Научная статья на тему 'Genealogical classification of New Indo-Aryan languages and lexicostatistics'

Genealogical classification of New Indo-Aryan languages and lexicostatistics Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание»

CC BY-NC-ND
229
9
Поделиться
Область наук
Ключевые слова
INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES / LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATION / LEXICOSTATISTICS / GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY / ИНДОАРИЙСКИЕ ЯЗЫКИ / ГЕНЕАЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ КЛАССИФИКАЦИЯ ЯЗЫКОВ / ЛЕКСИКОСТАТИСТИКА / ГЛОТТОХРОНОЛОГИЯ

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию, автор научной работы — Kogan Anton

Genetic relations among Indo-Aryan languages are still unclear. Existing classifications are often intuitive and do not rest upon rigorous criteria. In the present article an attempt is made to create a classification of New Indo-Aryan languages, based on up-to-date lexicostatistical data. The comparative analysis of the resulting genealogical tree and traditional classifications allows the author to draw conclusions about the most probable genealogy of the Indo-Aryan languages.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

Текст научной работы на тему «Genealogical classification of New Indo-Aryan languages and lexicostatistics»

Anton I. Kogan

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Moscow); kogan_anton@yahoo.com

Genealogical classification of New Indo-Aryan languages and lexicostatistics

Genetic relations among Indo-Aryan languages are still unclear. Existing classifications are often intuitive and do not rest upon rigorous criteria. In the present article an attempt is made to create a classification of New Indo-Aryan languages, based on up-to-date lexicosta-tistical data. The comparative analysis of the resulting genealogical tree and traditional classifications allows the author to draw conclusions about the most probable genealogy of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Keywords: Indo-Aryan languages, language classification, lexicostatistics, glottochronology.

The Indo-Aryan group is one of the few groups of Indo-European languages, if not the only one, for which no classification based on rigorous genetic criteria has been suggested thus far. The cause of such a situation is neither lack of data, nor even the low level of its historical interpretation, but rather the existence of certain prejudices which are widespread among In-dologists. One of them is the belief that real genetic relations between the Indo-Aryan languages cannot be clarified because these languages form a dialect continuum. Such an argument can hardly seem convincing to a comparative linguist, since dialect continuum is by no means a unique phenomenon: it is characteristic of many regions, including those where Indo-European languages are spoken, e.g. the Slavic and Romance-speaking areas. Since genealogical classifications of Slavic and Romance languages do exist, there is no reason to believe that the taxonomy of Indo-Aryan languages cannot be established.

However, this scholarly pessimism does have some grounds. Certain approaches and methods used nowadays in Indological historical linguistics have proven to be inefficient, and without changes in research methodology, significant progress in the genetic classification of the Indo-Aryan languages is hardly possible. This issue will be discussed at some length below.

In the past Indologists had more than once attempted to classify the languages that they studied. In the late 19th and 20th centuries several alternative classifications were suggested. Since some of them still appear in modern Indological publications, I feel it necessary to dwell on them here. The scholar who seems to have been the first one to approach this problem is Rudolf Hoernle. He hypothesized that the Aryans migrated to the Indian subcontinent in two successive waves. The migrants belonging to these waves spoke two different dialects of Old Indo-Aryan, which he called Magadhi and Sauraseni (Hoernle 1880).1 Magadhi, according to him, was the common ancestor of modern languages spoken in the South and East of the Indo-Aryan speaking area, i.e. of Marathi, Konkani, Bengali, Oriya, and Bihari dialects,2 whereas Sauraseni was considered to constitute the protolanguage for the forms of speech current in

1 These names should not be confused with the identical names of literary Prakrits (Masica 1991: 447).

2 Hoernle preferred to group these dialects under the name of Eastern Hindi.

Journal of Language Relationship • Вопросы языкового родства • 14/4 (2016) • Pp. 227—258 • © The authors, 2016

Figure 1. Genealogical classification of Indo-Aryan languages according to G. Grierson (adapted from Masica 1991: 449).

the North and West, i.e. for Nepali, Garhwali, Kumauni, Gujarati, Sindhi, Punjabi including Multani, and Western Hindi including Rajasthani.3 Hoernle was of the opinion that the speakers of "Magadhi" once occupied the entire North India but were later pushed back by "Sauraseni" speakers, and it is for this reason that the languages of the Northwest still possess certain vestigial features that are common with the southeastern languages.

Hoernle's idea of a two-wave migration was taken over and further developed by George A. Grierson — a British scholar, the main author of the famous "Linguistic Survey of India". His classification of Indo-Aryan languages included two main subbranches, which he called Inner and Outer, although they did not precisely correspond to Hoernle's Sauraseni and Magadhi respectively. The main point of divergence between Grierson's and Hoernle's models was the position of the languages spoken in the Northwest of the subcontinent, namely Sindhi and the dialects of Western Punjab including Multani.4 Grierson preferred to include these forms of speech into the Outer subbranch, i.e. to group them together with Marathi, Konkani and the languages of Eastern India (Grierson 1927). Grierson's arguments in favor of this point of view will be discussed separately below. Moreover, alongside the main subbranches embracing the bulk of the Indo-Aryan languages, Grierson's classificatory scheme also featured a third one: it was called Mediate and included certain Hindi dialects, the most important of which is Awadhi.5 These dialects, according to Grierson, possessed both "Inner" and "Outer" features. Grierson's classification is reproduced on Figure 1 in the form of a genealogical tree.

3 To this group Hoernle also added Pashto and Kashmiri, which he reckoned among the Indo-Aryan languages.

4 These dialects, spoken in the vast area covering northern and western parts of the present-day Pakistani province of Punjab, were grouped by Grierson under the name of Lahnda. This term is still rather popular among the Indologists.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

5 The other two are Bagheli and Chhattisgarhi.

As we can see, both Inner and Outer languages are subdivided into further groups, i.e. Pahari,6 Central, Eastern, Southern and Northwestern. Grierson gave no clear-cut reasons for the postulation of these groups or the existence of such entities as "Lahnda", "Western Hindi" or "Rajasthani". The two main subbranches, however, were established by him on the basis of features which he thought to be diagnostic for classification. The most significant of them are:

1) retention of MIA s (< OIA s, s, s) in the Inner languages vs. change of this sibilant into other phonemes in the Outer subbranch;

2) loss of the final short vowels in the Inner subbranch vs. their preservation in the Outer languages;

3) the use of the suffix -i- to form verbal perfect stems in the Inner languages vs. the formation of such stems in the Outer languages with the suffix -1-;

4) the analytic typology of the Inner languages vs. the synthetic character of the Outer sub-branch.

Upon close examination, none of the above arguments can be considered valid. The loss of final short vowels in a number of Indo-Aryan languages took place in the New Indo-Aryan period and thus has nothing to do with dialectal differences in Old Indo-Aryan. The same holds true for the formation of perfect stems. The use of the suffix -I- for such a purpose is a comparatively recent phenomenon; moreover, it is not characteristic of all the Outer languages and is found in some Inner ones (e.g. in Gujarati). The development of Old Indo-Aryan sibilants was totally different in the East and Northwest of the subcontinent. In the East all the three sibilant phonemes have merged into one, i.e. s. This reflex is already attested in the Ma-gadhi Prakrit and found, e.g., in present day Bengali. In almost all the other Indo-Aryan languages, including Northwestern ones, the sibilants merged into s,7 sometimes with subsequent phonetic changes in certain positions. This means that reconstructing something like a "Common Outer" or "Proto-Outer" development of the Old Indian sibilant system is simply out of the question.

As for the typological argument, it is generally accepted among comparative linguists that such arguments are not relevant for genealogical classification. In addition, Grierson's statement that all the Outer languages belong to the same synthetic morphological type is not fully correct. In reality, Eastern Indo-Aryan languages possess agglutinative morphology of secondary origin, which developed from the older analytic system as a result of the transformation of function words (e.g. postpositions) into affixes, whereas Northwestern languages are mainly analytic, although sometimes they preserve a few vestiges of old inflection.

Grierson's arguments were analyzed by the Indian historical linguist and philologist Suniti Kumar Chatterji. In the introduction to his renowned work "Origin and development of the Bengali language" (Chatterji 1926), he managed to convincingly show their invalidity, as well as the incorrectness of the Inner-Outer model. As an alternative, he suggested his own classification, which is in certain respects similar to that of Grierson but without the Inner and Outer sub-branches as separate taxa.8 The reality of the Mediate subbranch was also denied. All the dialects that Grierson classified as Mediate were included by Chatterji into the Eastern

6 The Pahari group includes Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the sub-Himalayan region stretching from Nepal in the Southeast to the southern areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in the Northwest.

7 Exceptions include several Pahari languages and Romany, which distinguish between two sibilants, i.e. s and s. The latter reflects both s and s of Old Indo-Aryan.

8 Chatterji's classificatory scheme was published in his abovementioned book as a part of the table illustrating the development of Aryan speech in India, see Chatterji 1926: 6.

group. Northwestern, Pahari,9 Southern, and Eastern groups were considered on the same taxonomic level. Moreover, Chatterji postulated two more subbranches, namely, Southwestern (including Gujarati and Rajasthani) and a subbranch consisting of Sinhalese and Maldivian (Dhivehi).10 The list of languages in some groups was somewhat different from the one offered by Grierson. Thus, both Punjabi and Romany were classified with the Northwestern group. The Central subbranch, called Midland by Chatterji, included only the forms of speech traditionally grouped together under the name of Western Hindi, i.e. standard Hindi and Urdu (with Khariboli as their common dialectal basis), Haryanvi, Braj, Kannauji and Bundeli. While working out this classification, Chatterji largely based himself on intuition. Only in relatively rare cases certain historical-phonological isoglosses were taken into account. Among the cited innovations one can mention the merger of the Old Indian sibilants into s in the East or the simplification of the Middle Indo-Aryan geminates followed by compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowels in the majority of New Indo-Aryan languages vs. the absence of such a process in the Northwest, i.e. in Sindhi, Lahnda and Punjabi.

Both Grierson's and Chatterji's schemes can even nowadays be occasionally found in In-dological linguistic literature. They coexist with several alternative classifications, which were suggested during the last five decades. The latter, however, differ only slightly from Chat-terji's11 and, likewise, remain mainly intuitive.

The 20th century saw great progress in the study of Indo-Aryan historical phonology. In addition to the already mentioned monograph on Bengali by Chatterji, Jules Bloch's book on Marathi (Bloch 1920) and R.L.Turner's works on Gujarati, Sindhi, Romany and Nepali (Turner 1921a; 1921b 1924; 1926; 1931) significantly extended our knowledge of sound change in a number of New Indo-Aryan languages. This research prompted some scholars to suggest a genealogical tree based on historical phonological isoglosses. Soon, however, it became clear that this task is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Isoglosses are sometimes easily detectable, but usually they cannot be brought together into bundles that would be peculiar for a particular language or language group. For example, the above-mentioned compensatory lengthening of short vowels before simplified geminates is characteristic of such languages as Hindi-Urdu, Gu-jarati, Marathi, Bengali and many others, but not of Punjabi, Lahnda or Sindhi. This fact makes it tempting to postulate two groups, one of which would include the three last idioms and the other would include all the rest. According to such a classification, Hindi-Urdu must be declared a language more closely related to Bengali and Gujarati than to Punjabi. But if we take another feature, e.g. the development of the Old Indic sibilants, the picture will be quite different. Bengali, where, as noted above, these phonemes have merged into s, would form a separate group together with Assamese, for which "s-reflexation" can be traced historically, whereas Hindi-Urdu will find itself closer to Punjabi, Lahnda, Sindhi and Gujarati, where the reflex is s. Gujarati, however, is not affected by another isogloss, which is common for many Indo-Aryan languages, namely the lenition of intervocalic -m- into -v- (sometimes with a further change into u and nasalization of the preceding vowel). In this respect, Hindi-Urdu shows close affinity to Marathi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Nepali, and Romany but not to Gujarati (cf. Hindi-Urdu gav, Marathi gav, Sindhi gau, Punjabi girau, Nepali gau, Romany gav, but Gujarati gam 'village' < OIA grama-).

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

This complex situation, where different historical-phonological isoglosses are in "conflict" with each other, was tackled by Colin Masica in his book (Masica 1991). He analyzed the geographical distribution of six historical phonological features, i.e. compensatory lengthening,

9 For Grierson's Pahari languages, Chatterji prefers the term "North" or "Himalayan".

10 The latter two languages were ignored in Grierson's scheme.

11 These classifications are cited, e.g. by Colin Masica in Masica 1991: 454-456.

Figure 2. The distribution of some basic New Indo-Aryan phonological isogosses (adapted from Masica 1991: 459).

merger of the three OIA sibilants, OIA ks > (c)ch (> s), cerebralization of intervocalic MIA -1-, voicing of voiceless stops after nasals, retention of OIA initial v- (elsewhere changed to b). The results of his analysis were presented in the form of the scheme reproduced on Figure 2.

As can be plainly seen, the above data make it hardly possible to postulate a group of languages (i.e. a sub-group of Indo-Aryan) on the basis of more than one isogloss that would be peculiar only for this group, as opposed to all the rest.

There can be no doubt that such a state of things is indeed the result of intensive and long-lasting language contact, which in South Asia was and is still often facilitated by absence of natural barriers. The gradual spread of certain contact-induced phonological features can be traced back to Middle Indo-Aryan. For example, OIA intervocalic stops (other than cerebrals) were dropped in the Maharashtri Prakrit, while still being preserved in Sauraseni. But later on the disappearance of stops in the intervocalic position also affected the Sauraseni area, i.e. the central part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is attested already in Apabhramsa, a late Middle Indo-Aryan literary language formed in this very region, and is characteristic of almost all the local New Indo-Aryan forms of speech. The merger of OIA sibilants in many areas of the Indian subcontinent likewise dates back to the Middle Indo-Aryan period. Thus, in the language of Asoka's inscriptions from most parts of India no distinction was made between the reflexes of OIA s, s and s. This threefold contrast was fully retained only in the inscriptions from the Northwest, which means that in Asoka's time, i.e. in the 3rd century BC, the isogloss in question did not affect this area. Later, however, the sibilants did merge in the Northwest as well. In the New Indo-Aryan dialects spoken there nowadays the results of this process can be clearly seen (cf. Lahnda sap(p) 'snake' < OIA sarpa-; sad(d) 'call, shout' < OIA sabda- 'articulate sound, noise'; sola '16' < OIA sodasa; ghdh 'grass' < OIA ghdsa- 'food, pasture grass'; ddh '10' < OIA dasa; noh 'son's wife' < OIA susa-).

Such a situation can be best represented within the framework of Schmidt's wave model. For this reason, many scholars believe that the latter model is the most preferable, if not the

only possible, for the Indo-Aryan group, whereas the tree model is not applicable to it. This pessimism was perhaps most vividly expressed by C. Masica in his previously mentioned book: "We might therefore be well-advised to give up as vain the quest for a final and "correct" NIA historical taxonomy, which no amount of tinkering can achieve, and concentrate instead on working out the history of various features, letting such feature-specific historical groupings emerge as they may, with their overall non-coincidence as testimonial to the complexity of the situation" (Masica 1991: 460). Masica's practical suggestion was that scholars should confine themselves to drawing isoglosses on the map and postulating zones that they demarcate. Since such zones usually overlap, the term "overlapping genetic zones" was accepted for them. Such a term, however, is patently self-contradictory. 'Overlapping' implies that there must be a language or languages belonging to more than one zone, which can never be the case with genetic subdivisions. Moreover, it is well known that areal and genealogical groupings do not always coincide, and for this reason, the use of the term 'zone' in the genetic classification does not seem to be correct. Nevertheless, the proposed term became very popular among Indologists, and has even penetrated into some encyclopaedic editions.

It is justified to state that genealogical classification of the Indo-Aryan languages has presently been substituted by the areal one, and that the main reason for this paradigm change is the failure to classify the languages in question on the basis of phonological innovations. It should be noted in this connection that phonological isoglosses, as they are traditionally postulated, are not always unquestionable. Sometimes certain sound changes, which are considered to be common for many languages, in reality coincide only partially. This seems to hold true, e.g., for the simplification of the MIA geminates with compensatory lengthening of the preceding short vowels. In quite a number of Indo-Aryan dialects this development takes place in all words and positions, whereas in standard Hindi-Urdu it apparently affects mainly monosyllabic words. If the number of syllables is more than one, geminates are often retained and the vowel remains short. This hypothetical rule is most likely to be valid when the MIA vowel is a: pakka 'ripe, mature' < MIA pakka- < OIA pakva-, cf. Nepali pako, Bengali paka (a < a), Romany pako (a < a), Gujarati paku 'ripe'; makkhi 'fly' < MIA makkhia- < OIA maksika-, cf. Nepali, Kumauni makho, Assamese makhi, Gujarati makhi, Romany makh, maki; sacca 'true' < MIA sacca-< OIA satya- 'truth', cf. Nepali, Kumauni saco, Bengali saca, Awadhi sacu, Marwari saco, Gujarati sacu, Romany caco; accha 'good' < MIA accha- 'clear, transparent, pure, clean' < OIA accha-'clear, transparent', cf. Oriya acha, Kumauni acho 'good', Gujarati achu 'thin, elegant'; patta 'leaf' < OIA pattra-, MIA patta-, cf. Kumauni putt 'leaves, letter', Nepali pato 'page, blade of a knife', Bengali pata 'leaf, blade', Awadhi pata, Gujarati patu 'leaf'; patthar 'stone' < MIA patthara- id. < OIA prastara- 'anything strewn; flat surface; rock, stone', cf. Awadhi, Kumauni pathar, Bengali, Assamese pathor, Konkani phattaru 'stone', Marathi pathar 'flat stone'; apna 'one's own' < MIA appanaya- < OIA *atmanaka-,12 cf. Kumauni apno, Nepali aphnu, Bengali apon, Gujarati apnu. Note that new Indo-Aryan disyllables ending in a vowel most probably reflect Old Indian trisyllabic bases enlarged with the suffix -k-,13 i.e. pakvaka-, satyaka-, acchaka-, patraka- etc.

Of particular interest are those cases where we find two cognates in Hindi-Urdu, one of which is monosyllabic and the other is di- or trisyllabic. Such cognates always show a divergent phonetic development: sat '7' < MIA satta < OIA sapta vs. satta 'aggregate of 7; seven in

12 See Turner 1966: 51.

13 Cf. the above-cited words for 'fly', for which the prototype with the suffix -k- (maksika-) is attested already in Old Indian. On enlarged noun bases in -k- see in general (Bloch 1965: 111, 163-165).

cards' < MIA sattaya- < NIA saptaka-; hath 'hand' < MIA hattha- < OIA hasta- vs. hattha 'handle' < OIA hastaka-; laj 'shame' < MIA, OIA lajja- vs. nilaja 'shameless' < MIA nilajja- < OIA nirlajja-; kam 'work, act' < MIA kamma- < OIA karman- vs. nikamma 'idle; useless, good-for-nothing' < MIA *nikkamma-14 < OIA niskarman- 'inactive'.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

The phenomenon described here certainly needs further study, because there are some unexplained counterexamples (cf., e.g. matha 'forehead' < MIA mattha(ya)- 'head' < OIA masta(ka)- 'head, skull'15), but what can be stated with certainty is that the issue of common historical phonological isoglosses is much more complicated than it might seem upon first sight. Establishing such isoglosses for the Indo-Aryan group is possible only after a detailed and in-depth analysis of all available data. Since such analysis has not always been properly conducted, it is still premature to say that we know the full picture.

This, however, can hardly affect the conclusion that intensive language contact has sometimes made it almost impossible to distinguish between phonological innovations common for a genetic subgroup and contact-driven sound changes. It means that Indo-Aryan languages should not be classified based only (or even mainly) on historical phonology, as was frequently done in the past. But what kind of linguistic data should we then use as criteria for classification? It is tempting to turn to morphology, but, as C. Masica points out in his book, "...morphological criteria conflict just as much as phonological criteria" (Masica 1991: 460). Since syntax is even more prone to radical restructuring due to foreign influence and is, moreover, very similar throughout Indo-Aryan, syntactic data can hardly help us to clarify genetic relations within the Indo-Aryan group. The only domain of language that can provide us with relevant information for genealogical classification appears to be the lexicon.

To the best of my knowledge, no scholar has so far seriously attempted to create a genealogical tree of Indo-Aryan languages based on lexical isoglosses. Such a state of affairs arguably results from insufficient attention paid by many Indologists to the lexical level in general and basic vocabulary in particular. This is rather unfortunate, because the in-depth study of this part of the lexicon actually helps to solve a variety of problems of Indological comparative linguistics, including those of historical phonology, because it is well known that in basic vocabulary the number of loanwords is always limited and genuine phonetic development always predominates. The latter fact also suggests the possibility of using the lexicostatistical method for classifying the Indo-Aryan languages.

The 100-item Swadesh wordlist has on many occasions been successfully used as a sample of basic vocabulary. The greater part of its items is cross-linguistically stable, and cases of phonological change that are characteristic of borrowings from closely related languages are therefore always in a minority within this set. Since the historical phonology of many Indo-Aryan languages has now been studied in sufficient detail, such cases must often be easily detectable, even if one factors in the limitations of our knowledge stated above. It means that the problem of unidentified loanwords in Indo-Aryan wordlists is hardly crucial, and the resulting genealogical tree is unlikely to differ to a great extent from the real picture.

Consequently, in the present article we present an attempt of genealogical classification based on lexicostatistics. The Indo-Aryan lexicostatistical database, prepared by myself,16

14 Cf. Pali nikkamma-, Prakrit nikkamma- 'unoccupied' (Turner 1966: 422).

15 It should also be noted that the compensatory lengthening of MIA i and u appears not to be confined to monosyllables: stdha 'straightforward' < MIA, OIA siddha- 'perfected'; sukha 'dry' < MIA sukkha- < OIA suska-.

16 I wish to thank Anastasiya Krylova and Eugenia Renkovskaya (Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow) for their help in the preparation of the database and Ilya S. Yakubovich (Moscow State University) for providing me with dictionaries of several New Indo-Aryan languages.

consists of Swadesh lists for 35 languages, namely Hindi-Urdu, Dakhini,17 Punjabi, Potho-hari, Hindko, Gojri, Dogri, Lahnda (Multani), Sindhi, Kutchi, Rajasthani (Marwari), Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Nepali, Sinhalese, Maldivian (Dhivehi), Kot-garhi, Himachali, Kului, Mandeali,18 Kumauni, Garhwali, Awadhi, Braj, Mewati,19 Wagdi,20 Banjari, Maithili, Parya, Domaaki (Dumaki), and Romany. Unfortunately, it turned out to be impossible to include Old and Middle Indo-Aryan wordlists in the database, because they are either not securely datable (e.g., Vedic and Pali wordlists) or contain too many lacunae (e.g., wordlists of Asokan Prakrits). Moreover, certain Middle Indo-Aryan languages, such as literary Prakrits and literary Apabhramsas, are to a great extent artificial constructs and do not fully reflect spoken dialects of their time. The wordlists are given in a special appendix after the main text of the article. Before proceeding to the results of the lexicostatistical calculations, it seems necessary to make some remarks concerning synonyms and loanwords.

Since in many cases we know little or nothing either about semantic nuances or frequency of a particular Indo-Aryan word on the list, it is sometimes impossible to determine the main synonym. In such a situation, we suggest that the best solution to the problem of synonymy is apparently to include no more than two synonyms on the list in the case when each of them has cognates in other Indo-Aryan languages. If only one of the synonyms finds etymological parallels within the group, it is technically considered as the main one. Likewise, in those cases where both an inherited word and a loanword are attested for the same Swadesh meaning, only the former is included in the database (since addition or omission of the latter will be irrelevant for the lexicostatistical results anyway).

Loanwords on the lists are for the most part easily identifiable. Usually they are of either Persian or Sanskrit origin. The latter group embraces not only tatsamas (borrowings from Sanskrit, preserved more or less unchanged in modern languages), but also the so-called semi-tatsama or ardhatatsama words, i.e. early Sanskrit loans which have undergone certain phonetic changes (e.g., Punjabi purakh 'man' < Skr. purusa-; Dogri, Himachali, Mandeali, Awadhi barkha 'rain' < Skr. varsa-). Dravidian loanwords are found chiefly in Sinhalese and Konkani word-lists.21 The noun pot 'belly' seems to be a borrowing from Dravidian in Marathi and Konkani (cf. Proto-Dravidian *pot and its reflexes in different Dravidian languages given in (Burrow, Emeneau 1961: 397-398)). Phonetically similar words for 'belly' in many other Indo-Aryan languages (Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Parya, Gujarati, Bengali pet, Assamese pet, Oriya peta, Garhwali pyat, Romany perr) were connected by R.L.Turner with OIA peta- 'basket' (Turner 1966: 475). Although such a semantic development, typologically quite possible,22 could in principle take place spontaneously in Indo-Aryan, it cannot be ruled out either that this change was "catalyzed" by the influence of the abovementioned Dravidian noun.

17 Dakhini is frequently considered a regional form of Urdu. Actually, it is a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Muslim population of the Deccan plateau in Central and South India, chiefly in the Telangana, Kar-nataka and Maharashtra states. Its speakers are mostly descendants of immigrants from North India and the Middle East. The lexical material used in my database belongs to the dialect spoken in Northern Karnataka.

18 Kotgarhi, Himachali, Kului, and Mandeali are spoken in Western Himalaya, mainly in the present-day Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states of India. They are traditionally included in the Pahari subgroup.

19 Traditionally classified as a dialect of Rajasthani.

20 A dialect of Bhili.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

21 Sinhalese seems to have been influenced by Dravidian since very early times. In Konkani the Dravidian lexical stratum is mainly the result of contact between this language and its Southern neighbor Kannada. The Swadesh list for Konkani contains 4 Kannada loanwords, viz. mod 'cloud', tanthe 'egg', urut 'round' and bal 'tail'.

22 As an approximate parallel cf. English chest, meaning both 'box' and 'thorax'.

The languages that show the largest number of loans are Domaaki and Romany. In Do-maaki there are 27 loanwords belonging to the Swadesh list. This percentage is no doubt abnormally high, but nevertheless quite explicable for a language on the verge of extinction, whose 300 speakers are all bi- or trilingual. The donor language for 19 loans is Shina,23 the majority language and lingua franca of the area where Domaaki is spoken. The remaining 8 borrowings are of Burushaski origin.24 The Romany Swadesh list25 contains 19 loanwords, which are borrowed from different sources, namely Dardic (parno 'white'26), Burushaski (cigno 'small'27), Iranian (por 'feather', cehran 'star'), Armenian (morci 'skin'), Kartvelian (kisay 'sand'28), Greek (kokalo 'bone', drom 'road'), Slavic (zeleno 'green', koreno 'root', pliv- 'swim'), Romanian (skarca 'bark', unjiya 'nail', nuvero 'cloud', lungo 'long', mint'a 'mountain', rotato 'round', seminca 'seed', galbeno 'yellow').

The main source of etymologies is R. L. Turner's comparative dictionary (Turner 1966). Domaaki and Parya etymologies are also taken from Buddruss 1984 and Oranskiy 1977 respectively.

The results of lexicostatistical calculations are given in Table 1.

The genealogical tree constructed by the StarLing system on the basis of the above data is reproduced on Figure 3.

As one can see, the classification represented by this tree differs from earlier classificatory schemes in quite a number of points. Below I list those differences which are, in my opinion, the most important ones.

1. According to the above classification, Indo-Aryan is subdivided into two main subbranches — one including Sinhalese and Dhivehi (Maldivian), and the other consisting of all the other New Indo-Aryan languages. The most proper names for these subgroups would be "Insular" and "Continental". The split of Proto-Indo-Aryan dates back to the close of the 2nd millennium B.C.

2. The Continental subgroup includes an outlying branch embracing Marathi and Konkani.

3. Romany turns out to form a common subgroup with Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and dialects of the sub-Himalayan region, traditionally classified as Pahari (Nepali, Garhwali, Kumauni, Himachali, Kului, Mandeali and Kotgarhi). The closest relative of Romany is Domaaki, as was first hypothesized by D. L. R. Lorimer (1939). The split of "Proto-Hindi-Pahari-Romany" dates

23 In order to save space, I will not list all the Shina loanwords here, especially since their identification usually presents no difficulty. The only doubtful case is Domaaki suno 'dog', which, according to Georg Buddruss, should not be considered a borrowing from Shina because of its irregular inflection (Buddruss 1984: 14). Bud-druss's argument, however, does not seem convincing. The reflexes of Proto-Indo-Iranian *suan-/sun-, being widespread in Dardic, are very rare in New Indo-Aryan and almost never used there as the main word for dog, except in a few West Pahari languages, spoken adjacently to the Dardic-speaking area (cf., e.g., Siraji suna 'dog'). This fact suggests a high probability of borrowing from Dardic into Indo-Aryan. The immediate source for the above-cited Domaaki word may have been some older form of Shina su 'dog'.

24 These are: burinc 'cloud', tigon 'egg', chumo 'fish', duwal- 'fly', jutsiqam 'green', chisa 'mountain', thop 'night', yono 'seed'.

25 The Romany material reflects the Kalderash dialect, spoken in Romania and Moldova.

26 Cf. Tirahi parana, Maiya panar, Kashmiri pron (< *paranu). Turner's comparison of the Romany word with OIA pandu- (Turner 1966: 454) is doubtful, because it implies irregular phonetic development. The regular reflex of pandu- in Romany would have been *panrro (cf. punrro 'leg, foot' < OIA pinda- 'calf of leg').

27 On Burushaski loanwords in Romany see Berger 1959.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

28 Cf. Georgian, Laz kvisa 'sand'. The change kv > k is regular for genuine Romany words (cf. kerel 'cooks' < OIA kvathati). It may imply that during a certain period of time the cluster kv was proscribed in the language. If the borrowing of the Kartvelian word for 'sand' dates back to this period, the loss of v in the initial consonantal group is quite explicable.

Table 1. The lexicostatistical matrix of Indo-Aryan languages.

HND DKH PNJ PTH HNK GJR DGR LHD SND RAJ GUJ MAR BNG ASS NEP SNG MAL KOT HIM KUL MND ORY AWD KUM ROM KNK DUM BRJ GRH PRY MAI KCH MEW WGD BNJ

HND 96 97 83 87 91 87 85 81 90 86 67 70 69 78 53 47 82 92 88 91 73 92 90 71 60 74 92 85 89 83 77 97 78 79

DKH 96 95 79 84 86 87 85 80 89 84 73 73 73 77 59 53 81 90 88 91 75 93 90 77 64 77 87 83 87 83 78 91 73 81

PNJ 97 95 89 91 93 93 90 84 92 84 68 70 72 76 57 50 80 92 85 91 72 91 89 71 67 72 88 82 93 82 81 94 75 80

PTH 83 79 89 89 93 86 82 77 80 73 69 66 63 72 50 45 75 86 79 84 69 78 75 68 58 67 77 71 77 75 75 80 64 67

HNK 87 84 91 89 95 88 87 82 81 76 67 69 67 70 54 48 77 85 81 85 68 80 78 71 59 71 78 76 83 76 77 82 67 70

GJR 91 86 93 93 95 91 83 81 84 81 69 69 67 74 52 45 79 90 84 91 70 85 82 70 64 69 81 77 86 74 75 86 73 75

DGR 87 87 93 86 88 91 87 82 84 79 67 68 67 77 55 45 79 91 86 92 69 87 80 69 66 77 81 76 83 81 79 86 70 74

LHD 85 85 90 82 87 83 87 84 80 74 63 67 67 69 50 46 76 85 79 85 67 83 78 68 62 68 77 73 80 78 86 83 68 69

SND 81 80 84 77 82 81 82 84 83 79 71 68 67 67 53 50 70 75 75 78 68 78 75 61 71 67 77 69 74 74 91 81 67 73

RAJ 90 89 92 80 81 84 84 80 83 90 75 70 70 76 57 50 78 86 86 86 76 90 84 70 72 73 91 78 81 81 86 91 75 81

GUJ 86 84 84 73 76 81 79 74 79 90 78 69 70 75 54 49 74 81 82 85 74 84 78 62 72 67 83 76 76 79 82 88 77 82

MAR 67 73 68 69 67 69 67 63 71 75 78 62 59 64 53 51 62 64 64 69 64 70 64 57 80 65 62 56 60 62 72 69 63 67

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

BNG 70 73 70 66 69 69 68 67 68 70 69 62 88 66 56 52 70 69 69 72 86 74 71 59 63 64 69 67 66 78 71 73 59 58

ASS 69 73 72 63 67 67 67 67 67 70 70 59 88 71 57 55 72 72 73 73 86 76 73 63 66 67 67 71 68 74 71 71 60 63

NEP 78 77 76 72 70 74 77 69 67 76 75 64 66 71 53 46 80 78 83 82 74 85 86 73 64 73 72 81 71 78 71 80 68 72

SNG 53 59 57 50 54 52 55 50 53 57 54 53 56 57 53 75 52 53 54 55 57 56 56 53 49 59 52 49 58 58 53 55 45 46

MAL 47 53 50 45 48 45 45 46 50 50 49 51 52 55 46 75 48 47 45 48 53 49 49 53 48 55 47 43 50 49 48 50 42 42

KOT 82 81 80 75 77 79 79 76 70 78 74 62 70 72 80 52 48 85 84 88 76 85 85 73 56 77 78 79 78 79 73 82 64 69

HIM 92 90 92 86 85 90 91 85 75 86 81 64 69 72 78 53 47 85 94 96 74 91 85 72 58 71 85 82 85 81 76 87 73 74

KUL 88 88 85 79 81 84 86 79 75 86 82 64 69 73 83 54 45 84 94 96 74 87 86 71 61 73 81 86 82 77 76 87 69 74

MND 91 91 91 84 85 91 92 85 78 86 85 69 72 73 82 55 48 88 96 96 75 88 86 72 65 77 84 83 86 82 77 90 73 77

ORY 72 74 70 68 67 69 68 66 67 75 73 63 87 87 73 57 53 75 73 73 74 77 74 65 63 72 72 72 70 80 72 76 68 63

AWD 92 93 91 78 80 85 87 83 78 90 84 70 74 76 85 56 49 85 91 87 88 78 95 78 67 79 88 87 83 88 79 91 76 82

KUM 90 90 89 75 78 82 80 78 75 84 78 64 71 73 86 56 49 85 85 86 86 75 95 77 61 78 84 90 83 86 76 91 71 75

ROM 71 77 71 68 71 70 69 68 61 70 62 57 59 63 73 53 53 73 72 71 72 65 78 77 54 82 70 75 72 68 64 74 61 60

KNK 60 64 67 60 60 66 66 62 71 70 72 82 65 66 64 51 49 57 59 61 65 63 67 61 54 60 59 53 59 59 75 66 63 66

DUM 74 77 72 67 71 69 77 68 67 75 67 65 64 67 73 59 55 77 71 73 77 72 79 78 82 62 72 72 77 76 67 81 61 67

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

BRJ 92 87 88 78 79 82 81 77 77 92 83 63 70 67 72 53 48 79 86 81 84 72 88 84 70 59 72 80 82 82 78 92 74 78

GRH 85 83 82 73 77 78 76 73 69 79 76 57 69 71 81 50 44 80 83 86 83 72 87 90 75 53 72 80 78 79 68 82 66 69

PRY 89 87 93 77 83 86 83 80 74 81 76 60 66 68 71 58 50 78 85 82 86 70 83 83 72 59 77 82 78 75 76 84 76 74

MAI 83 83 82 76 77 75 81 78 74 82 79 63 79 74 78 59 51 80 82 77 82 80 88 86 68 59 76 82 79 75 78 82 67 70

KCH 77 78 81 76 78 76 79 86 91 85 82 73 72 71 71 54 49 74 77 76 77 72 79 76 64 75 67 78 68 76 78 77 70 75

MEW 97 91 94 80 82 86 86 83 81 91 88 69 73 71 80 55 50 82 87 87 90 78 91 91 74 67 81 93 83 84 82 78 78 78

WGD 78 73 75 65 68 74 70 68 67 76 77 64 60 60 68 47 43 65 74 69 73 68 76 71 61 63 61 74 66 76 67 70 77 74

BNJ 79 81 80 67 70 75 74 69 73 82 82 67 58 63 72 46 42 69 74 74 77 63 82 75 60 66 67 78 69 74 70 75 78 74

Figure 3. The genealogical tree of Indo-Aryan languages. Figures in the nodes of the tree denote dates of separation in millennia A.D. (positive numbers) or B.C. (negative numbers), and are the results of glottochronological calculations performed in the Starling system.

back to the 1st century A.D., and that of "Proto-Romany-Domaaki" to the close of the 5th century A.D. These figures, however, seem to be preliminary. The Swadesh lists of both Romany and Domaaki contain a number of unetymologized words. In the future, when etymologies of such words are established, the percentage of cognates may increase, and the resulting datings may appear to be somewhat younger. It is also worth noting that neither of the two above-mentioned dates should be automatically declared the date of the Gypsy exodus from India. The latter, no doubt, could date back to a later period than the linguistic split. Such a possibility is suggested by the fact that most subbranches of Continental Indo-Aryan diverged (sometimes nearly two millennia back) without mass migration of the speakers outside the subcontinent.

4. Forms of speech traditionally classified as Western Hindi do not actually form a single subgroup. Braj shows close relationship with Marwari and Mewati dialects spoken in Rajast-han, and somewhat more remote with Gujarati. Standard Hindi-Urdu and Dakhini are most closely related to Punjabi.29 As for the Eastern Hindi dialects, their only representative in the database, i.e. Awadhi, is the closest relative of Kumauni.

5. Contrary to the traditional view, there is no reason to suggest a Rajasthani origin for a number of Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside Rajasthan. Thus Gojri,30 classified by Grier-son as a form of speech close to the Mewati dialect of Rajasthani, actually does not belong to the same group with the latter, but rather shows a close affinity to Hindko. The Banjari lan-guage,31 which was also usually considered as a variety of Rajasthani, actually occupies a somewhat independent position within one of the sub-branches of the Continental languages.

6. The above-stated close affinity of Kumauni to Awadhi implies that the Pahari group in the traditional sense does not exist as a genetic subdivision. The West Pahari languages except Kotgarhi (i.e., Himachali, Kului and Mandeali) do, however, form a single subgroup. The split of their ancestral language must have taken place very recently.

On the other hand, our classification does not differ from the earlier ones in those instances where the existence of subgroups is obvious or can be postulated on the basis of early linguistic evidence, as is, e.g., the case of the Eastern subgroup consisting of Oriya, Bengali and Assamese.

It should be emphasized again that the above classificatory scheme is preliminary and thus remains open to further amendments and improvements. It does not pretend to answer each and every question concerning New Indo-Aryan taxonomy. In a number of cases, it raises intriguing problems for further research. Among such problems, the rather close affinity of Maithili to Braj, Rajasthani dialects and Gujarati, as well as the somewhat isolated position of Parya and Garhwali appear to be particularly noteworthy.32 We hope that the present article will be instrumental in stimulating scholarly interest in these (and related) issues of Indo-Aryan comparative linguistics.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

29 The pair Hindi-Punjabi shows 97% matches, the highest percentage in the whole database.

30 The language of Gujjars, a Muslim nomadic and semi-nomadic ethnic group dispersed in mountainous areas from Afghan Hindu Kush in the Northwest to the Indian state of Uttarakhand in the Southeast.

31 Also called Lamani and Lambadi, spoken by a semi-nomadic community of Banjaras scattered all over Central and Western India.

32 The Garhwali Swadesh list contains a significant number of unetymologized words. This fact may partly account for the relative isolation of the Garhwali language on the genealogical tree shown above. An abnormally low percentage of matches between Maldivian and Continental Indo-Aryan languages may have the same reason.

Appendix: Swadesh wordlists

The data are based on the following sources: HND, PNJ, SND, GUJ, MAR, BNG, SNG - Ko-gan 2005; DKH — Sibghatulla, Zamin 2000; PTH — a native speaker; HNK — Sultan Sukun 2002; GJR — Awan 2000; DGR — Gosvami 2000; LHD — Saleem, Shah 2005 and Kogan 2005; RAJ — Suthar, Gahlot 1995 and Mukherji et al. 2011; ASS — Neog, Goswami 1987; NEP — Schmidt 1994; MAL — Abdulla, O'Shea 2005; KOT — Hendriksen 1976; HIM — native speakers; KUL — Mahapatra, Padmanabha, Ranganatha 1980; MND — native speakers and Ma-hapatra, Padmanabha, Ranganatha 1980; ORY — native speakers and Praharaj 1931-1940; AWD — Samir 1955; KUM, GRH — native speakers and Grireson 1916; ROM — Boretzky 1994; KNK — Thali 1999-2001; DUM — Buddruss 1984 and Lorimer 1939; BRJ, MEW, WGD — Mukherji et al. 2011; PRY — Oranskiy 1977; MAI — Thakur, Jha 2012; KCH — Rohra 1965; BNJ — Ramesh 2010.

Figures in brackets after words refer to numbers of etymologies in the Indo-Aryan etymological database. They also reflect cognacy, words descending from the same OIA root having equal numbers. Negative numbers are assigned to loanwords and lacunae.

1. ALL: HND sab (1), DKH sab (1), PNJ sabh (1), PTH sare (1), HNK sare (1), GJR sara (1), DGR sab (1), LHD sara (1), SND sabhi (1), RAJ saglau (270), GUJ sahu (1), MAR sagla (270), BNG sobay (1), ASS xob (1), NEP sabai (1), SNG siyallo (270), MAL emmeha (174), KOT sao (1), HIM sare (1), KUL sabh (1), MND sabh (1), ORY sabu (1), AWD sab (1), KUM sap (1), ROM savorre (1), KNK saglo (270), DUM buta (-1), BRJ sab (1), GRH sabbi (1), PRY sare (1), MAI sab (1), KCH sab (1), MEW sabe (1), WGD sabu (1), BNJ sari (1)

1a. ALL: SND samùro (174), SNG mulu (381) MAL huriha (522) AWD sagar (270)

2. ASHES: HND rakh (3), DKH rax (3), PNJ suah (111), PTH suhaga (111) HNK chai (152), GJR bhass (489), DGR kheh (440), LHD chai (152), SND rakh (3), RAJ khe (440), GUJ rakh (3), MAR rakh (3), BNG chai (152), ASS sai (152), NEP kharani (140), SNG alu (382), MAL ali (382) KOT kh£g (440), HIM suah (111), KUL ? (-1), MND swah (111), ORY pauñsa (567), AWD rakhi (3), KUM saji (488), ROM vusar (140), KNK goboru (606), DUM chor (140), BRJ rakh (3), GRH charu (140), PRY char (140), MAI char (140) KCH vani (653) MEW rakhi (3), WGD pasi (567), BNJ rak (3)

2a. ASHES: GJR suhago (111), DGR bhass (489), LHD sua (111), SND chai (152), RAJ rakh (3), KOT char (140), MND bhas (489), ORY chara (140), AWD char (140), KUM char (140)

3. BARK: HND chal (4), DKH chilta (4), PNJ chill (4), PTH chilar (4), HNK chillar (4), GJR chilro (4), DGR chilka (4), LHD chil (4), SND chalu (4), RAJ chilkau (4), GUJ chal (4), MAR sal (4), BNG chal (4), ASS bakoli (328), NEP bokro (328), SNG potta (383), MAL thosi (523), KOT chal (4), HIM chillekar (4), KUL khol (552), MND satù (561), ORY chali (4), AWD chal (4), KUM bakkhal (328), ROM skarca (-1), KNK sal (4), DUM ? (-2), BRJ chal (4), GRH bakkal (328), PRY post (-1), MAI chal (4), KCH chall (4), MEW chal (4), WGD sal (4), BNJ chambdi (667)

3a. BARK: ASS sal (4), ORY bakkala (328), MEW bokala (328)

4. BELLY: HND pet (678), DKH pet (678), PNJ pet (678), PTH dhid (113), HNK dhid (113), GJR dhid (113), DGR dhidd (113), LHD dhidh (113), SND petu (678), RAJ pet (678), GUJ pet (678), MAR pot (-1), BNG pet (678), ASS pet (678), NEP pet (678), SNG bada (329), MAL ban'du (329), KOT pet (678), HIM pet (678), KUL pet (678), MND pet (678), ORY peta (678), AWD pet (678),

KUM pet (678), ROM perr (678), KNK pot (-1), DUM pet (678), BRJ pet (678), GRH pyat (678), PRY pet (678), MAI udar (-1), KCH pet (678), MEW pet (678), WGD pet (678), BNJ pet (678) 4a. BELLY: PNJ dhidd (113), GJR pet (678)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

5. BIG: HND bara (5), DKH bada (5), PNJ vadda (5), PTH bara (5), HNK badda (5), GJR baro (5), DGR badda (5), LHD vadda (5), SND vad'o (5), RAJ badau (5), GUJ moto (248), MAR motha (248), BNG boro (5), ASS bor (5), NEP thülo (358), SNG loku (385), MAL bodu (669), KOT boddo (5), HIM bara (5), KUL badda (5), MND badda (5), ORY badda (5), AWD bara (5), KUM baro (5), ROM baro (5), KNK v(h)od (5), DUM bada (5), BRJ baro (5), GRH barü (5), PRY boro (5), MAI barka (5), KCH vado (5), MEW baro (5), WGD moto (248), BNJ moto (248)

5a. BIG: RAJ motau (248), NEP baro (5)

6. BIRD: HND ciriya (6), DKH pakherü (7), PNJ pakkherü (7), PTH pakherü (7), HNK pakhru (7), GJR pakherü (7), DGR paichi (7), LHD pakkhi (7), SND pakhi (7), RAJ pakherü (7), GUJ pakhi (7), MAR paksi (-2), BNG pakhi (7), ASS sorai (6), NEP cara (6), SNG kurulla (-1), MAL düni (524), KOT corku (6), HIM panchi (7), KUL cidu (6), MND panchi (7), ORY cadhei (6), AWD cirai (6), KUM callo (6), ROM cirikli (6), KNK pakko (7), DUM cai (6), BRJ paksi (-1), GRH cakhul (652), PRY kukuri (644), MAI cirai (6) KCH pakhi (7), MEW ciria (6), WGD huro (660), BNJ gargol (668)

6a. BIRD: HND pakhi (7), DKH cari (6), DGR ciri (6), RAJ ciri (6), ASS ponkhi (7), KOT panchi (7), KUL panchi (7), MND cidu (6), AWD panchi (7), GRH pacche (7), MAI panchi (7), MEW pakherü (7)

7. BITE: HND kat- (8), DKH kat- (8), PNJ katt- (8), PTH lar- (153), HNK lar- (153), GJR kha-(490), DGR baddh- (493), LHD pat- (501), SND caku pai- (176), RAJ karar (249), GUJ karad-(249), MAR cav- (271), BNG kamra- (296), ASS kamor- (296), NEP tok- (114), SNG hapa- (386), MAL daiganna- (550), KOT tuk- (114), HIM dand mar- (550), KUL kat- (8), MND kat- (8), ORY kamur- (296), AWD ? (-1), KUM kat- (8), ROM dandar- (550), KNK cab- (271), DUM jan- (-3), BRJ kat- (8), GRH kat- (8), PRY kat- (8), MAI bhamhor- (676), KCH cak- (176), MEW' kat- (8), WGD kat- (8), BNJ cab- (271)

7a. BITE: HNK cak mar- (176), GJR lar- (153) SND d'arh- (177), MAR dasa ghe- (177), SNG vik-(387), HIM kha- (490), MND kha- (490), PRY cak par- (176) KCH vir- (654), MEW caba- (271), BNJ kat- (8)

8. BLACK: HND kala (9), DKH kala (9), PNJ kala (9), PTH kala (9), HNK kala (9), GJR kalo (9), DGR kala (9), LHD kala (9), SND karo (9), RAJ kalau (9), GUJ kalo(9), MAR kala (9), BNG kalo (9), ASS kola (9), NEP kalo (9), SNG kalu (9), MAL kalu (9), KOT kalo (9), HIM kala (9), KUL kala (9), MND kala (9), ORY kala (9), AWD karia (9), KUM kalo (9), ROM kalo (9), KNK kale (9), DUM kala (9), BRJ karo (9), GRH kalu (9), PRY kalo (9), MAI kari (9), KCH karo (9), MEW kalo (9), WGD kalo (9), BNJ kalo (9)

9. BLOOD: HND lahü (10), DKH lhau (10), PNJ lahü (10), PTH lahü (10), HNK rat (115), GJR rat (115) DGR lahu (10), LHD ratt (115) SND ratu (115) RAJ lohi (10), GUJ lohi (10), MAR rakt (-3), BNG rokto (-1), ASS tez (330), NEP ragat (-1), SNG le (10), MAL ley (10), KOT lou (10), HIM laü (10), KUL lohu (10), MND lahü (10), ORY rakta (-1), AWD rakat (-2), KUM lwe (10), ROM rat (115), KNK ragat (-2), DUM rot (115), BRJ lohi (10), GRH loi (10), PRY law (10), MAI lohü (10), KCH ratt (115), MEW khün (-1), WGD khon (-1), BNJ loi (10)

9a. BLOOD: PNJ ratt (115), PTH rat (115), HNK lahü (10), DGR ratt (115), KCH lui (10)

10. BONE: HND haddi (11), DKH had (11), PNJ haddi (11), PTH hadi (11), HNK haddi (11), GJR haddi (11), DGR haddi (11), LHD haddi (11), SND had'o (11), RAJ had (11), GUJ hadkü (11), MAR had (11), BNG har (11), ASS har (11), NEP had (11), SNG ataya (388), MAL kasi (526), KOT hadd (11), HIM ad (11), KUL hadka (11), MND haddi (11), ORY hada (11), AWD har (11), KUM har (11), ROM kokalo (-2), KNK had (11), DUM hot (11), BRJ haddi (11), GRH had (11), PRY hadi (11), MAI haddi (11), KCH hado (11), MEW haddi (11), WGD hadko (11), BNJ hadka (11)

11. BREAST: HND chati (12), DKH chati (12), PNJ chati (12), PTH chati (12), HNK mamma (478), GJR chati (12), DGR chati (12), LHD bubba (154), SND chati (12), RAJ chati (12), GUJ chati (12), MAR chati (-4), BNG buk (297), ASS buku (297), NEP chati (12), SNG laya (116), MAL buk (297), KOT cui (141), HIM chati (12), KUL chatti (12), MND hik (116), ORY chati (12), AWD chati (12), KUM chati (12), ROM kolin (592), KNK hardhen (116), DUM titiro (-4), BRJ chati (12), GRH ? (-1), PRY hik (116), MAI chati (12), KCH than (655), MEW chati (12), WGD sati (12), BNJ chati (12)

11a. BREAST: PNJ hikk (116), DGR hikkrü (116), SND urahu (178), RAJ bobau (154), MAL uramathi (178), KUL hik (116), MND chati (12), ORY buku (297)

12. BURN TR.: HND jala- (13), DKH jal- (13), PNJ bal- (13), PTH sar- (117), HNK sar- (117), GJR sar- (117), DGR bal- (13), LHD bal- (13), SND sar- (117), RAJ phuk- (505), GUJ bal- (13), MAR jal- (13), BNG pora- (298), ASS por- (298), NEP bal- (13), SNG dava- (217), MAL ada-(217), KOT dzal- (13), HIM bal- (13), KUL phukh- (505), MND phukh- (505), ORY pori- (298), AWD jara- (13), KUM jal- (13), ROM phabar- (593), KNK jalayi- (13), DUM dai- (-5), BRJ jal-(13), GRH jagau- (653), PRY jal- (13), MAI jar- (13), KCH bar- (13), MEW jala- (13), WGD jal-

(13), BNJ bal- (13)

12a. BURN TR.: PNJ sar- (117), bal- (13), GJR jal- (13), DGR sar- (117), LHD sar- (117), SND b'ar- (13), RAJ jala- (13), BNG jala- (13), NEP darhau- (217), SNG pulussa- (390), KOT d5- (217), MND bala- (13), AWD darhia- (217), PRY sar baga- (117)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

13. NAIL: HND naxun (-1), DKH nhu (14), PNJ nahü (14), PTH nu (14), HNK nuh (14), GJR nahu (14), DGR nau (14), LHD nu (14), SND nahü (14), RAJ noriyau (14), GUJ nakh (14), MAR nakh (14), BNG nokh (14), ASS nokh (14), NEP naq (14), SNG niyapotta (14), MAL niyafathi

(14), KOT nos (14), HIM nokh (14), KUL nhos (14), MND nah (14), ORY nakha (14), AWD nah (14), KUM naq (14), ROM unjiya (-3), KNK naqkut (14), DUM naura (-6), BRJ noh5 (14), GRH nang (14), PRY nuk (-2), MAI nah (14), KCH no (14), MEW nüh (14), WGD nokh (14), BNJ nak

(14)

14. CLOUD: HND badal (15), DKH abhal (465), PNJ baddal (15), PTH baddal (15), HNK jhar (155), GJR jhar (155), DGR badal (15), LHD baddal (15), SND kakaru (179), RAJ badlau (15), GUJ vadlü (15), MAR dhag (272), BNG barid (-2), ASS badol (15), NEP badal (15), SNG vala-kula (391), MAL vila (391), KOT badal (15), HIM baddal (15), KUL badal (15), MND baddal

(15), ORY megha (-2), AWD badar (15), KUM badal (15), ROM nuvero (-4) KNK mod (-3), DUM burinc (-7), BRJ badalore (15), GRH badal (15), PRY badal (15), MAI badari (15), KCH vadar (15), MEW badar (15), WGD wadlo (15), BNJ abal (465)

14a. CLOUD: PTH jhar (155)

15. COLD: HND thanda (458), DKH thanda (458), PNJ thanda (458), PTH thanda (458), HNK thanda (458), GJR thando (458), DGR thanda (458), LHD thaddha (458), SND thadho (458), RAJ

thandau (458), GUJ thandû (458), MAR thand (458), BNG thanda (458), ASS thanda (458), NEP ciso (332), SNG sisil (392), MAL fini (528), KOT sillo (218), HIM thanda (458), KUL thonda (458), MND thanda (458), ORY thanda (458), AWD thandh (458), KUM thando (458), ROM silalo (218), KNK thand (458), DUM silda (218), BRJ siaro (218), GRH thando (458), PRY yax (-3), MAI thar (458), KCH thadho (458), MEW siro (218), WGD tadu (458), BNJ silo (218) 15a COLD: KNK selo (218) MEW thandho (458)

16. COME: HND a- (1б), DKH a(v)- (1б), PNJ a- (1б), PTH as- (181) HNK (1б), GJR a- (1б), DGR au-(1б), LHD av- (1б), SND ac- (180) RAJ av- (1б), GUJ av- (1б), MAR ye- (180) BNG as- (301), ASS ah-

(301), NEP au- (1б), SNG e- (180), MAL ai- (180) KOT a- (1б), HIM a- (1б), KUL aw- (1б), MND au-(1б), ORY as- (301), AWD a- (1б), KUM й- (1б), ROM av- (1б), KNK yo- (180), DUM (1б), BRJ a-(1б), GRH a- (1б), PRY a- (1б), MAI a- (1б), KCH ac- (180), MEW (1б), WGD (1б), BNJ a- (1б)

1бa. COME: SND ay- (181), MAR ala- (181), BNG ail- (181), NEP ay- (181), KOT ach- (181), KUL ye- (180), ORY ail- (181), KNK ayil- (181), KCH ay- (181)

17. DIE: HND mar- (17), DKH mar- (17), PNJ mar- (17), PTH mar- (17), HNK mar- (17), GJR mar- (17), DGR mar- (17), LHD mar- (17), SND mar- (17), RAJ mar- (17), GUJ mar- (17), MAR mar- (17), BNG mor- (17), ASS mor- (17), NEP mar- (17), SNG märe- (17), MAL maru- (17), KOT mor- (17), HIM mar- (17), KUL mar- (17), MND mar- (17), ORY mar- (17), AWD mar- (17), KUM mar- (17), ROM mer- (17), KNK mar- (17), DUM mar- (17), BRJ mar- (17), GRH mar- (17), PRY mar- (17), MAI mar- (17), KCH mar- (17), MEW mar- (17), WGD mar- (17), BNJ mar- (17)

18. DOG: HND kutta (18), DKH kutta (18), PNJ kutta (18), PTH kutta (18), HNK kutta (18), GJR kuto (18), DGR kutta (18), LHD kutta (18), SND kutto (18), RAJ kutau (18), GUJ kutro (18), MAR kutra (18), BNG kukur (302), ASS kukur (302), NEP kukur (302), SNG balla (394), MAL balu (394), KOT kukkar (302), HIM kutta (18), KUL kutta (18), MND kutta (18), ORY kukkura

(302), AWD ^kur (302), KUM kukur (302), ROM zukel (595), KNK kutro (18), DUM suno (-8), BRJ kutta (18), GRH kukur (302), PRY kuto (18), MAI kukkur (302), KCH kauto (18), MEW kutto (18), WGD kutro (18), BNJ kutra (18)

18a. DOG: MAL kuttha (18)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

19. DRINK: HND pi- (19), DKH pi(v)- (19), PNJ pi- (19), PTH pi- (19), HNK pi- (19), GJR pi-(19), DGR pi- (19), LHD piv- (19), SND pi- (19), RAJ pi- (19), GUJ pi- (19), MAR pi- (19), BNG kha- (303), ASS pi- (19), NEP piu- (19), SNG bo- (19), MAL bo- (19), KOT pi- (19), HIM pi- (19), KUL pi- (19), MND pi- (19), ORY pi- (19), AWD pi- (19), KUM pi- (19), ROM pi- (19), KNK pi-

(19), DUM pi- (19), BRJ pi- (19), GRH pya- (19), PRY pi- (19), MAI pi- (19), KCH pi- (19), MEW pi- (19), WGD pi- (19), BNJ pi- (19)

20. DRY: HND sukha (20), DKH sukka (20), PNJ sukka (20), PTH sukka (20), HNK sukka (20), GJR suko (20), DGR sukka (20), LHD sukka (20), SND sukalu (20), RAJ sü^u (20), GUJ sukû

(20), MAR sukha (20), BNG sukno (20), ASS xukan (20), NEP sukkho (20), SNG viyali (45б), MAL hiki (20), KOT sukkho (20), HIM sukk(20), KUL 7 (-2), MND sukha (20), ORY sukhila

(20), AWD sukha(20), KUM sukko (20), ROM suko (20), KNK sukk(h)o (20), DUM sukha (20), BRJ sukho (20), GRH sukhyû (20), PRY suke (20), MAI sukkha (20), KCH saukko (20), MEW sukha (20), WGD suko (20), BNJ suko (20)

21. EAR: HND kan (21), DKH kan (21), PNJ kann (21), PTH kan (21), HNK kan (21), GJR kan

(21), DGR kann (21), LHD kan (21), SND kanu (21), RAJ kan (21), GUJ kan (21), MAR kan (21),

BNG kan (21), ASS kan (21), NEP kän (21), SNG kana (21), MAL kanfaiy (21), KOT kän (21), HIM kän (21), KUL kön (21), MND kän (21), ORY käna (21), AWD kän (21), KUM kän (21), ROM kan (21), KNK känu (21), DUM kon (21), BRJ kän (21), GRH kän (21), PRY kan (21), MAI kän (21), KCH kann (21), MEW kän (21), WGD kän (21), BNJ kän (21)

22. EARTH: HND dharti (22), DKH dharat (22), PNJ dharti (22), PTH mitti (157), HNK dharti

(22), GJR dharti (22), DGR dharti (22), LHD bhoe (118), SND dharti (22), RAJ dharti (22), GUJ dharti (22), MAR bhui (118), BNG mati (157), ASS (157), NEP dharti (22), SNG pasa (396), MAL bin (118), KOT bhui (118), HIM dharti (22), KUL dhorti (22), MND dharti (22), ORY mäti (157), AWD dharti (22), KUM mäto (157), ROM phuv (118), KNK bhuyi (118), DUM chor (623), BRJ dharti (22), GRH dharti (22), PRY zimin (-4), MAI mäti (157), KCH mitti (157), MEW bhüm

(118), WGD dharti (22), BNJ dharti (22)

22a. EARTH: DKH bhu (118), PNJ bhö (118), GJR miti (157), MAR mäti (157), NEP mäto (157), SNG polova (397), KOT matti (157), MND bhüy (118), AWD bhui (118), KUM bhi (118), KNK mäti (157), MEW dharati (22)

23. EAT: HND khä- (23), DKH khä- (23), PNJ khä- (23), PTH khä- (23), HNK khä- (23), GJR khä- (23), DGR khä- (23), LHD khä- (23), SND khä- (23), RAJ khäv- (23), GUJ khä- (23), MAR khä- (23), BNG kha- (23), ASS kha- (23), NEP khä- (23), SNG ka- (23), MAL ka- (23), KOT khä-

(23), HIM khä- (23), KUL khä- (23), MND khä- (23), ORY khä- (23), AWD khä- (23), KUM khä-(23), ROM xa- (23), KNK kha- (23), DUM khä- (23), BRJ khä- (23), GRH khä- (23), PRY kha-

(23), MAI khä- (23), KCH khäy- (23), MEW khä- (23), WGD khäy- (23), BNJ khä- (23)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

24. EGG: HND andä (24), DKH and(r)ä (24), PNJ ändä (24), PTH andä (24), HNK aträ (24), GJR äntro (24), DGR ändä (24), LHD äna (24), SND äno (24), RAJ andau (24), GUJ indü (24), MAR ande (24), BNG dim (304), ASS dima (304), NEP andä (24), SNG anda (24), MAL bis (398), KOT pinne (442), HIM andä (24), KUL anda (24), MND anda (24), ORY dim (304), AWD andä (24), KUM anda (24), ROM anrro (24), KNK tanthe (-4), DUM tigon (-9), BRJ ändä (24), GRH andru

(24), PRY andö (24), MAI dim (304), KCH inö (24), MEW andä (24), WGD edä (24), BNJ indä (24)

25. EYE: HND akh (25), DKH ankhi (25), PNJ akkh (25), PTH akh (25), HNK akh (25), GJR akh

(25), DGR akkh (25), LHD akkh (25), SND akhi (25), RAJ akh (25), GUJ akh (25), MAR dolä (274), BNG cokh (305), ASS soku (305), NEP äkhä (25), SNG äsa (25), MAL lö (529), KOT akkh (25), HIM äkh (25), KUL hökhi (25), MND häkh (25), ORY äkhi (25), AWD akhi (25), KUM äkho (25), ROM yak(h) (25), KNK dolo (274), DUM ac (25), BRJ ak (25), GRH akho (25), PRY ank (25), MAI akh (25), KCH akh (25), MEW akh (25), WGD akh (25), BNJ ängki (25)

26. FAT N.: HND carbi (-2), DKH carbi (-1), PNJ carbi (-1), PTH thendä (474), HNK mej (158), GJR carbi (-1), DGR mij (158), LHD carbi (-1), SND carbi (-1), RAJ cigtau (220), GUJ carbi (-1), MAR carbi (-5), BNG corbi (-3), ASS sorbi (-1), NEP boso (361), SNG tela (399), MAL ? (-1), KOT cikto (220), HIM carbi (-1), KUL ? (-3), MND minj (158), ORY carbi (-3), AWD carbi (-3), KUM baso (361), ROM ciken (220), KNK vos (361), DUM mao (-10), BRJ carbi (-2), GRH bäväli (654), PRY lant (645), MAI carbi (-2), KCH carbi (-1), MEW carbi (-2), WGD carbi (-2), BNJ maläi (670) 26a. FAT N.: KOT mindz (158)

27. FEATHER: HND päkh (26), DKH päkh (26), PNJ päkh (26), PTH par (-1), HNK kham

(119), GJR khamm (119), DGR phägh (26), LHD par (-2), SND khambh (119), RAJ pakh (26), GUJ pichü (250), MAR päkh (26), BNG pabk (306), ASS pakhi (26), NEP pvakh (26), SNG

pihatuva (250), MAL dùnifaiy (250), KOT pankh (26), HIM pâkh (26), KUL pankh (26), MND pankh (26), ORY pàlak (306), AWD paçkh (26), KUM pankh (26), ROM por (-5), KNK pak (26), DUM ? (-11), BRJ pakh (26), GRH ? (-2), PRY par (-5), MAI picch (250), KCH ? (-2), MEW pankhï (26), WGD pakh (26), BNJ pangkoda (26)

27a. FEATHER: PNJ khâbh (119), GJR pakkh (26), DGR khambh (119), SND pakkhu (26), GUJ pakh (26), MAR pis (250)

28. FIRE: HND ag (27), DKH ag (27), PNJ agg (27), PTH ag (27), HNK ag (27), GJR ag (27), DGR agg (27), LHD bhah (679), SND bahi (679), RAJ ag (27), GUJ ag (27), MAR ag (27), BNG agun (-4), ASS zui (334), NEP ago (27), SNG ginna (-2), MAL alifan (531), KOT ag (27), HIM ag (27), KUL ôg (27), MND ag (27), ORY nia (673), AWD agi (27), KUM ago (27), ROM yag (27), KNK ujjo (334), DUM ak (27), BRJ age (27), GRH ag (27), PRY ak (27), MAI agi (27), KCH ag (-3), MEW agi (27), WGD agi (27), BNJ angar (671)

29. FISH: HND machli (28), DKH macchi (28), PNJ macchi (28), PTH machli (28), HNK macchi (28), GJR machi (28), DGR macchi (28), LHD machi (28), SND machi (28), RAJ mâchlï (28), GUJ machli (28), MAR masa (28), BNG mach (28), ASS mas (28), NEP macha (28), SNG maluva (-3), MAL mas (28), KOT macchi (28), HIM macchi (28), KUL machli (28), MND macchi (28), ORY maccha (28), AWD machari (28), KUM macho (28), ROM maso (28), KNK masoli (28), DUM chumo (-12), BRJ macchi (28), GRH machu (28), PRY machi (28), MAI mach (28), KCH machi

(28), MEW macchi (28), WGD machli (28), BNJ macli (28)

30. FLY V.: HND ur- (29), DKH ur- (29), PNJ udd- (29), PTH udar- (29), HNK ud(ar)- (29), GJR ud- (29), DGR udd- (29), LHD udd- (29), SND ud'ir- (29), RAJ ud- (29), GUJ ud- (29), MAR ud-

(29), BNG ure ja- (29), ASS ur- (29), NEP ud- (29), SNG piyamba- (401), MAL uduh- (532), KOT r£u- (29), HIM ud- (29), KUL udd- (29), MND ud- (29), ORY ur- (29), AWD ur- (29), KUM ur-(29), ROM (h)urr- (29), KNK ud- (29), DUM duwal- (-13), BRJ ur- (29), GRH ur- (29), PRY ud-

(29), MAI ur- (29), KCH aud- (29), MEW ur- (29), WGD ud- (29), BNJ wad- (29)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

31. FOOT: HND pair (30), DKH pao (30), PNJ pair (30), PTH pair (30), HNK pair (30), GJR pair

(30), DGR pair (30), LHD per (30), SND per (30), RAJ pag (30), GUJ pag (30), MAR pay (30), BNG pa (30), ASS pau (30), NEP pau (30), SNG paya (30), MAL faithila (30), KOT pau (30), HIM pair (30), KUL p£r (30), MND pair (30), ORY pa (30), AWD pag (30), KUM khutto (587), ROM punrro (596), KNK pay (30), DUM po (30), BRJ pair (30), GRH khuttu (587), PRY per

(30), MAI pa (30), KCH pag (30), MEW per (30), WGD pog (30), BNJ pak (30)

32. FULL: HND bhara (31), DKH pùrbhar (31), PNJ bhariya (31), PTH pùra (32), HNK pùra (32), GJR pùro (32), DGR pùra (32), LHD bharea (31), SND bhariyalu (31), RAJ pùr (32), GUJ pùrû (32), MAR bharlelë (31), BNG bhora (31), ASS pur (32), NEP bhari (31), SNG piri (32), MAL furifai (32), KOT bhoro (31), HIM bhareada (31), KUL bhoru (31), MND bharya (31), ORY pùra (32), AWD purhar (32), KUM purro (32), ROM pherdo (31), KNK bharti (31), DUM ? (14), BRJ puriyo (32), GRH bharyu (31), PRY par (31), MAI bharit (31), KCH sajo (656), MEW pùro (32), WGD bhareo (31), BNJ bharo (31)

32a. FULL: HND pùra (32), DKH pùra (32), PNJ pùra (32), PTH bhariya (31), HNK bhariya

(31), GJR bhariyo (31), DGR bhara (31), LHD pùra (32), SND pùro (32), RAJ bharpùr (31), GUJ bharpùr (31), MAR pura (32), BNG pura (32), ASS bhora (31), KOT puro (32), HIM pùra (32), MND pùra (32), ORY bhari (31), AWD bhara (31), KUM bhariyo (31), GRH pùru (32), KCH bhariyo (31)

33. GIVE: HND de- (33), DKH de(v)- (33), PNJ de- (33), PTH de- (33), HNK de- (33), GJR de-(33), DGR de- (33), LHD dev- (33), SND d'i- (33), RAJ de- (33), GUJ de- (33), MAR de- (33), BNG de- (33), ASS di- (33), NEP di- (33), SNG de- (33), MAL din- (33), KOT de- (33), HIM de-(33), KUL de- (33), MND de- (33), ORY de- (33), AWD de- (33), KUM di- (33), ROM de- (33), KNK di- (33), DUM de- (33), BRJ dew- (33), GRH di- (33), PRY de- (33), MAI de- (33), KCH de-

(33), MEW de- (33), WGD de- (33), BNJ de- (33)

34. GOOD: HND accha (34), DKH accha (34), PNJ hacha (34), PTH accha (34), HNK haccha

(34), GJR acho (34), DGR caqga (120), LHD canga (120), SND cango (120), RAJ acchau (34), GUJ bhalo (184), MAR cagla (120), BNG bhab (184), ASS bhal (184), NEP ramro (362), SNG honda (402), MAL rangalu (533), KOT bholo (184), HIM accha (34), KUL bhala (184), MND khara (554), ORY bhala (184), AWD nik (466), KUM niko (466), ROM laso (34), KNK cag (120), DUM sona (624), BRJ acho (34), GRH accho (34), PRY haco (34), MAI nik (466), KCH cangho (120), MEW bhalo (184), WGD haue (661), BNJ aco (34)

34a. GOOD: DKH nika (466), PNJ canga (120), PTH canga (120), HNK canga (120), GJR caqgo (120), DGR khara (494), RAJ bhalau (184), NEP bhalo (184), SNG mana (403), KUL khara (554), MND bhalla (184), AWD accha (34), KUM acho (34), GRH bhalu (184)

35. GREEN: HND hara (35), DKH harya (35), PNJ har(i)a (35), PTH hara (35), HNK sava (160), GJR nilo (253), DGR sailla (495), LHD sava (160), SND sao (160), RAJ lilau (253), GUJ lilo (253), MAR hirva (35), BNG sobuj (-5), ASS xeuj (-2), NEP hariyo (35), SNG palavan (404), MAL fe-hikulaige (534), KOT horo (35), HIM ara (35), KUL hôra (35), MND sailla (495), ORY sabuja (4), AWD hariar (35), KUM hariyo (35), ROM zeleno (-6), KNK pacve (612), DUM jutsiqam (15), BRJ haro (35), GRH haryu (35), PRY soz (-6), MAI sabuj (-3), KCH sao (160), MEW haro

(35), WGD haro (35), BNJ haro (35)

35a. GREEN: GJR hariyo (35), RAJ harau (35), MND hara (35)

36. HAIR: HND bal (36), DKH bal (36), PNJ val (36), PTH bal (36), HNK bal (36), GJR bal (36), DGR kes (185), LHD val (36), SND var (36), RAJ bal (36), GUJ val (36), MAR kës (185), BNG cul (308), ASS suli (308), NEP bal (36), SNG kespata (185), MAL isthasi (535), KOT bal (36), HIM bal (36), KUL saral (36), MND balh (36), ORY culi (308), AWD bar (36), KUM bal (36), ROM bal

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

(36), KNK kes (185), DUM jat (-16), BRJ bal (36), GRH bal (36), PRY bal (36), MAI kes (185), KCH var (36), MEW bal (36), WGD wal (36), BNJ latta (672)

36a. HAIR: DKH kes (185), SND kes (185), BNG kes (185), KUL codha (308), MND kes (185)

37. HAND: HND hath (37), DKH hat (37), PNJ hatth (37), PTH hath (37), HNK hath (37), GJR hath (37), DGR hatth (37), LHD hatth (37), SND hathu (37), RAJ hath (37), GUJ hath (37), MAR hat (37), BNG hat (37), ASS hat (37), NEP hat (37), SNG ata (37), MAL aiy (37), KOT hatth (37), HIM ath (37), KUL hôth (37), MND hath (37), ORY hata (37), AWD hath (37), KUM hath (37), ROM vast (37), KNK hat (37), DUM hat (37), BRJ hat (37), GRH hat(h) (37), PRY hat (37), MAI hath (37), KCH hath (37), MEW hat (37), WGD at (37), BNJ hat (37)

38. HEAD: HND sir (38), DKH sir (38), PNJ sir (38), PTH sir (38), HNK sir (38), GJR sir (38), DGR sir (38), LHD sir (38), SND siru (38), RAJ mathau (186), GUJ mathu (186), MAR dokë (254), BNG matha (186), ASS mur (338), NEP munto (338), SNG hisa (38), MAL is (38), KOT mund (338), HIM mund (338), KUL sir (38), MND sir (38), ORY munda (338), AWD mur (338), KUM mundo (338), ROM sero (38), KNK matte (186), DUM suto (38), BRJ matho (186), GRH mund (38), PRY sar (38), MAI math (186), KCH dogo (254), MEW math (186), WGD mond (338), BNJ mato (338)

38a. HEAD: SND matho (186), GUJ dokü (254), BNG sir (38), ASS xir (38), NEP sir (38), KOT sir (38), HIM sir (38), MND münd (338), AWD kapar (581), KUM sir (38), GRH sir (38), MAI mür (338), KCH matho (186) MEW sir (38)

39. HEAR: HND sun- (39), DKH sun- (39), PNJ sun- (39), PTH sun- (39), HNK sun- (39), GJR sun- (39), DGR sun- (39), LHD sun- (39), SND b'udh- (187), RAJ sun- (39), GUJ sambhal- (255), MAR aik- (275), BNG son- (39), ASS xun- (39), NEP sun- (39), SNG asa- (39), MAL iv- (39), KOT sun- (39), HIM sun- (39), KUL sun- (39), MND sun- (39), ORY sun- (39), AWD sun- (39), KUM sun- (39), ROM sun- (39), KNK aik- (275), DUM paruj- (-17), BRJ sun- (39), GRH sun-(39), PRY sun- (39), MAI sun- (39), KCH son- (39), MEW sun- (39), WGD ayak- (275), BNJ samal- (255)

40. HEART: HND dil (-3), DKH hiya (161), PNJ dil (-2), PTH kaleja (143), HNK dil (-2), GJR kaljo (143), DGR dil (-1), LHD ha (161), SND hio (161), RAJ hiyau (161), GUJ dil (-2), MAR hRday (-6), BNG rhitpindo (-6), ASS hiya (161), NEP mutu (365), SNG laya (161), MAL hiy (161), KOT hio (161), HIM kalja (143), KUL dil (-4), MND dil (-1), ORY hrudaya (-5), AWD dil (-4), KUM hiyo (161), ROM ilo (161), KNK kalij (143), DUM ya (161), BRJ hiruday (-3), GRH jikuru (655), PRY hik (161), MAI hia (161), KCH hiyo (161), MEW hiye (161), WGD dil (-3), BNJ dal (-1)

40a. HEART: RAJ kaljau (143), ASS koliza (143), PRY kilijo (143), MEW kaleja (143)

41. HORN: HND sirg (40), DKH sing (40), PNJ sirg (40), PTH sing (40), HNK sirg (40), GJR sirg (40), DGR sirg (40), LHD sirg (40), SND sirg (40), RAJ sig (40), GUJ sirgdü (40), MAR sirg (40), BNG sirg (40), ASS xirg (40), NEP sirg (40), SNG (h)anga (40), MAL dalu (537), KOT sirg (40), HIM sirg (40), KUL síngh (40), MND síng (40), ORY singa (40), AWD siri (40), KUM sirg (40), ROM sing (40), KNK sing (40), DUM sir (40), BRJ sing (40), GRH sir (40), PRY sax (-7), MAI sig (40), KCH singh (40), MEW sih (40), WGD hengro (40), BNJ singg (40)

42. I: HND mai (41), DKH mai (41), PNJ mai (41), PTH mai (41), HNK me (41), GJR hu (41), DGR aü (41), LHD mai (41), SND aü (41), RAJ hu (41), GUJ hü (41), MAR mi (41), BNG ami (309), ASS moi (41), NEP ma (41), SNG mama (41), MAL ma (41), KOT mu (41), HIM aü (41), KUL haw (41), MND hau (41), ORY mui (41), AWD mahu (41), KUM mg (41), ROM me (41), KNK av (41), DUM u (41), BRJ me (41), GRH mi (41), PRY me (41), MAI ham (309), KCH aü

(41), MEW mü (41), WGD hu (41), BNJ ma (41)

43. KILL: HND mar- (42), DKH mar- (42), PNJ mar- (42), PTH mar- (42), HNK mar- (42), GJR mar- (42), DGR mar- (42), LHD mar- (42), SND mar- (42), RAJ mar- (42), GUJ mar- (42), MAR thar mar- (42), BNG mere phel- (42), ASS mor- (42), NEP mar- (42), SNG mar- (42), MAL mara-

(42), KOT mar- (42), HIM mar- (42), KUL mar- (42), MND mar- (42), ORY mar- (42), AWD mar- (42), KUM mar- (42), ROM mudar- (42), KNK mar- (42), DUM mar- (42), BRJ mar- (42), GRH mar- (42), PRY mar- (42), MAI mar- (42), KCH mar- (42), MEW mar- (42), WGD mar-(42), BNJ mar nak- (42)

44. KNEE: HND ghutna (43), DKH gurga (122), PNJ goda (122), PTH goda (122), HNK jannü (144), GJR janu (144), DGR godda (122), LHD goda (122), SND god'o (122), RAJ godau (122), GUJ ghutan (122), MAR gudha (122), BNG hatu (225), ASS athu (225), NEP ghundo (43), SNG dana (144), MAL kakü (538), KOT dzanu (144), HIM jannü (144), KUL jannhu (144), MND jannhu (144), ORY athu (225), AWD ? (-5), KUM ghüro (43), ROM cang (597), KNK dimbi

(613), DUM kuta (-18), BRJ ? (-4), GRH ghüdu (43), PRY janu (144), MAI thehun (636), KCH

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

güdo (122), MEW ghutno (43), WGD ? (-4), BNJ godo (122)

44a. KNEE: HNK guddar (122), DGR jahnnü (144), MND godda (122)

45. KNOW: HND jan- (44), DKH jan- (44), PNJ jan- (44), PTH jan- (44), HNK jan- (44), GJR jan-

(44), DGR jan- (44), LHD jan- (44), SND jan- (44), RAJ jan- (44), GUJ jan- (44), MAR jan- (44), BNG jan- (44), ASS zan- (44), NEP jan- (44), SNG dan- (44), MAL danna- (44), KOT dzan- (44), HIM jan- (44), KUL jan- (44), MND jan- (44), ORY jan- (44), AWD jan- (44), KUM jar- (44), ROM zan- (44), KNK jan- (44), DUM ? (-19), BRJ jan- (44), GRH jan- (44), PRY samj- (662), MAI jan- (44),

KCH jan- (44), MEW jan- (44), WGD jan- (44), BNJ jan- (44)

46. LEAF: HND patta (45), DKH patta (45), PNJ pattar (45), PTH patta (45), HNK pattar (45), GJR patar (45), DGR pattar (45), LHD patar (45), SND panu (189), RAJ pattau (45), GUJ padrü (189), MAR pan (189), BNG pata (45), ASS pat (45), NEP pat (45), SNG pata (45), MAL faiy

(45), KOT pac (45), HIM patta (45), KUL pottra (45), MND pattar (45), ORY patra (-6), AWD pata (45), KUM pat (45), ROM patrin (45), KNK pan (189), DUM pot (-20), BRJ patti (45), GRH pathala (45), PRY barg (-8), MAI pat (45), KCH pann (189), MEW patta (45), WGD patto (45), BNJ palo (570)

46a. LEAF: RAJ panrau (189), GUJ pataru (45), KNK pallo (570)

47. LIE: HND let- (46), DKH par- (47), PNJ let- (46), PTH let- (46), HNK lama ho- (479), GJR lamu ho- (479), DGR let- (46), LHD let- (46), SND let- (46), RAJ lot- (508), GUJ let- (46), MAR nij- (277), BNG sue thak- (310), ASS pari thok- (47), NEP leti rah- (46), SNG hansivi hitin- (407), MAL doguhed- (408), KOT por- (47), HIM let- (46), KUL let- (46), MND lamba pai- (47), ORY so- (310), AWD paürh- (582), KUM par- (47), ROM paslo- (278), KNK ad pod- (47) DUM jek- (21), BRJ let- (46), GRH par- (47), PRY par- (47), MAI let- (46), KCH let- (46), MEW let- (46), WGD so- (310), BNJ ado pad- (47)

47a. LIE: HND par- (47), PNJ lamme pai- (47), HNK pe- (47), GJR pe- (47), LHD pe- (47), SND pav- (47), RAJ par- (47), GUJ pad- (47), MAR pasarlele as- (278), NEP sut- (310), SNG digavi hitin- (408), MAL oiy- (310), KOT let- (46), KUL lomme paw- (47), MND let- (46), MEW so- (310)

48. LIVER: HND kaleja (48), DKH kaleja (48), PNJ kaleja (48), PTH jigar (-2), HNK jigra (-3), GJR kaljo (48), DGR kaleja (48), LHD kaleji (48), SND jero (190), RAJ kaljau (48), GUJ kaleja (48), MAR yakRt (-7), BNG jokrit (-7), ASS zokrit (-3), NEP kalejo (48), SNG akmava (410), MAL mey (539), KOT kaldzo (-1), HIM kalja (48), KUL kalja (48), MND kalja (48), ORY kalija

(48), AWD karej (48), KUM phyatto (588), ROM buko (496), KNK kalij (48), DUM kaula (625), BRJ hande (631), GRH ? (-3), PRY kiliji (48), MAI yakRt (-4), KCH jigar (-4), MEW gurda (-3), WGD kalja (48), BNJ koljo (48)

49. LONG: HND lamba (49), DKH lamba (49), PNJ lamma (49), PTH lamma (49), HNK lamma

(49), GJR lamu (49), DGR lamma (49), LHD lamba (49), SND digho (191), RAJ lambau (49), GUJ lambü (49), MAR lab (49), BNG lomba (49), ASS dighol (191), NEP lamo (49), SNG dik (191), MAL digu (191), KOT lambo (49), HIM lamba (49), KUL lomma (49), MND lamba (49), ORY lamba (49), AWD lamba (49), KUM lambo (49), ROM lungo (-7), KNK dig (191), DUM jiga (-22), BRJ lambo (49), GRH lambu (49), PRY lamo (49), MAI lamba (49), KCH lamo (49), MEW lambo (49), WGD lambo (49), BNJ lambo (49)

49a. LONG: SND lambo (49), ASS lomba (49)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

50. LOUSE: HND ju (50), DKH ju (50), PNJ ju (50), PTH jùa (50), HNK ju (50), GJR ju (50), DGR ju (50), LHD jua (50), SND jua (50), RAJ ju (50), GUJ jù (50), MAR ù (50), BNG ukun (311), ASS okoni (311), NEP jumrâ (50), SNG ukuna (311), MAL ukunu (311), KOT jù (50), HIM ju (50), KUL jû (50), MND ju (50), ORY ukuni (311), AWD jua (50), KUM jûo (50), ROM zuv (50), KNK ù (50), DUM jùya (50), BRJ jùl (50), GRH ju (50), PRY jû (50), MAI ju (50), KCH ju (50), MEW ju

(50), WGD ju (50), BNJ ju (50)

51. MAN: HND mard (-4), DKH purus (123), PNJ purakh (-3), PTH jana (162), HNK jana (162), GJR janù (162), DGR mardmahnù (192), LHD murs (123), SND manuhù (192), RAJ matï (509), GUJ bhaydo (256), MAR purus (-8), BNG manus (192), ASS munih (192), NEP logne-manche (192), SNG pirimiya (411), MAL firihen (123), KOT mord (-2), HIM lok (480), KUL mard (-5), MND mard (-2), ORY purusa (-7), AWD mansedhù (192), KUM meïs (192), ROM murs (123), KNK manisu (192), DUM manis (192), BRJ admï (-5), GRH admi (-4), PRY anmi (9), MAI purukh (-5), KCH marù (192), MEW manas (192), WGD admï (-5), BNJ mati (509) 51a. MAN: BNJ manas (192)

52. MANY: HND bahut (51), DKH bhaut (51), PNJ bahut (51), PTH bahu (51),HNK muc (481), GJR muc (481), DGR mata (497), LHD bahû (51), SND ghana (193), RAJ ghanau (193), GUJ ghano (193), MAR phar (280), BNG bohu (51), ASS bohuto (51), NEP dherai (367), SNG boho

(51), MAL baivaru (51), KOT bôto (51), HIM bot (51), KUL bohu (51), MND bahut (51), ORY bahuta (51), AWD bahut (51), KUM bhaut (51), ROM but (51), KNK anek (-5), DUM but (51), BRJ bhaut (51), GRH bahut (51), PRY bot (51), MAI bahut (51), KCH baura (51), MEW bhot

(51), WGD ghana (193), BNJ ghano (193)

52a. MANY: HNK bahu (51), GUJ bahu (51), MAL gina (193), MND mate (497), KCH ghano (193)

53. MEAT: HND gost (-5), DKH mas (124), PNJ mas (124), PTH mas (124), HNK mas (124), GJR mas (124), DGR mas (124), LHD gost (-3), SND masu (124), RAJ mas (124), GUJ mas (124), MAR mas (124), BNG mâkso (124), ASS mongoh (124), NEP masu (124), SNG mas (124), MAL mas (124), KOT mas (124), HIM mas (124), KUL mas (124), MND mas (124), ORY mâësa (124), AWD masu (124), KUM masu (124), ROM mas (124), KNK mas (124), DUM mos (124), BRJ mas (124), GRH sikar (-5), PRY gos (-10), MAI mas (124), KCH mas (124), MEW mas (124), WGD sïsï (662), BNJ mas (124)

54. MOON: HND cad (52), DKH cad (52), PNJ cann (52), PTH can (52), HNK can (52), GJR can

(52), DGR cann (52), LHD candar (52), SND candu (52), RAJ candau (52), GUJ cando (52), MAR cad (52), BNG cand (52), ASS zon (340), NEP jùn (340), SNG hañda (52), MAL handu (52), KOT dzùn (340), HIM candrama (-2), KUL joth (340), MND candarma (-3), ORY candrama (-8), AWD canda (52), KUM canda (52), ROM sonuto (340), KNK candru (52), DUM conc (52), BRJ canda (52), GRH jùn (340), PRY can (52), MAI canda (52), KCH candhar (52), MEW cad (52), WGD san (52), BNJ canda (52)

54a. MOON: KUM jùn (340)

55. MOUNTAIN: HND pahar (53), DKH p(ah)ar (53), PNJ pahar (53), PTH paharï (53), HNK pahar (53), GJR pahâr (53), DGR phar (53), LHD pahâr (53), SND paharu (53), RAJ pahâr (53), GUJ pahad (53), MAR pahad (53), BNG pahar (53), ASS pahar (53), NEP pahad (53), SNG kanda (-4), MAL farubada (-2), KOT par (53), HIM par (53), KUL pahad (53), MND par (53), ORY parbata (-9), AWD pahar (53), KUM pahar (53), ROM mint'a (-8), KNK parvatu (-6),

DUM chisa (-23), BRJ pahar (53), GRH par (53), PRY par (53), MAI parvat (-6), KCH pahari (53), MEW pahar (53), WGD maro (663), BNJ pad (53)

56. MOUTH: HND müh (54), DKH mu (54), PNJ muh (54), PTH muh (54), HNK muh (54), GJR mü (54), DGR mu (54), LHD müh (54), SND mühü (54), RAJ müh (54), GUJ mho (54), MAR tod (281), BNG mukh (54), ASS mukh (54), NEP mukh (54), SNG muva (54), MAL anga (540), KOT mu (54), HIM mü (54), KUL müh (54), MND mu (54), ORY muha (54), AWD muh (54), KUM mukh (54), ROM muy (54), KNK tod (281), DUM kasa (626), BRJ mühte (54), GRH gicco (657), PRY mo (54), MAI muh (54), KCH mo (54), MEW müh (54), WGD mundo (54), BNJ mundo (54)

57. NAME: HND nam (55), DKH nao (55), PNJ na (55), PTH na (55), HNK na (55), GJR na (55), DGR na (55), LHD na (55), SND nalo (55), RAJ nav (55), GUJ nam (55), MAR nav (55), BNG nam (55), ASS nam (55), NEP naü (55), SNG nama (55), MAL nan (55), KOT naü (55), HIM naü (55), KUL na (55), MND na (55), ORY nama (55), AWD nau (55), KUM nou (55), ROM nav (55), KNK nav (55), DUM nom (55), BRJ nam (55), GRH nau (55), PRY na (55), MAI nam (55), KCH nalo (55), MEW naw (55), WGD nam (55), BNJ nam (55)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

58. NECK: HND gala (56), DKH gala (56), PNJ gala (56), PTH dhaun (125), HNK gala (56), GJR gal (56), DGR dhaun (125), LHD gicci (196), SND g'ici (196), RAJ nar (514), GUJ doki (258), MAR man (229), BNG gola (56), ASS gol (56), NEP galam (56), SNG gela (312), MAL karu (413), KOT keri (228), HIM kyari (228), KUL kyadi (228), MND kairi (228), ORY beka (674), AWD gatai (197), KUM ghati (312), ROM korr (599), KNK galo (56), DUM kota (599), BRJ nari (514), GRH dhaun (125), PRY gardan (-11), MAI dhona (125), KCH gicci (196), MEW galo (56), WGD gabro (664), BNJ gala (56)

58a. NECK: PNJ dhaun (125), HNK gata (197), GJR gato (197), DGR gata (197), SND g'ato (197), RAJ dhün (125), GUJ galci (56), MAR gala (56), BNG ghar (312), NEP ghati (312), SNG kara (413), KOT g5l (56), KUL gola (56), MND gal (56), AWD gar (56), KUM galo (56), GRH gala (56), MAI ghar (312), KCH niri (514), BNJ naldi (514)

59. NEW: HND naya (57), DKH nava (57), PNJ nava (57), PTH nava (57), HNK navva (57), GJR nawu (57), DGR nama (57), LHD nava (57), SND nao (57),RAJ navau (57), GUJ navü (57), MAR nava (57), BNG nobo (57), ASS no (57),

NEP naya (57), SNG nava (57), MAL au (541), KOT nouwo (57), HIM nava (57), KUL nawwa

(57), MND nava (57), ORY nua (57), AWD nayka (57), KUM nayyo (57), ROM nevo (57), KNK nave (57), DUM nama (57), BRJ nayo (57), GRH nayu (57), PRY navo (57), MAI nab (57), KCH nau (57), MEW nawa (57), WGD navo (57), BNJ nawo (57)

59a. NEW: SNG alut (541)

60. NIGHT: HND rat (58), DKH rat (58), PNJ rat (58), PTH rat (58), HNK rat (58), GJR rat (58), DGR rat (58), LHD rat (58), SND rati (58), RAJ rat (58), GUJ rat (58), MAR rat (58), BNG rat

(58), ASS rati (58), NEP rat (58), SNG raya (58), MAL reygandu (58), KOT rac (58), HIM ratti (58), KUL rat (58), MND rat (58), ORY rati (58), AWD rati (58), KUM rat (58), ROM rat (58), KNK rati (58), DUM thop (-24), BRJ rat (58), GRH rat (58), PRY rat (58), MAI rati (58), KCH rat

(58), MEW rat (58), WGD rat (58), BNJ rat (58)

61. NOSE: HND nak (59), DKH nak (59), PNJ nakk (59), PTH nak (59), HNK nak (59), GJR nak

(59), DGR nakk (59), LHD nakk (59), SND naku (59), RAJ nak (59), GUJ nak (59), MAR nak (59), BNG nak (59), ASS nak (59), NEP nak (59), SNG nahaya (59), MAL neyfaiy (59), KOT nak

(59), HIM nak (59), KUL nak (59), MND nak (59), ORY naka (59), AWD naki (59), KUM nak (59), ROM nak (59), KNK nak (59), DUM nok (59), BRJ nak (59), GRH nak (59), PRY nak (59), MAI nak (59), KCH nakk (59), MEW nak (59), WGD nakoro (59), BNJ nak (59)

62. NOT: HND na (60), DKH nakko (60), PNJ na (60), PTH na (60), HNK na (60), GJR na (60), DGR na (60), LHD na (60), SND na (60), RAJ na (60), GUJ na (60), MAR na (60), BNG na (60), ASS no (60), NEP na (60), SNG na (60), MAL nu (60), KOT na (60), HIM na (60), KUL nay (60), MND na (60), ORY na (60), AWD nahi (60), KUM n£ (60), ROM na (60), KNK nhayi (60), DUM ni (60), BRJ naye (60), GRH na (60), PRY na (60), MAI nahi (60), KCH na (60), MEW ni (60), WGD na (60), BNJ ni (60)

63. ONE: HND ek (61), DKH yek (61), PNJ ik (61), PTH hik (61), HNK hik (61), GJR ek (61), DGR ikk (61), LHD ek (61), SND hiku (61), RAJ (h)ik (61), GUJ ek (61), MAR ek (61), BNG ek (61), ASS ek (61), NEP ek (61), SNG eka (61), MAL ekeh (61), KOT ek (61), HIM ek (61), KUL yek (61), MND ek (61), ORY eka (61), AWD yak (61), KUM ek (61), ROM (y)ek (61), KNK ek (61), DUM ek (61), BRJ ek (61), GRH ek (61), PRY yek (61), MAI ek (61), KCH hikro (61), MEW ek (61), WGD ek (61), BNJ ek (61)

64. PERSON: HND jana (163), DKH jana (163), PNJ jana (163), PTH admi (-3), HNK lok (461), GJR janü (163), DGR mahnü (126), LHD banda (-4), SND jano (163), RAJ janau (163), GUJ manas (126), MAR manüs (126), BNG manus (126), ASS manuh (126), NEP manis (126), 126 SNG miniha (126), MAL meha (126), KOT dzono (163), HIM manü (126), KUL mhanu (126), MND manu (126), ORY manisa (126), AWD manai (126), KUM jan (163), ROM manus (126), KNK manisu (126), DUM manis (126), BRJ manus (126), GRH manali (126), PRY jano (163), MAI manukh (-7), KCH marü (126), MEW adami (-4), WGD lak (461), BNJ jana (163)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

64a. PERSON: DKH manüs (126), DGR jana (163), RAJ manas (126), BNG lok (461), KOT manch (126), MND jana (163), KUM meis (126), GRH jan (163), BNJ manas (126)

65. RAIN: HND meh (62), DKH barsat (127), PNJ mih (62), PTH baddal (127), HNK baddal

(127), GJR badal (127), DGR barkha (-2), LHD mih (62), SND mihu (62), RAJ meh (62), GUJ varsad (127), MAR paüs (127), BNG badol (127), ASS borokhun (127), NEP jhari (369), SNG vassa (127), MAL varey (127), KOT pani (447), HIM barkha (-3), KUL gas (663), MND barkha (-4), ORY barsa (-10), AWD barkha (-4), KUM me (62), ROM bersind (127), KNK pavsu (127), DUM orp (661), BRJ meg (62), GRH barkha (-6), PRY mi (62), MAI barkha (-8), KCH meh (62), MEW meh (62), WGD meha (62), BNJ pani (447)

65a. RAIN: DKH mhyün (62), HNK mih (62), GJR mih (62), SND vas (127), KCH varsad (127)

66. RED: HND lal (63), DKH lal (63), PNJ lal (63), PTH süa (475), HNK ratta (128), GJR rato

(128), DGR lal (63), LHD ratta (128), SND lalu (63), RAJ ratau (128), GUJ lal (63), MAR tabda (282), BNG lal (63), ASS roqga (128), NEP rato (128), SNG ratu (128), MAL raiy (128), KOT ratto (128), HIM lal (63), KUL lal (63), MND lal (63), ORY lal (63), AWD lal (63), KUM lal (63), ROM lolo (63), KNK tabde (282), DUM loya (63), BRJ lal (63), GRH lal (63), PRY lal (63), MAI lal (63), KCH ratto (128), MEW lal (63), WGD lal (63), BNJ ratdo (128)

66a. RED: DKH ratla (128), PNJ ratta (128), HNK lal (63), GJR lal (63), LHD lal (63), SND rato (128), RAJ lal (63), GUJ ratü (128), ASS lal (63), KOT lal (63), MAI rat (128)

67. ROAD: HND sarak (64), DKH bat (164), PNJ sarak (64), PTH sarak (64), HNK sirrak (64), GJR sarak (64), DGR batt (164), LHD vat (164), SND sarak (64), RAJ sarak (64), GUJ sadak (64),

MAR sadak (64), BNG poth (-8), ASS bat (164), NEP bato (164), SNG maga (415), MAL magu (415), KOT bat (164), HIM bat (164), KUL bott (164), MND peynda (448), ORY saraka (64), A WD bat (164), KUM bato (164), ROM drom (-9), KNK margu (-7), DUM pana (-25), BRJ sarak (64), GRH batu (164), PRY ra (-12), MAI path (-9), KCH vat (164), MEW sarak (64), WGD wat (164), BNJ wat (164) 67a. ROAD: KOT p££nd (448)

68. ROOT: HND jar (65), DKH jar (65), PNJ jar (65), PTH jar (65), HNK jarh (65), GJR jar (65), DGR jarh (65), LHD jarr (65), SND jaru (65), RAJ jar (65), GUJ mul (259), MAR mul (259), BNG sikor (313), ASS xipa (343), NEP jara (65), SNG mula (259), MAL mo (259), KOT dzorh (65), HIM jar (65), KUL jalada (65), MND jad (65), ORY mula (259), AWD jari (65), KUM jar (65), ROM koreno (-10), KNK mul (259), DUM moli (-26), BRJ jar (65), GRH jar (65), PRY reso (-13), MAI jari (65), KCH ? (-5), MEW jar (65), WGD mur (259), BNJ jad (65)

68a. ROOT: GUJ jad (65), MEW mul (259)

69. ROUND: HND gol (66), DKH gol (66), PNJ gol (66), PTH gol (66), HNK gol (66), GJR gol (66), DGR gol (66), LHD gol (66), SND golu (66), RAJ gol (66), GUJ gol (66), MAR gol (66), BNG gol (66), ASS gol (66), NEP batulo (283), SNG vata (283), MAL vah (283), KOT gol (66), HIM gol (66), KUL gol (66), MND gol (66), ORY gola (66), AWD gol (66), KUM golo (66), ROM rotato (-11), KNK urut (-8), DUM ? (-27), BRJ gol (66), GRH gulgando (66), PRY ? (-14), MAI gol (66), KCH gird (-6), MEW ? (-5), WGD ? (-6), BNJ gol (66)

69a. ROUND: MAR vatola (283)

70. SAND: HND ret (67), DKH balu (68), PNJ ret (67), PTH ret (67), HNK ret (67), GJR ret (67), DGR reta (67), LHD ret (67), SND reti (67), RAJ balu (68), GUJ reti (67), MAR reti (67), BNG bali (68), ASS bali (68), NEP ret (67), SNG vali (67), MAL veli (68), KOT balu (68), HIM ballu (68), KUL ret (67), MND ballu (68), ORY bali (68), AWD baru (68), KUM balwa (68), ROM kisay (-12), KNK rev (67), DUM bali (68), BRJ balu (68), GRH balo (68), PRY ? (-15), MAI balu

(68), KCH ? (-7), MEW balu (68), WGD ret (67), BNJ retu (67)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

70a. SAND: HND balu (68), PNJ balu (68), SND vari (68), RAJ ret (67), GUJ valu (68), MAR valu (68), NEP baluva (68), HIM ret (67), MND ret (67), AWD ret (67), MEW ret (67)

71. SAY: HND kah- (69), DKH ka- (69), PNJ kah- (69), PTH akh- (468), HNK ax- (468), GJR keh- (69), DGR akh- (468), LHD akh- (468), SND al- (166), RAJ kah- (69), GUJ kah- (69), MAR mhan- (231), BNG koh- (69), ASS ko- (69), NEP bhan- (231), SNG kiya- (69), MAL buna- (231), KOT kiu- (69), HIM bol- (70), KUL bol-(70), MND bol- (70), ORY kah- (69), AWD kah- (69), KUM ku- (69), ROM phen- (231), KNK mhan- (231), DUM mun- (231), BRJ keh- (69), GRH bval- (70), PRY ke- (69), MAI kah- (69), KCH co- (657), MEW kah- (69), WGD kah- (69), BNJ ke-

(69)

71a. SAY: HND bol- (70), DKH bol- (70), PNJ akh- (468), PTH bol- (70), HNK bol- (70), GJR bol-

(70), DGR bol- (70), LHD bol- (70), SND b'ol- (70), RAJ bol- (70), GUJ bol- (70), MAR bol- (70), BNG bol- (70), ASS bol- (70), NEP bol- (70), MAL kiya- (69), KOT bol- (70), ORY bol- (70), AWD bol- (70), KUM bol- (70), MAI bol- (70), KCH bol- (70)

72. SEE: HND dekh- (71), DKH dekh- (71), PNJ dekh- (71), PTH tak- (476), HNK dex- (71), GJR dekh- (71), DGR dikkh- (71), LHD dekh- (71), SND d'is- (129), RAJ dekh- (71), GUJ dekh- (71), MAR pah- (198), BNG dekh- (71), ASS dekh- (71), NEP dekh- (71), SNG daki- (71), MAL dus-(129), KOT dekh- (71), HIM dekh- (71), KUL dekh- (71), MND dekh- (71), ORY dekh- (71),

AWD dekh- (71), KUM dekh- (71), ROM dikh- (71), KNK pale- (617), DUM dekh- (71), BRJ dek- (71), GRH dekh- (71), PRY dekh- (71), MAI dekh- (71), KCH dis- (129), MEW dekh- (71), WGD dekh- (71), BNJ dek- (71)

72a. SEE: PNJ dith- (129), HNK ditth- (129), GJR ditth- (129), DGR ditth- (129), LHD ditth-

(129), SND pas- (198), RAJ dith- (129), GUJ dith- (129), MAL deke- (71), KNK dis- (129), BNJ dit- (129)

73. SEED: HND bij (72), DKH bij (72), PNJ bi (72), PTH bi (72), HNK bi (72), GJR bij (72), DGR bi (72), LHD bij (72), SND b'iju (72), RAJ bij (72), GUJ bi (72), MAR bi (72), BNG bij (72), ASS biz (72), NEP bíü (72), SNG bijaya (-5), MAL oh (543), KOT bidz (72), HIM bij (72), KUL bejja (72), MND biu (72), ORY bija (72), AWD biya (72), KUM byü (72), ROM seminca (-13), KNK bi

(72), DUM yono (-28), BRJ bij (72), GRH bij (72), PRY ? (-16), MAI bij (72), KCH bijj (72), MEW bihan (72), WGD ? (-7), BNJ bija (72)

74. SIT: HND baith- (73), DKH bait(h)- (73), PNJ baith- (73), PTH beh- (73), HNK baith- (73), GJR bais- (73), DGR beh- (73), LHD beh- (73), SND vih- (73), RAJ baith- (73), GUJ bes- (73), MAR bas- (73), BNG bos- (73), ASS boh- (73), NEP basi rah- (73), SNG iñdagan hiti- (418), MAL inn- (418), KOT bes- (73), HIM baith- (73), KUL bess- (73), MND beyth- (73), ORY bas- (73), AWD baith- (73), KUM beith- (73), ROM bes- (73), KNK bais- (73), DUM bes- (73), BRJ beth-

(73), GRH baith- (73), PRY bet- (73), MAI baith- (73), KCH ve- (73), MEW beth- (73), WGD way- (73), BNJ bes- (73)

75. SKIN: HND camri (74), DKH camri (74), PNJ camri (74), PTH camri (74), HNK camra (74), GJR camri (74), DGR camm (74), LHD camri (74), SND camri (74), RAJ khal (75), GUJ camdi

(74), MAR camdi (74), BNG camra (74), ASS sal (348), NEP chala (348), SNG hama (74), MAL han (74), KOT camri (74), HIM camri (74), KUL camdi (74), MND khal (75), ORY camara (74), AWD khal (75), KUM khal (75), ROM morci (-14), KNK cam (74), DUM com (74), BRJ cam (74), GRH camri (74), PRY post (-17), MAI camra (74), KCH camri (74), MEW khal (75), WGD samdi (74), BNJ khaldi (75)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

75a. SKIN: HND khal (75), DKH kharari (75), PNJ khall (75), DGR khall (75), LHD khal (75), SND khal (75), RAJ camri (74), GUJ khal (75), MAR katdi (284), KUL kholdi (75), MND camri (74), AWD camra (74), KUM cam (74), KNK sali (348), MAI khal (75)

76. SLEEP: HND so- (76), DKH so- (76), PNJ so- (76), PTH seh- (76), HNK se- (76), GJR so- (76), DGR sau- (76), LHD summ- (76), SND sumh- (76), RAJ süv- (76), GUJ su- (76), MAR nij- (285), BNG ghuma- (314), ASS xo- (76), NEP sut- (76), SNG nid- (199), MAL nid- (199), KOT sut- (76), HIM sut- (76), KUL so- (76), MND sau- (76), ORY so- (76), AWD so- (76), KUM nin kar- (199), ROM so- (76), KNK nid- (199), DUM so- (76), BRJ sow- (76), GRH si- (76), PRY so- (76), MAI sut- (76), KCH sum- (76), MEW so- (76), WGD so- (76), BNJ so- (76)

76a. SLEEP: SND nind' kar- (199), NEP nidau- (199), KUM sit- (76)

77. SMALL: HND chota (77), DKH lhora (470), PNJ chota (77), PTH nikka (130), HNK nikka

(130), GJR nikko (130), DGR lauhka (470), LHD nikka (130), SND nandho (200), RAJ nain (261), GUJ nanü (261), MAR lahan (261), BNG choto (77), ASS xoru (349), NEP sano (261), SNG kuda (420), MAL kuda (420), KOT chotto (77), HIM nikkaja (130), KUL chotta (77), MND halka (565), ORY chota (77), AWD chot (77), KUM nano (261), ROM cigno (-15), KNK san (261), DUM cuna (-29), BRJ chotto (77), GRH chvattu (77), PRY nuko (130), MAI chot (77), KCH nindho (200), MEW choto (77), WGD nendho (200), BNJ nankya (261)

77a. SMALL: DKH chota (77), PNJ nikka (130), HNK chota (77), GJR choto (77), DGR nikka (130), LHD chota (77), SND choto (77), RAJ chotau (77), HIM chota (77), AWD nanhaka (261), KUM choto (77), MAI nanh (261)

78. SMOKE: HND dhua (78), DKH dhuva (78), PNJ dhüa (78), PTH dhüa (78), HNK dhüva (78), GJR dhüa (78), DGR dhu (78), LHD dhu (78), SND düho (78), RAJ dhüarau (78), GUJ dhumado (78), MAR dhür (78), BNG dhova (78), ASS dhova (78), NEP dhuva (78), SNG duma

(78), MAL dun (78), KOT dhu (78), HIM dhüa (78), KUL dhüwa (78), MND dhu (78), ORY dhüa (78), AWD dhuwa (78), KUM dhuo (78), ROM thuv (78), KNK dhuv(o)ru (78), DUM dum (78), BRJ dhüo (78), GRH dhua (78), PRY tova (78), MAI dhua (78), KCH dhüo (78), MEW dhüa (78), WGD düa (78), BNJ ? (-2)

79. STAND: HND khara ho- (79), DKH khar- (79), PNJ khalo- (79), PTH khal- (79), HNK khal-

(79), GJR khal- (79), DGR kharo- (79), LHD khar- (79), SND bih- (201), RAJ übh- (262), GUJ ubhü rah- (262), MAR khada as- (79), BNG dara- (315), ASS thiyoi thok- (350), NEP ubhi- (262), SNG nagita hiti- (350), MAL theduve hur- (350), KOT khor- (79), HIM khar- (79), KUL khod-

(79), MND khar- (79), ORY thia he- (350), AWD tharh ho- (516), KUM thar- (516), ROM terd-(516), KNK ubbi- (262), DUM cak hut- (-30), BRJ thare ho- (514), GRH thadu ho- (514), PRY kalo ho- (79), MAI tharh bhe- (514), KCH aubhü- (262), MEW kharo ho- (79), WGD ub- (262), BNJ hubar- (262)

79a. STAND: HNK uth- (350), RAJ thadau hov- (516), GUJ khadü rah- (79), MAR ubha rah-(262)

80. STAR: HND tara (80), DKH tara (80), PNJ tara (80), PTH tara (80), HNK tara (80), GJR taro

(80), DGR tara (80), LHD tara (80), SND taro (80), RAJ tarau (80), GUJ taro (80), MAR tara (80), BNG tara (80), ASS tora (80), NEP tara (80), SNG taruva (80), MAL thari (80), KOT taro (80), HIM tara (80), KUL tara (80), MND tara (80), ORY tara (80), AWD tarai (80), KUM taro (80), ROM cehran (-16), KNK naksatr (-9), DUM taro (80), BRJ tare (80), GRH gainu (658), PRY taro

(80), MAI tara (80), KCH taro (80), MEW tarai (80), WGD taro (80), BNJ tara (80)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

81. STONE: HND patthar (81), DKH pathar (81), PNJ patthar (81), PTH batta (167), HNK bata

(167), GJR bato (167), DGR batta (167), LHD patthar (81), SND pattharu (81), RAJ bhatau (167), GUJ patthar (81), MAR dagad (286), BNG pathor (81), ASS xil (351), NEP dhungo (371), SNG gala (-6), MAL hila (351), KOT dhol (451), HIM pathar (81), KUL pathar (81), MND pathar

(81), ORY pathara (81), AWD pathra (81), KUM dhuqo (371), ROM barr (167), KNK patthoru (81), DUM bot (167), BRJ patthar (81), GRH dhügu (371), PRY patar (81), MAI pahan (677), KCH pathri (81), MEW pathar (81), WGD patthar (81), BNJ bhata (167)

81a. STONE: HNK gatta (483), GJR pathar (81), DGR patthar (81), RAJ patharau (81), ASS pathor (81), KUM pathar (81), MEW bhatto (167), BNJ pattar (81)

82. SUN: HND süraj (82), DKH sürij (82), PNJ süraj (82), PTH dihu (168), HNK di (168), GJR di

(168), DGR süraj (82), LHD sijjh (82), SND siju (82), RAJ süraj (82), GUJ süraj (82), MAR sürya (-9), BNG surjo (-9), ASS beli (352), NEP gham (236), SNG ira (82), MAL iru (82), KOT dhero (168), HIM süraj (82), KUL surja (82), MND süraj (82), ORY sürya (-11), AWD suruj (82), KUM süraj (82), ROM kham (236), KNK süryu (-10), DUM to (628), BRJ süraj (82), GRH gham (236), PRY tup (646), MAI surüj (82), KCH süraj (82), MEW süraj (82), WGD darobawsi (168), BNJ dado (168)

82a. SUN: ASS xuruz (82), MND dhaira (168), GRH süraj (82), BNJ surjya (82)

83. SWIM: HND tair- (83), DKH tir- (83), PNJ tar- (83), PTH tar- (83), HNK tar- (83), GJR tar-(83), DGR tar- (83), LHD tar- (83), SND tar- (83), RAJ tir- (83), GUJ tar- (83), MAR poh- (287), BNG sator de- (83), ASS xator- (83), NEP tar- (83), SNG pina- (421), MAL fath- (545), KOT teer-(83), HIM tar- (83), KUL tor- (83), MND tar- (83), ORY pahar- (83), AWD pavar- (83), KUM teir-

(83), ROM pliv- (-17), KNK paû- (287), DUM ? (-31), BRJ ter- (83), GRH tar- (83), PRY ? (-18), MAI tair- (83), KCH tar- (83), MEW tar- (83), WGD pohow- (287), BNJ tar- (83)

83a. SWIM: MAR tar- (83)

84. TAIL: HND puch (84), DKH dum (-2), PNJ pucch (84), PTH pucchar (84), HNK p^har

(84), GJR p^har (84), DGR pucch (84), LHD pucchar (84), SND puch (84), RAJ puchrau (84), GUJ puchdû (84), MAR sëp^ (288), BNG langul (317), ASS negur (317), NEP pucchar (84), SNG naguta (317), MAL nago (317), KOT pundzhar (84), HIM p^ch (84), KUL phunjit (84), MND puch (84), ORY langula (317), AWD p^hi (84), KUM punch (84), ROM pori (б01), KNK bal (-11), DUM cipoy (288), BRJ puc (84), GRH pucharu (84), PRY dum (-19), MAI p^h (84), KCH pucch (84), MEW poch (84), WGD pochri (84), BNJ puncdi (84)

84a. TAIL: MAI lagari (317)

85. THAT: HND vah (85), DKH (v)o (85), PNJ o (85), PTH oh (85), HNK o (85), GJR vo (85), DGR oh (85), LHD o (85), SND hй (85), RAJ (v)o (85), GUJ te (203), MAR to (203), BNG o (85), ASS xi (353), NEP u (85), SNG o(ka) (85), MAL e (289), KOT so (353), HIM se (353), KUL so (353), MND se (353), ORY se (353), AWD u (85), KUM u (85), ROM (k)odo (85), KNK then (203), DUM hei (289), BRJ bй (85), GRH vu (85), PRY u (85), MAI й (85), KCH hй (85), MEW wo (85), WGD o (85), BNJ u (85)

85a. THAT: DKH ti- (203), SND ta (203), RAJ tikau (203), MAR jo (289), BNG ta- (203), ASS teo (203), NEP tyo (203), SNG e(ka) (289), HIM vo (85), KUL te- (203), MND te- (203), ORY taha (203), MAI soi (353), KCH ta (203)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

86. THIS: HND yah (8б), DKH (y)e (8б), PNJ e (8б), PTH eh (8б), HNK e (8б), GJR yo (8б), DGR eh (8б), LHD e (8б), SND hi (8б), RAJ yau (8б), GUJ a (2б5), MAR ha (2б5), BNG e (8б), ASS i

(86), NEP yo (8б), SNG me(ka) (8б), MAL mi (8б), KOT jo (8б), HIM yeh (8б), KUL ye (8б), MND e (8б), ORY eha (8б), AWD yai (8б), KUM yo (8б), ROM kado (б02), KNK he(n) (8б), DUM tahei (8б), BRJ i (8б), GRH yй (8б), PRY ya (8б), MAI i (8б), KCH hi (8б), MEW i (8б), WGD to (бб5), BNJ i (8б)

86a. THIS: ROM -le- (8б)

87. THOU: HND to (87), DKH tu (87), PNJ tu (87), PTH tu (87), HNK tu (87), GJR tu (87), DGR tu (87), LHD tu (87), SND tu (87), RAJ tu (87), GUJ tû (87), MAR tu (87), BNG tumi (87), ASS toi

(87), 87 NEP ta (87), SNG to (87), MAL thiya (87), KOT to (87), HIM to (87), KUL to (87), MND tu(87), ORY tume (87), AWD tu (87), KUM të (87), ROM tu (87), KNK tu (87), DUM tu (87), BRJ tu (87), GRH to (87), PRY tu (87), MAI tu (87), KCH tu (87), MEW tu (87), WGD tu (87), BNJ tû

(87)

88. TONGUE: HND jibh (88), DKH jib(h) (88), PNJ jibh (88), PTH jiv (88), HNK jibh (88), GJR jibh (88), DGR jibbh (88), LHD jibbh (88), SND j'ibh (88), RAJ jibh (88), GUJ jibh (88), MAR jibh

(88), BNG jib (88), ASS zibha (88), NEP jibro (88), SNG diva (88), MAL do (88), KOT dzibbh (88), HIM jib (88), KUL jibh (88), MND jibh (88), ORY jibha (88), AWD jibhi (88), KUM jiboro (88), ROM chib (88), KNK jib(h) (88), DUM jiba (88), BRJ jibh (88), GRH jib (88), PRY jip (88), MAI jibh (88), KCH jibbh (88), MEW jibh (88), WGD jab (88), BNJ jibh (88)

89. TOOTH: HND dat (89), DKH dat (89), PNJ dand (89), PTH dand (89), HNK dand (89), GJR dand (89), DGR dand (89), LHD dand (89), SND d'andu (89), RAJ dat (89), GUJ dat (89), MAR dat (89), BNG dat (89), ASS dat (89), NEP dat (89), SNG data (89), MAL daiy (89), KOT dand (89), HIM dand (89), KUL dond (89), MND dand (89), ORY danta (89), AWD dat (89), KUM dat (89), ROM dand (89), KNK dat(u) (89), DUM don (89), BRJ dato (89), GRH dat (89), PRY dan

(89), MAI dat (89), KCH dandh (89), MEW dat (89), WGD dat (89), BNJ dant (89)

90.TREE: HND per (90), DKH ruk (131), PNJ rukkh (131), PTH buta (373), HNK buta (373), GJR buto (373), DGR buhta (373), LHD van (169), SND vanu (169), RAJ rukh (131), GUJ jhad (266), MAR jhad (266), BNG gach (318), ASS gos (318), NEP rukh (131), SNG gaha (318), MAL gaha (318), KOT per (90), HIM dal (373), KUL butta (373), MND dal (373), ORY gaccha (318), AWD rukh (131), KUM rukh (131), ROM kast (603), KNK ruku (131), DUM tom (-32), BRJ per

(90), GRH dal (373), PRY daraxt (-20), MAI gach (318), KCH van (169), MEW rukh (131), WGD ped (90), BNJ jhad (266)

90a. TREE: DGR rukkh (131), NEP bot (373), SNG ruka (131), KOT butti (373), KUM bot (373), KNK jhad (266), KCH jhar (266)

91. TWO: HND do (91), DKH do (91), PNJ do (91), PTH do (91), HNK do (91), GJR do (91), DGR do (91), LHD du (91), SND b'a (91), RAJ be (91), GUJ be (91), MAR don (91), BNG dui

(91), ASS dui (91), NEP dui (91), SNG deka (91), MAL dey (91), KOT dui (91), HIM do (91), KUL duy (91), MND do (91), ORY dui (91), AWD dui (91), KUM dwi (91), ROM duy (91), KNK doni (91), DUM dui (91), BRJ dui (91), GRH dvi (91), PRY do (91), MAI dui (91), KCH b_a

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

(91), MEW do (91), WGD be (91), BNJ di (91)

92. WALK (GO): HND ja- (92), DKH ja(v)- (92), PNJ ja- (92), PTH gas- (93), HNK jul- (484), GJR ga- (93), DGR ja- (92), LHD vanj- (204), SND van- (204), RAJ ja- (92), GUJ ja- (92), MAR ja- (92), BNG ja- (92), ASS za- (92), NEP ja- (92), SNG ya- (92), MAL da- (92), KOT reu- (459), HIM ja-

(92), KUL ja- (92), MND ja- (92), ORY ji- (92), AWD ja- (92), KUM ja- (92), ROM za- (92), KNK vas- (204), DUM ja- (92), BRJ ja- (92), GRH ja- (92), PRY ja- (92), MAI ja- (92), KCH vin- (204), MEW ja- (92), WGD ja- (92), BNJ ja- (92)

92a. WALK (GO): HND ga- (93), DKH ga- (93), PNJ ge- (93), HNK ga- (93), GJR ja- (92), DGR ge- (93), RAJ ga- (93), MAR gel- (93), BNG gel- (93), ASS gal- (93), NEP ga- (93), SNG gi- (93), MAL g- (93), HIM ga- (93), KUL ga- (93), MND ge- (93), ORY gal- (93), KUM ga- (93), ROM gel- (93), DUM gi- (93), BRJ ga- (93), GRH ga- (93), PRY gi- (93), MAI ge- (93), MEW ga- (93), WGD ga- (93), BNJ g- (93)

93. WARM: HND garm (-6), DKH tatta (170), PNJ kosa (133), PTH tatta (170), HNK tatta (170), GJR tato (170), DGR tatta (170), LHD tatta (170), SND koso (133), RAJ unau (133), GUJ unu (133), MAR un (133), BNG gorom (-10), ASS umi (133), NEP tato (170), SNG unu (133), MAL honu (133), KOT netto (170), HIM tatta (170), KUL totta (170), MND tata (170), ORY usuma (12), AWD garam (-7), KUM tato (170), ROM tato (170), KNK hun (133), DUM tata (170), BRJ chittaiyo (632), GRH tatu (170), PRY garm (-21), MAI tat (170), KCH koso (133), MEW tata (170), WGD ono (133), BNJ garam (-3)

93a. WARM: HNK kosa (133), GJR koso (133), SND tato (170), RAJ tatau (170)

94. WATER: HND pani (94), DKH pani (94), PNJ pani (94), PTH pani (94), HNK pani (94), GJR pani (94), DGR pani (94), LHD pani (94), SND pani (94), RAJ pani (94), GUJ pani (94), MAR pani (94), BNG jol (319), ASS pani (94), NEP pani (94), SNG pan (94), MAL fen (94), KOT pani

(94), HIM pani (94), KUL pani (94), MND pani (94), ORY pani (94), AWD pani (94), KUM pani (94), ROM pay (94), KNK udak (-12), DUM pani (94), BRJ pani (94), GRH pani (94), PRY pani

(94), MAI pani (94), KCH pani (94), MEW pani (94), WGD pani (94), BNJ pani (94) 94a. WATER: ASS zol (319), KCH jar (319)

95. WE: HND ham (95), DKH hame (95), PNJ asi (95), PTH assa (95), HNK asi (95), GJR ham

(95), DGR as (95), LHD assa (95), SND asi (95), RAJ mhe (95), GUJ ame (95), MAR amhi (95), BNG amra (95), ASS ami (95), NEP hami (95), SNG api (95), MAL aharumen (95), KOT hamme (95), HIM ase (95), KUL asse (95), MND asë (95), ORY ame (95), AWD ham (95), KUM ham

(95), ROM ame(n) (95), KNK ammi (95), DUM ame (95), BRJ hum (95), GRH ham (95), PRY ham (95), MAI ham sab (95), KCH asi (95), MEW ham (95), WGD hamu (95), BNJ ham (95)

96. WHAT: HND kya (9б), DKH kya (9б), PNJ ki (9б), PTH keh (9б), HNK ke (9б), GJR ke (9б), DGR keh (9б), LHD kya (9б), SND kahiro (9б), RAJ kai (9б), GUJ sû (9б), MAR kay (9б), BNG ki (9б), ASS kih (9б), NEP ke (9б), SNG mokada (9б), MAL kekey (9б), KOT ke (9б), HIM kya

(96), KUL ki (9б), MND kya (9б), ORY kana (9б), AWD ka (9б), KUM ki (9б), ROM so (9б), KNK kasane (9б), DUM kisek (9б), BRJ kae (9б), GRH kya (9б), PRY ka (9б), MAI ki (9б), KCH kuro (9б), MEW ka (9б), WGD kae (9б), BNJ kai (9б)

97. WHITE: HND citta (97), DKH ujla (98), PNJ citta (97), PTH citta (97), HNK citta (97), GJR cito (97), DGR citta (97), LHD citta (97), SND accho (205), RAJ dholau (2б7), GUJ dholû (2б7), MAR padhra (290), BNG dhobol (2б7), ASS boga (134), NEP seto (375), SNG sudu (428), MAL hudu (428), KOT suklo (452), HIM citta (97), KUL setta (375), MND citta (97), ORY dhala (2б7), AWD ujar (98), KUM seto (375), ROM parno (-18), KNK dhave (2б7), DUM sukula (452), BRJ dhulo (2б7), GRH saphed (-7), PRY bago (134), MAI ujar (98), KCH acho (205), MEW dhawaro (2б7), WGD dolo (2б7), BNJ dholo (2б7)

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

97a. WHITE: HND ujla (98), DKH padй (290), PNJ bagga (134), HNK gora (485), SND bago

(134), ASS dhowol (2б7), SNG äli (375), KUM sukilo (452), MAI dhaval (2б7), KCH dhauro (2б7)

98. WHO: HND kaun (99), DKH kon (99), PNJ kaun (99), PTH kun (99), HNK kon (99), GJR kon (99), DGR kun (99), LHD kon (99), SND keru (99), RAJ kun (99), GUJ kon (99), MAR kon (99), BNG ke (99), ASS kon (99), NEP ko (99), SNG kavuda (99), MAL kaku (99), KOT kun (99), HIM kun (99), KUL kun (99), MND kun (99), ORY kie (99), AWD ko (99), KUM ko (99), ROM kon (99), KNK kon (99), DUM kono (99), BRJ kon (99), GRH ko (99), PRY kon (99), MAI kon (99), KCH ker (99), MEW kon (99), WGD kun (99), BNJ kun (99)

99. WOMAN: HND aurat (-7), DKH tiya (135), PNJ tïvï (135), PTH janärn (-4), HNK trimat

(135), GJR jani (491), DGR janani (-3), LHD tremit (135), SND nari (20б), RAJ lugai (472), GUJ baidi (2б8), MAR bayko (2б8), BNG meye (321), ASS tirota (135), NEP svasnimanche (244), SNG gäni (429), MAL anhenmeha (244), KOT cheuri (453), HIM timi (135), KUL bettadi (557), MND janan (-5), ORY baili (2б8), AWD joy (471), KUM senmeis (244), ROM zuvli (471), KNK bail- (2б8), DUM joi (471), BRJ lugai (472), GRH janani (-8), PRY ran (13б), MAI tia (135), KCH bayri (-8), MEW berbani (2б8), WGD buiri (2б8), BNJ bai (2б8)

99a. WOMAN: DKH joi (471), PNJ rann (13б), ORY mai (321), AWD tiy (135), ROM manusni (244), KNK manisi (244)

100. YELLOW: HND pila (100), DKH pila (100), PNJ pila (100), PTH pila (100), HNK pila (100), GJR pilo (100), DGR pila (100), LHD pila (100), SND pilo (100), RAJ pilau (100), GUJ pilû (100),

MAR pívla (100), BNG holode (322), ASS halodhiya (322), NEP pahelo (100), SNG kaha (431), MAL rendokula (546), KOT piülo (100), HIM pila (100), KUL piwla (100), MND piula (100), ORY haladia (322), AWD piyar (100), KUM pilo (100), ROM galbeno (-19), KNK halduve (322), DUM halizza (-33), BRJ pilo (100), GRH pinglu (659), PRY zard (-22), MAI piyar (100), KCH piro (100), MEW piyaro (100), WGD halojjo (322), BNJ pilo (100)

Abbreviations for languages and dialects

ASS — Assamese

AWD — Awadhi

BNG — Bengali

BNJ — Banjari

BRJ — Braj

DGR — Dogri

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

DKH — Dakhini

DUM — Dumaki (Domaaki)

GJR — Gojri

GRH — Garhwali

GUJ — Gujarati

HIM — Himachali

HND — Hindi-Urdu

HNK — Hindko

KCH — Kutchi

KNK — Konkani

KOT — Kotgarhi

KUL — Kului

KUM — Kumauni

LHD — Lahnda (Multani)

MAI — Maithili

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

MAL — Maldivian (Dhivehi)

MAR — Marathi

MEW — Mewati

MIA — Middle Indo-Aryan

MND — Mandeali

NEP - Nepali

NIA — New Indo-Aryan

OIA — Old Indo-Aryan

ORY — Oriya

PNJ — Punjabi

PTH — Pothohari

PRY — Parya

RAJ — Rajasthani (Marwari) ROM — Romany SND — Sindhi SNG — Sin(g)halese WGD — Wagdi

References

Abdulla, F., M. O'Shea. 2005. English Dhivehi, Dhivehi-English dictionary. Version 1.0. Belconnen.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

Awan, Anjum Rafiq 2000. Concise Gojri-English dictionary. Rajouri: Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab.

Berger, H. 1959. Die Burusaski-Lehnwörter in der Zigeunersprache. Indo-Iranian Journal 3: 17-43.

Bloch, J. 1920. La formation de la langue marathe. Paris: É. Champion.

Bloch, J. 1965. Indo-Aryan: from the Vedas to modern times. Paris: Libr. d'Amérique et d'Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve.

Boretzky, Norbert. 1994. Romani. Grammatik des Kalderas-Dialekts mit Texten und Glossar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Buddruss, G. 1984. Domaaki-Nachträge zum Atlas der Dardsprachen. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 43: 9-24.

Chatterji, S. K. 1926. The origin and development of the Bengali language. Part 1: Introduction. Phonology. Calcutta: Calcutta University Press.

Burrow T., M. B. Emeneau. 1961. A Dravidian etymological dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

GosvamI, Om. 2000. Dogrï-hindï sabdkos. Jammü: J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.

Grireson, G. A. 1916. Linguistic survey of India. Vol. 9. Part 4: Specimens of the Pahari languages and Gujuri. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing.

Grierson, G. A. 1927. Linguistic survey of India. Vol. 1. Part 1. Introductory. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publication Branch.

Hendriksen, H. 1976. Himachali studies. Vol 1. Vocabulary. Kobenhavn.

Hoernle, A. F. Rudolf. 1880. A comparative grammar of the Gaudian languages, with special reference to the Eastern Hindi, accompanied by a language-map and a table of alphabets. London: Trübner & Co.

Kogan, A. I. 2005. Dardskie yazyki. Geneticheskaya kharakteristika. Moskva: Vostochnaya literatura.

Lorimer, D. L. R. 1939. The Dumaki language: outlines of the speech of the Doma, or Bericho, of Hunza. Nijmegen: Dekker & Van De Vegt.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

Mahapatra, B.P., B. Padmanabha, M.R. Ranganatha. 1980. Census of India 1971. Ser. 1. Language monograph. Monogr. No 7. Survey of Mandeali and Kului in Himachal Pradesh. New Delhi.

Masica, Colin P. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge University Press.

Mukherji, Kakali et al. 2011. Linguistic survey of India. Rajasthan. Part 1. Language Division, Office of the Registrar

General & Census Commissioner, India. s.l. Neog, Maheswar, Upedranath Goswami. 1987. Chandrakanta abhidhan: a comprehensive dictionary of the Assamese language with etymology and illustrations of words with their meanings in Assamese and English. Guwahati: Gau-hati University.

Oranskiy, I. M. 1977. Fol'klor i yazyk gissarskikh par'ya (Srednyaya Aziya). Vvedenie, teksty, slovar'. Moskva: Nauka,

Glavnaya redakciya vostochnoy literatury. Praharaj, G. C. 1931-1940. Purnnacandra odia bhashakosha. Cuttack: Utkal Sahitya Press.

Ramesh, G. V. 2010. Banjara multilingual dictionary with semantic category section and indexes for Telugu, English and

Hindi. Hyderabad: Rajiv Vidya Mission (Education Department of Andhra Pradesh State Government). Rohra, S. K. 1965. Descriptive analysis of Kachi (Kacchi). Thesis submitted to the University of Poona for the degree of

Doctor of Pholosophy in Linguistics. Poona: Deccan College, Post-graduate and Research Institute. Saleem, Teyyeb, Wazir Shah. 2005. Conversational Saraiki, Urdu, English. Karachi: Institute of Applied Linguistics. Samir, Ramajna Dvivedi. 1955. Avadhi kos. Ilahabad: Hindustani Ekedemi. Schmidt, Ruth Laila. 1994. A practical dictionary of modern Nepali. Ratna Sagar.

Sibghatulla, Mohd., Syed Abu Turaab Khataai Zamin. 2000. Dakhni lughaat (Classical Urdu dictionary). With Dakhni

idioms and phrases. Bangalore: Malik Publications. Sukun, Sultan. 2002. Hindko Urdu luyat. Pisavar: Gandhara Hindko Bord Pakistan. Suthar, B. L., S. S. Gahlot. 1995. Rajasthani-Hindi-English dictionary. Jodhpur: Rajasthani Sahitya Sansthan. Thakur, Gajendra, Nagendra Kumar Jha, Panjikar Vidyanand Jha. 2012. Videha English-Maithili dictionary. Delhi: Shruti Publication.

Thali, Mukesa. 1999-2001. Rajhauns Konkani-English illustrated dictionary. Panaji: Rajahasa. Turner, R. L. 1921a. Gujarati phonology. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 3: 329-365. Turner, R. L. 1921b. Gujarati phonology. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 4: 505-544. Turner, R. L. 1924. The Sindhi recursives or voiced stops preceded by glottal closure. Bulletin of the School of

Oriental Studies, University of London 3(2): 301-315. Turner, R. L. 1926. The position of Romany in Indo-Aryan. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd Ser. 5(4): 145-188. Turner, R. L. 1931. A comparative and etymological dictionary of the Nepali language. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trabner. Turner, R. L. 1966. A comparative dictionary of Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press.

А. И. Коган. Генеалогическая классификация индо-арийских языков и лексикостати-стика.

Генетические отношения индоарийских языков до сих пор остаются неясными. Существующие классификации зачастую носят интуитивный характер и не основываются на надежных сравнительно-исторических критериях. В статье делается попытка классификации новоиндийских языков по обновленным лексикостатистическим данным. Сопоставление полученного в итоге родословного древа с традиционными классификационными схемами позволило автору сделать ряд выводов относительно наиболее вероятной таксономии языков индоарийской группы.

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

Ключевые слова: индоарийские языки, генеалогическая классификация языков, лексико-статистика, глоттохронология.