis- (disagreement, disallow, disannul); com- (committal, commodate); sub- (substitute, subtenant, subtraction); re- (recall, reconvention, recourse); in- (insolvency, incapacity, inclose); inter- (interdepartment, interference), pro- (proclaim, procurator, prohibit); trans-Балтийский гуманитарный журнал. 2018. Т. 7. № 1(22)

(transmission, transgressor) [8, 27] and others.

To sum up, Latin word has been widely adapted to its new environment by means of root or affix element transition, performing as a derivative, or borrowed by calque including phraseological one, because its interference destiny has been defined by targeted professional call: jurisprudence, medicine, culture. The English language, Legal English in particular, when borrowing words, notions and terms from Latin doesn't lose its identity but, on the contrary, enriches itself with best elements during the whole history.

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Статья поступила в редакцию 02.02.2018 Статья принята к публикации 27.03.2018

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