Научная статья на тему 'Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Modern Trends'

Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Modern Trends Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
internationalization / higher education in China / foreign students / government support / интернационализация / высшее образование в Китае / иностранные сту- денты в Китае / государственная поддержка

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Svetlana S. Donetskaya, Yan Zhan

The article analyzes the processes of internationalization of higher education in China at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on data from the Ministry of Education of China, legislation and publications that are publicly available on the Chinese Internet, it is shown how the number of students visiting China, their preferences in choosing universities and educational programs changed from 2000 to 2016. Information on government activities to support international students is provided. The internationalization of higher education plays an important role in the foreign-policy activities of modern China. Foreign students teaching and expanding of Chinese language teaching in foreign countries can be considered as the “soft power” of influence of Chinese national culture. Such actions from the point of view of the Chinese government should contribute to the formation of an attractive image of China, reduce the level of external threats, increase stability and economic prosperity of the country. Therefore, the government aims to attract as many foreign students as possible, especially from neighboring countries, and spends a lot of money on these purposes. The policy of internationalization of education has achieved significant results over the past 15 years. Today, students from all over the world obtain higher education in China. The number of foreign students increased in 2016 compared to 2000 by 8.4 times, reaching almost 450 thousand people. The possibilities for foreign students to choose profession and university have expanded. Now they come to China not only to learn Chinese, but also to obtain qualifications in engineering, economics, management and Western medicine.

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Интернационализация высшего образования в Китае: современные тенденции

В статье анализируются процессы интернационализации высшего образования, происходящие в Китае в начале XXI в. На основе данных Министерства образования Китая, законодательных актов и публикаций, находящихся в открытом доступе в сети китайского Интернета, показано, как изменилась численность студентов, приезжающих в Китай, трансформировались их предпочтения в выборе университетов и программ обучения с 2000 по 2016 годы. Представлена информация о государственных мероприятиях по поддержке иностранных студентов. Интернационализация высшего образования играет важную роль во внешнеполитической деятельности современного Китая. Обучение иностранных студентов и расширение преподавания китайского языка в зарубежных странах можно рассматривать как «мягкую силу» влияния китайской национальной культуры. Такие действия, с точки зрения китайского правительства, должны способствовать формированию привлекательного образа Китая, снижению уровня внешних угроз, повышению стабильности и росту экономического процветания государства. Поэтому правительство стремится привлечь как можно больше иностранных студентов, особенно из соседних стран, и расходует на эти цели немалые средства. Политика интернационализации образования позволила достичь значимых результатов за последние 15 лет. Сегодня в китайских университетах обучаются граждане всех стран мира. Численность иностранных студентов увеличилась в 2016 г. по сравнению с 2000 г. в 8,4 раза, достигнув почти 450 тыс. человек. Расширились возможности выбора иностранными студентами специальностей и университетов. Теперь в Китай приезжают не только для изучения китайского языка, но и для получения квалификации по инженерным специальностям, экономике, управлению и медицине.

Текст научной работы на тему «Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Modern Trends»

ment activities to attract and support foreign students in China.

Government programs to support international students

Modern China is the third country in the world after the United States and the United Kingdom to attract foreign students3. In Asia, China is the most popular state for foreign students' education [12]. The main reason for this international recognition is not only the rapid improvement of the quality of Chinese university education, but also the targeted efforts of the Chinese government. Since the mid-2000s it has been implementing a "soft power" strategy which suggests distribution through cultural exchanges and educational programs of Chinese national values. According to the authors of the strategy, such actions should lead to the formation of an attractive image of China, reduce the level of external threats, increase stability and economic prosperity of the state. The leading role in this strategy is given to the promotion of the Chinese language and the Chinese education system [13; 14]. We should also note that the internationalization of education is recognized as the main mission of Chinese universities in the "Program for Medium-term and Long-term Reform and Development of Education of the PRC for 2010-2020"4. Therefore, the list of educational programs for foreign students is expanding every year (presented on the website of the Ministry of Education of China5). These are, above all, undergraduate, graduate or doctoral pro-

3 tH^H^g^SWiH. China is becoming the third largest country to study abroad. Available at: http://edu.sina.com.cn/a/2016-09-12/ doc-ifxvukhv8200111.shtml (In Chinese)

4 tH

The program of medium-term and long-term reform and development of education in the PRC for 20102020. Available at: http://zongqing1028.blog.163. com/blog/static/12716629520107308487845/ (In Chinese)

5 Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. Available at: http://en.moe.gov.cn/

grams. However, there are also internships, as well as student exchange programs that do not involve obtaining academic degrees. Whatever program foreign citizens come to, they all have attractive opportunities for further education and building a successful career.

The government allocates huge funds to implement the strategy of "soft" propaganda of Chinese education [12], spent on supporting foreign students, attracting foreign scholars [6; 10] and financing Confucius Institutes (there are over 480 of them worldwide already [15]). The Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the State Education Commission of the PRC has developed state programs to support foreign students. For example, the National Commission for Education of the PRC provides scholarships for foreign students studying in China through bilateral agreements. In total, 235 types of scholarships5 are being implemented today, in 2016 they were received by 50 thousand foreign students from 183 countries (approximately 12.5% of the total number of foreign students), including 40% of foreign first-year students6. The percentage of graduate students among those receiving scholarships was 69% in 2016 [16]. We should note that now state educational initiatives are directed mainly to the countries located along the modern Silk Road (within the "One Belt, one road" strategy), where 4.4 billion people live (63% of the world's population) [17; 18]. Therefore, today 61% of all scholarships assigned to foreign students are held by citizens of these countries7. Starting from 2016 and over the next five years, the Chinese government intends to annually pay scholarships to another 10 thousand of such students [18]. We should note that scholarships for foreign students are not given disinterestedly. Their recipients must speak Chinese or

6 tH^H^g^SWiH. China is becoming the third largest country to study abroad. Available at: http://edu.sina.com.cn/a/2016-09-12/ doc-ifxvukhv8200111.shtml (In Chinese)

7 m&mm^w,

Countries supported for obtaining education

in China. Available at: http://liuxue.gmw.cn/2017-06/06/content_24706095.htm (In Chinese)

have required language courses. For example, a one-year study of the Chinese language is necessary for the study of engineering, scientific specialties, management, economics, law, the visual arts and western medicine; for learning Chinese medicine, literature, history, philosophy - two-year language courses. If at the end of the course the student is unable to achieve the required level of proficiency in Chinese, the scholarship payment is terminated [14].

Most international students prefer to study in first-tier cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai. However, despite the fact that the capital of China is at the forefront of attracting foreign students, until 2006 only a few foreign students studying at Beijing universities could count on state support8. After 2006, the Ministry of Education and the Chinese Scholarship Council started working with universities to develop scholarship projects. Only in 2016, according to statistics of the Ministry of Education of China, 10 scholarship projects to support foreign students were implemented in Beijing municipalities. Another 15 projects were implemented in 15 higher education institutions in Beijing. In total 598 students were supported that year. In 2017, 11 municipal projects and 21 projects at universities and colleges were implemented to support 502 students. These projects are intended for students coming from countries belonging to the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and studying in the following areas: aerospace, electrical and railway activities, law, Chinese medicine, finance, architecture and electronic information engineering. By 2020, the number of such projects should increase to up 1009. Similar scholarship initiatives are being established in other university cities of China.

In the near future the Chinese government plans to make the process of foreign students

8 M^^S^^S^®. International Politics of Tsinghua University. Available at: http:// www.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/gjhzyjlc/8806/index. html (In Chinese)

9 Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. Available at: http://en.moe.gov.cn/

teaching even more comfortable. For that purpose they are planning to increase funding for universities that host foreign students (currently, such universities are additionally allocated funds for the purchase of educational materials, reimbursed the tuition and living expenses of students, necessary medical expenses for their services, and also provided subsidies for organized group holiday trips10); to develop programs to encourage "returning" students (i.e., obtaining the next academic degree in China) and graduates who start their businesses in China, as well as expand their internship opportunities [18].

Dynamics ofthe number of foreign students in China

The rational policy of the Chinese government to attract foreign students to the country almost immediately affected the increase in their flow. So, if in 2000 the number of foreign students in China was just over 50 thousand people, then it took only four years to exceed the mark of 100 thousand people (Fig. 1). Since then, every two years, the total number of foreign students has increased by about 50 thousand people (33%). In 2016, more than 440 thousand people arrived in China, which is 9 times more than in 2000 [16; 19]. The share of foreign students in the total number of students studying in China also increased: from 2.8% in 2000 to 5.4% in 2014 (calculated according to [2; 16; 19]). However, despite all efforts, China has not yet reached the halfmillion number of foreign students planned by 202011, and their share in the total number of students is almost four times less than that of the leaders of the internationalization of high-

10 S^^^a^ft. Management activities for foreign students. Available at: https://baike.so.com/ doc/3088487-3255343.html (In Chinese)

11 ^m^mMM&mvRmms; (2010-2020).

The program of medium-term and long-term reform and development of education in the PRC for 20102020. Available at: http://zongqing1028.blog.163. com/blog/static/12716629520107308487845/ (In Chinese)

Fig. 1. Dynamics of the number of foreign students in China from 2000 to 2016 Sources of information: [16; 19].

er education in the UK and Canada (19.3 and 21.9% respectively12).

Foreign students in China are usually divided into two groups: "academic students" and "non-academic students." Academic students are students studying for the purpose of obtaining academic degrees of bachelor, master or doctor or specialist diploma after completing two or three years of training in a particular specialty. Non-academic students are enrolled in various long-term and short-term programs that do not involve obtaining these degrees and diplomas. This includes students who come to the exchange [19]. The educational policy of the Chinese government is aimed at attracting foreign citizens to the country to receive academic degrees [16]. That is why in the last 15 years the number of foreign academic students has been growing annually by an average of 20.6%, and their share in the total number of foreign students increased from 20% in 2000 to 47.7% in 2016 [16]. The number of non-academic students has been increasing more slowly - by an average of 13.8% per year.

An analysis of the structure of academic students has shown that these are mainly bachelor

12 China is be-

coming the third largest country to study abroad. Available at: http://edu.sina.com.cn/a/2016-09-12/ doc-ifxvukhv8200111.shtml (In Chinese)

students. In 2000, their share in the total number of foreign students was 20.3%, in 2009 it reached 30.5% and remained similar in the following years (Fig. 2). The second largest group of students with academic qualifications is a group of master's students, and this explains a slight increase in the total number of foreign students. From 2000 to 2007, the share of in the total number of foreign students fluctuated around the level of 4%. Since 2008, it has increased annually by 0.7 percentage points, reaching 9.5% in 2014 (Fig. 2). The share of doctoral students for 15 years was 2.5-2.6% of the total number of foreign students. The share of professional students who receive the lowest level of professional qualifications after training is insignificant -0.9% (with the exception of2.1% in 2002).

Country structure ofinternational students

Despite the fact that citizens of all countries of the world are already studying in China [18], to attract them various initiatives are being implemented, the government is constantly looking for new educational opportunities for foreign students. And after the start of the implementation of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative, most of the new projects are aimed at "soft" promotion of Chinese education in the countries located along the new

35

0

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ^—bachelors ......masters — — —doctoral students ^^ »specialists

Fig. 2. Percentages of bachelors, masters, doctoral students and specialists from the total number of foreign students from 2000 to 2014 Sources of information: [16; 19].

silk road. Therefore, it is not surprising that these countries have become a growth point for increasing the number of foreign students in China. According to the Ministry of Education of China, in 2017, 64.9% of foreign students came from countries belonging to the "One Belt, One Road" initiative [20].

Table 1 presents information on the eight leading countries that sent their students to China in 2000-2016. We can note that in 2016, the most students came from South Korea (more than 70 thousand people), the USA and Russia (more than 23 thousand people from each country). In the same year, the number of foreign students who came to China from South Korea, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Kazakhstan and Laos increased most rapidly compared to the previous year. However, if we analyze the data from 2000 to 2016, we can see that the growth rate of the number of foreign students was not identical in each of the five-year periods. The most rapid growth in the number of foreign students was from 2000 to 2005, when the average annual growth, for example, of students from India and Vietnam reached 66 and 62.4%, respectively. Over the next five years, the average annual growth rate of student numbers has dropped dramatically. However, in

these years it is also possible to single out two countries with the most significant average annual increase in the number of their students in China - Russia (19.9%) and Thailand (18.7%). Finally, in the period from 2010 to 2016, when the rate of growth in the number of students from all the countries represented decreased, and even became negative for Vietnam and Japan, India continued to increase the number of students by an average of13% per year [20].

Changing foreign students' preferences when choosing universities and specialties

In recent years, the preferences of students studying in China in their choice of specialties and areas of training have changed greatly. Now they rarely come to the country only to learn Chinese. According to the Ministry of Education of China, the proportion of students learning Chinese in 2015 was 38.2% of the total number of foreign students, which is 15.3 percentage points less than in 2012 (53.5%) [16]. At the same time, engineering, medical and other areas that are not traditional for Chinese higher education have become more popular. Thus, thanks to the new needs of students, the distribution of educational programs in Chinese universities becomes more even.

Table 1

Dynamics of the number of foreign students who came to China from eight foreign countries from 2000 to 2016

Country Number of foreign students, person Average annual growth rate of foreign students, %

2000 2005 2010 2016 2000-2005 2005-2010 2010-2016

South Korea 16787 57564 62957 70540 127,9 101,8 101,9

Japan 13806 18363 16808 13595 105,9 98,2 96,5

USA 4280 11784 19668 23838 122,5 110,8 103,3

Indonesia 1947 5652 9539 14714 123,8 111,0 107,5

Russia 703 5032 12481 17971 148,2 119,9 106,3

Thailand 667 5522 13018 23044 152,6 118,7 110,0

Vietnam 647 7310 13177 10639 162,4 112,5 96,5

India 527 6634 9014 18717 166,0 106,3 113,0

Sources of information: [18; 20].

Table 2

Structure and dynamics of the number of foreign students in China in the areas of training from 2000 to 2015

Structure of the number Average annual growth rate of the number

Training course of foreign students,% of foreign students,%

2000 2005 2010 2015 2000-2005 2005-2010 2010-2015

Humanities 72,1 64,8 60,4 50,1 119,5 111,8 103,9

Medicine 9,4 12,4 13,2 16,0 129,0 114,7 112,0

Literature 5,3 8,0 4,4 8,9 132,4 100,5 124,3

Engineering 3,2 3,0 5,7 9,5 120,7 128,4 119,5

Management 3,0 2,0 2,2 2,3 112,3 116,2 108,5

Economics 2,9 4,6 6,1 5,8 133,3 120,4 106,5

Pedagogy 1,3 2,2 1,6 1,6 135,4 100,7 107,0

Law 1,2 2,4 5,4 4,9 141,3 133,2 105,7

Agriculture 0,8 0,1 0,1 0,1 72,1 116,2 115,3

Science 0,8 0,5 0,9 0,9 113,0 127,9 108,2

Source of information: [20].

If we analyze in detail the change in the professional preferences of foreign students (Table 2), we can see that from 2000 to 2005 an annual increase was more than 30% in the number of foreign students studying law (41.3%), economics (33. 3%), pedagogy (35.4%), literature (32.4%). From 2005 to 2010 the highest average annual increase in the number of students was observed only by law (33.2%), engineering (28.4%) and scientific specialties (27.9%). At the same time, by 2010, the number of students studying literature and pedagogy practically did not change. By 2015, the growth in the number

of foreign students slowed down in all areas of training. We can single out only the literary trend, where from 2010 to 2015 the number of students annually grew by 24.3%. In other areas, the increase was from 3.9% (humanities) to 19.5% (engineering) per year.

Changes also occurred in the structure of professional preferences of foreign students (Table 2, Fig. 3). If in 2000, 72.1% of students came to China to study humanities (philosophy, foreign language, art, history), in 2015 there were less than 22 percentage points (50.1%). But at the same time almost four times the propor-

Fig. 3. The percentage of foreign students studying Chinese and Western medicine in China in 2000-2013 Source of information: [19].

tion of students studying law (from 1.2 to 4.9%), almost three times - engineering students (from 3.2 to 9.5%), twice - medical students (from 9.4 to 16%) and students majoring in economics (from 2.9 to 5.8%), one and a half times - studying literature (from 5.3 to 8.9%) increased. In three areas of training: management, pedagogy and science there were no significant changes. At the same time, the share of foreign students studying agriculture declined 8 times in 15 years (from 0.8 to 0.1%). It is necessary to note the change in the preferences of students in the study of medicine (Fig. 3). If in 2000, 3% of foreign students mastered Western medicine and 7% Chinese medicine, in 2013 the situation changed: about 10% of students were interested in Western medicine and only 4% were interested in Chinese medicine [19].

We are interested in the analysis of the professional preferences of students from different countries. Since China's nearest neighbors are Japan and South Korea, these countries are the significant "sources" of foreign students (Table 1). Due to a similar level of socio-economic development and similarity in languages, the choice of a specialty and place of study in China by Japanese and Korean students is similar. According to a survey conducted by a Japanese educational agency, the main purpose of study-

ing in China for Japanese students is to learn the language, followed by training in economics, literature, and obtaining political and legal skills. And few students want to study science and engineering. This is mainly due to language limitations [20]. Most Korean students also come to China to learn Chinese. A small number of students prefer to get professional skills in the field of economy, trade and cultural exchange. Cultural and geographical similarities, combined with close economic and trade exchanges between China and South Korea, have meant that more and more Korean students who have experienced internal problems in choosing a place of study or who have difficulties in finding employment in their homeland in the future want to come to China for training [20].

In recent years, the number of English students in China has increased. Today there are about 5 thousand people. And according to the plan developed by the British government, by 2020 the number of British citizens sent annually to China to study or gain business skills should increase to 80 thousand people. English students study law, government, business and media management in Chinese universities. In addition, many British choose Chinese culture, history, and economics as a professional course to study in China [20].

American students come to China mainly to learn Chinese. Despite the growing popularity of receiving foreign education, in the ranking of countries where American citizens go to study, China is only the sixth. This is due to the fact that 55% of Americans prefer to study in Europe and reluctantly go to Asian countries because of language barriers. More than two thirds of US students prefer to speak English or another close in accessibility language [20].

Unfortunately, we were unable to find the preferences of Russian students and students from the countries of the former USSR. However, we still know the preferences of students from African states that are very interesting. Currently, the mass media of Egypt, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Algeria, Tunisia and other countries widely report on the successful development of China's experience. And some media actively encourage students to study in China in order to use the gained experience for the benefit of their countries. Students certainly heed such calls. Therefore, in 2015, in China the number of students from African countries reached almost 50 thousand people. Egypt and Sudan send their citizens the most actively. African students study agriculture, agronomy, veterinary medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, science, engineering and culture in Chinese universities [20].

Over the past 15 years, the priorities of foreign students have not changed much when choosing universities and colleges in China. They still prefer to study in cities of the first level, such as Beijing and Shanghai. According to the China Association for International Education in 2015, 73.8 and 55.2 thousand people (32.4% of the total number of foreign students) studied in these cities, respectively13. Most want to study at universities with high ranking, such as Tsinghua University and Fudan University. However, there are students who pay attention to the professionalism of teachers and prefer to

13 . Statistics of

foreign students studying in China in 2015. Available at: http://www.cafsa.org.cn/research/show-1662.html (In Chinese)

enroll in highly specialized universities. According to these signs, students choose universities to study Chinese and economic disciplines.

Figure 4 presents eight Chinese universities -the leaders in enrollment of foreign students in 2015. We can see that Beijing University of Language and Culture, both in 2000 and now, is the university that has hosted the largest number of foreign students. We should note that the number of universities that host foreign students has changed little compared with 2000. However, taking into account the economic development in recent years, the educational preferences of students have changed - they enter universities with economic and commercial profiles more often. Therefore, the popularity rating among foreign students, for example, the university of international business and economics has grown from the thirteenth position in 2000 to the fourth in 2015.

Conclusion

Summing up, we note that the internationalization of higher education is gaining momentum and more and more countries are being drawn into this process. China is no exception: over the past 15 years, the number of foreign students has increased by almost 8.5 times, reaching about half a million people. Now citizens of all countries are studying in China, however, a significant flow of foreign students still comes from neighboring countries, as well as countries with good economic relations established.

In order to attract greater flow of foreign students, China has expanded the choice of specialties and universities. Therefore, in modern China, students can not only learn Chinese, as it was 10-15 years ago, but also get good training in economics, Western medicine, as well as study Chinese literature and master engineering professions.

The Chinese government continues to spend significant financial resources to support international students during their studies and to simplify their employment in China. But this is not done disinterestedly, but with the aim of creating a positive image of the state and form-

Fig. 4. The number offoreign students admitted by leading universities in China in 2000 and 2015

Sources of information: • Statistics offoreign students studying in China in 2015

Available at: http://www.cafsa.org.cn/research/show-1662.html (In Chinese). • Statistics offoreign students studying in China in 2000

Available at: http://www.cafsa.org.cn/research/show-1259.html (In Chinese).

ing a "belt of friendship" primarily with countries belonging to the "One Belt, One Road" initiative.

Despite the seemingly good government initiatives, recently you can hear criticism of China's government for rude interference in the educational processes of foreign countries and pressure on foreign students [15] as well as the quality of Chinese education that sometimes doesn't live up to the expectations [21]. However, since the most effective way to attract foreign students to China is still the state scholarship [14; 22], which a country with a successful economy can pay, the presence of a small number of negative reviews will not stop the process and internationalization of higher education in China.

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21. Haugen, H. IH. (2013). China's Recruitment of African University Students: Policy Efficacy and Unintended Outcomes. Globalisation, Societies and Education. Vol. 11 (3), pp. 315-334.

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The paper was submitted 21.01.19 Received after reworking 29.03.19 Accepted for publication 05.05.19

Интернационализация высшего образования в Китае: современные тенденции

Донецкая Светлана Сергеевна - д-р экон. наук, проф. E-mail: dss@inbox.ru Новосибирский государственный университет, Новосибирск, Россия Адрес: 630090, г. Новосибирск, ул. Пирогова, 1 Жань Янь - студент. E-mail: 1021564014@qq.com Хэйлунцзянский университет, Харбин, КНР

Адрес: 150080, г. Харбин, провинция Хэйлунцзян, Нанганг, Хуефу роуд, 74

Аннотация. В статье анализируются процессы интернационализации высшего образования, происходящие в Китае в начале XXI в. На основе данных Министерства образования Китая, законодательных актов и публикаций, находящихся в открытом доступе в сети китайского Интернета, показано, как изменилась численность студентов, приезжающих в Китай, трансформировались их предпочтения в выборе университетов и программ обучения с 2000 по 2016 годы. Представлена информация о государственных мероприятиях по поддержке иностранных студентов.

Интернационализация высшего образования играет важную роль во внешнеполитической деятельности современного Китая. Обучение иностранных студентов и расширение преподавания китайского языка в зарубежных странах можно рассматривать как «мягкую силу» влияния китайской национальной культуры. Такие действия, с точки зрения китайского правительства, должны способствовать формированию привлекательного образа Китая, снижению уровня внешних угроз, повышению стабильности и росту экономического процветания государства. Поэтому правительство стремится привлечь как можно больше иностранных студентов, особенно из соседних стран, и расходует на эти цели немалые средства. Политика интернационализации образования позволила достичь значимых результатов за последние 15 лет. Сегодня в китайских университетах обучаются граждане всех стран мира. Численность иностранных студентов увеличилась в 2016 г. по сравнению с 2000 г. в 8,4 раза, достигнув почти 450 тыс. человек. Расширились возможности выбора иностранными студентами специальностей и университетов. Теперь в Китай приезжают не только для изучения китайского языка, но и для получения квалификации по инженерным специальностям, экономике, управлению и медицине.

Ключевые слова: интернационализация, высшее образование в Китае, иностранные студенты в Китае, государственная поддержка

Для цитирования: Donetskaya, S.S., Zhan, Yan. Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Modern Trends // Высшее образование в России. 2019. Т. 28. № 6. С. 63-74. DOI: https://doi.org/l0.31992/0869-3617-2019-28-6-63-74

Статья поступила в редакцию 21.01.19 После доработки 29.03.19 Принята к публикации 05.05.19

Межвузовское международное сотрудничество: проектная деятельность в подготовке переводчиков

Новикова Элина Юрьевна - канд. филол. наук, доцент. E-mail: nov-elina@volsu.ru Митягина Вера Александровна - д-р филол. наук, проф., зав. кафедрой теории и практики перевода. E-mail: mityagina@volsu.ru

Волгоградский государственный университет, Волгоград, Россия Адрес: 400062, г. Волгоград, Университетский просп., 100

Вальтер Штефан - PhD, доцент, отделение межкультурной германистики Института переводоведения, языкознания, культурологии. E-mail: walters@uni-mainz.de Университет им. Й. Гутенберга, Майнц, Германия Адрес: 76726, г. Гермерсхайм, ан дер Хохшуле 2

Аннотация. Обучение переводу в координатах глобального образовательного пространства сопряжено с интеграцией теоретических, методических и дидактических подходов, поскольку поиск эффективных решений переводческих проблем может быть оптимизирован лишь благодаря открытости и интенсивности научных дискуссий и масштабности профессиональной коммуникации переводчиков. В данной статье предпринимается анализ актуальной переводоведческой парадигмы в фокусе её валидности и функциональности в подготовке переводчиков к дискурсивно-ориентированной работе. На примере перевода текстов туристического дискурса рассматривается важный аспект современного образовательного процесса - проектная работа в рамках международного межвузовского партнёрства. В исследовании применялся анализ отечественных и зарубежных научных и учебно-методических работ, в которых представлены обзор актуального состояния дел в сфере подготовки переводчиков в российских и германских вузах в условиях глобализации, дидактические модели в обучении разным видам перевода, востребованность практически ориентированной проектной деятельности в обучении. Материалом исследования выступают совместные переводческие проекты, осуществлённые в рамках межвузовского партнёрства в области германистики в Волгоградском государственном университете (Россия) и Университете им. Й. Гутенберга (Германия). Межкультурный компонент двусторонних проектов способствует повышению качества образовательной услуги в области перевода и содействует интеграции образования в целом. Результаты проведённого исследования могут быть полезны в организации учебного процесса в вузовских образовательных программах по направлениям подготовки специалистов в области перевода, межкультурной коммуникации и туризма.

Ключевые слова: интеграция образования, межвузовское сотрудничество, проектная деятельность, двусторонние проекты, межкультурная коммуникация, дидактика перевода, технология перевода, туристический дискурс

Для цитирования: Новикова Э.Ю, Митягина В.А, Вальтер Ш. Межвузовское международное сотрудничество: проектная деятельность в подготовке переводчиков // Высшее образование в России. 2019. Т. 28. № 6. С. 75-85.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31992/0869-3617-2019-28-6-75-85

Введение

В современной системе образования как в России, так и на Западе происходят существенные преобразования и имеют место вы-

зовы, с которыми сталкиваются все направления подготовки, включая обучение переводчиков как межкультурных посредников. Реформирование высшей школы направлено

на значимые в современном мире гармонизацию и глобализацию обучения, а также на соответствие запросам рынка труда. Прак-тико-ориентированные задачи обучения по принципу «learning by doing» способствуют продуктивному погружению будущих переводчиков в реальные ситуации их будущей профессии.

Введение компетентностного подхода в процесс обучения, увеличение доли практики в образовательных программах, повышение академической мобильности, интенсификация межвузовского сотрудничества в подготовке переводчиков стали трендами последних лет. Следует отметить, что феномен интернационализации свойствен переводческой профессии как никакой другой, поскольку переводчик является центральной фигурой межъязыковой и межкультурной коммуникации, и его комплекс действий реализуется в заданном меж-, транс- и социокультурном контексте [1]. Эффективное развитие меж- и транскультурной компетенции переводчика, а также принципы интернационализации в обучении переводу могут успешно реализовываться в рамках межвузовских билатеральных проектов, поскольку они создают профессионально-ориентированную траекторию обучения. Проектная работа как вид учебной деятельности является одним из давно зарекомендовавших себя дидактических методов формирования профессионально-ориентированных компетенций в российских и западноевропейских вузах. В работах В. Ланге, А.В. Антюхова, Ф. Флёри, К. Штёлера, Т.А. Ольховой [2-6] отмечается необходимость внедрения проектной деятельности в образовательные программы бакалавриата и магистратуры.

Межвузовское партнёрство в области германистики между кафедрой теории и практики перевода Волгоградского государственного университета и отделением межкультурной германистики Института пере-водоведения, языкознания и культурологии в Гермерсхайме (Университет Майнца, Германия) позволило внедрить международный

формат проектной работы и осуществить практически-ориентированные проекты на материале текстов туристического дискурса, а именно студенческий переводческий проект по созданию двуязычного путеводителя «Прогулки по Волгограду» [7] и дидактический проект российско-германского преподавательского коллектива по созданию учебного пособия по переводу туристических текстов.

Проектная работа в рамках студенческого переводческого проекта путеводителя способствовала «приближению» учебной деятельности к реальным условиям работы в трудовом коллективе: перевод путеводителя как аутентичного материала переводческого заказа для группы студентов-переводчиков наглядно продемонстрировал принцип обучения «learning by doing». Совместная мето-дико-дидактическая работа по составлению учебного пособия стала логичным дополнением к студенческому проекту с точки зрения интегративного фокуса образовательных услуг в условиях глобализации и показала, как интегрируются и получают новое развитие традиции преподавания перевода в разных странах, как создаётся единая межкультурная парадигма дидактики перевода.

Проектная деятельность как фактор интегративного профессионально-ориентированного обучения

Теоретическое осмысление заявленной проблематики исследования базируется на двух научных парадигмах: транслатологи-ческой (технологические особенности перевода в туристическом дискурсе) и образовательной (методика и дидактика проектных технологий), сформировавшихся на основе совокупного международного опыта, наработанного в контексте единого пространства европейского высшего образования.

В фокусе педагогики современного высшего образования находится студент, его профессиональные компетенции и практическая связь обучения с практическими задачами рынка труда. Поэтому проектная дея-

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